Religious Movements in Rajasthan
Rajasthan is blessed with multi-religious society and all the religions found in the country are practiced in Rajasthan in Harmony to each other. Vedic Religion has been practiced in the state since ancient times and worship of sun has been center of religious practice for several communities.
Religious movements in Hinduism:-
Ancient Vedic religion was rejuvenated by the Shankaracharya and several cults were developed within the Hindu religion which is as follows:-
Jasnathi Cult:-Jat origin, detached people, followers tie black wollen thread in neck and practice underground meditation. The cult has code of conduct with 36 norms.
Vaishnav Cult:-They worship Lord Krishna in his childhood forma and are called Bhaktimargi.Followers worship Vishnu, the Supreme Lord and his ten avatars, including Rama and Krishna. The adherents of this sect are generally monastic and devoted to meditative practice and ecstatic chanting.
Ramanuj Cult: – They worship Lord Ramanand believe in the the epistemic and soteriological importance of Bhakti, or the devotion to a personal God as a means to spiritual liberation.
Nimbark Cult: – They propagated the Vaishnava Theology of Dvaitadvaita (dvaita-advaita) or “dualistic non-dualism”. They worship Radha-Krishna.
Gaudiya Cult: – Special influence in Radha Krishna worship in the region of Jaipur, Sawaimadhopur and Karauli.
Dadupanthi Cult: – Dadu Dayal was a Brahmin of Ahmedabad who founded the Dadupanthi, his sermons of 5000 verses are found in Daduvani.The followers of Dadupanthi wear saffron clothes and main seat is at Narena. The chief goal of the cult is attainment of untainted formless through the blessing of the preceptor by the way of following the path of knowledge and opposition to idolatry and discrimination.
Ram Snehi Cult: – worshiper of lord Rama with main seat at Banswara.
Kabirpanthi Cult: – They worship formless god, the saints belonging to Kabirpanthi do not marry and make people of all caste as their people.
Bishnoipanth Cult:- Jambaji is the pioneer of the cult and is thought to be incarcination of Lord Vishnu.
Nath Cult:-Prevalent in Jodhpur.
Saints of Rajasthan
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Saints of Rajasthan can be characterized as Bhakti saints and Warrior saints
Famous Bhakti Saints of Rajasthan are:-
Dadu Dayal: – Daduji belongs to the lineage of Saints and Nath like Kabir and Nanak. Born in Ahmedabad in 1544, he made Rajasthan his home and attained Samadhi in Naraina in Jaipur district in 1601. Emperor Akbar is said to have been one of his followers. The Dadupanthi was established in his very lifetime. Part of the legacy of Dadupanthi are a wealth of literature and manuscripts, it produced over the centuries. This wealth includes very ancient manuscripts attributed to Kabir, Namdev and Raidas.
Mira Bai:-Mirabai was a great saint and devotee of Sri Krishna. Despite facing criticism and hostility from her own family, she lived an exemplary saintly life and composed many devotional bhajans.
Lal Das:-Saint of mewar region and rose above the caste barriers.
Charan Das:-Charandas was born in Derha, near Alwar, in Rajasthan. Charandas is the author of around twenty works. Many of these are in verse and deal with aspects of devotion, particularly relating to the worship of Krishna. He wrote commentaries on various Upanishads, particularly the Katha Upanishad, and on specific yoga practices, especially Pranayama, control of the breath.
Mavaji: – a highly revered saint considered being an incarcination of Lord Vishnu. Two disciples of Mavaji named Aji and Vaje built the Lakshmi- Narain Temple near the confluence of rivers Som and Mahi.
Warrior Saints of Rajasthan took the responsibility to protect the Dharma from the invaders and finally emerged as the protector of Brahmans, women, Cows and poor people from the invaders particularly the Muslims. They emphasized on the Karma.
Lok Devi and Devtas of Rajasthan
Tejaji:-Tejaji was legendary Rajasthani folk hero. He is considered one of the major eleven incarnations of Lord Shiva and worshipped as a deity in rural Rajasthan. It is believed that if a person suffering from snakebite goes to Samadhi of Teja or puts a chord (tanti) in Tejaji’s name, he is cured. Tejaji, fair takes place on the eleventh lunar day of Bhadrapada Shukla Paksh (Aug.-Sept.) every year in village Parbatsar, District Nagaur in Rajasthan
Pabuji: – Pabuji is a legendary hero who is worshiped by camel herders in Rajasthan.
Ramdeo ji:-He was a ruler of the fourteenth century, said to have miraculous powers that devoted his life for the upliftment of downtrodden and poor people of the society. Ramdev is the chief deity of the Meghwal community, worshiped during the Veda Poonam (August – September).The temple complex housing the resting place of Ramdev is located at Ramdevra, Rajasthan
Gogaji:-He protects his followers from snakes and other evils. Almost every village in Rajasthan has a than (sacred place, generally a small temple) dedicated to him. Gogaji fair is held annually in the month of Bhadrapada and lasts for 3 days.
Harbhuji:-Discipline of Ramdeo ji
Jambheshwarji:-Guru Jambheshwar (born 1451 in a remote Rajasthani village Pipasar) also known as Jambhoji, was the founder of the Bishnoi sect. He preached the worship of Hari(One God). He gave the message that God is a divine power that is everywhere. He also taught to protect plants and animals as they are important in order to peacefully coexist with nature.
Mallinath:-Rawal Mallinath is a folk idol of Rajasthan. He was the elder lad of Rao Salkhaji, the Mehwanagar ruler in Barmer. The descendants of Rawal Mallinath’s are the eldest among all abodes of Rathores in the state of Rajasthan. The domiciles of Bikaner, Jodhpur, Sitamau, Ratlam, Idar, Alirajpur and Sailana sketch their roots to Viramdeo.
Mavaji:-Worshiped in Dungarpur and Banswara area, Kalika incarcination of God Vishnu
Makadji Devji: worshiped by Gujjars
Eloji:- is a folk divinity and is considered to be the deity of villages. Effigies of Eloji can be instituted roughly in every rural community of Rajasthan. He is revealed as a burly man with moustaches and arrogance on his face. Many folk songs and music are played in honor of sexual power of Eloji.
Mahavir: Protect wells.
Bhomiya: Protects village boundries
Khetla Ji :-was a folk divinity who subsisted in Rajasthan state. His one of the temples is situated in Sonana Village, Rajasthan. The place of worship is the spot of a 2 day fair, held annually during the months of May and June in respect of Khetla ji. The fair draws a hefty number of followers who gather together here during the fair to summon the blessing of the divinity. There are number of temples of Khetla Ji in Marwar, for example Sayala, Sewari etc. Kataria society of Rajasthan regards him as their Kul Devta. They also perform some ceremonies after birth and marriage which is known as ‘Juar’.Mahamayas
Sheetla Mata:-Shitala Mata is mentioned in many scriptures, especially in Skanda Purana as the goddess of smallpox. She is both the cause of the disease and the cure.Shitala Devi rides on a donkey, and she has four arms. In her hands she carries a silver broom, a fan, a small bowl, and a pot of water. She uses these items to rid a house of disease–she sweeps up the germs with her broom, uses the fan to collect them, and dumps them into the bowl. She then sprinkles water from the pot (which is water from the river Ganges) to purify the house.Sacret Shrines are located in Chaksu and Baghor.
Kaila Devi:-Kaila Devi is considered as the deity of wealth. The shrine of Kaila Devi is a Hindu place of worship to be found 23 kilometers from Karauli, Rajasthan. The holy place is situated on the bank of River Kalisil, a stream of River Banas in Trikut hills. The place of worship is devoted to Tutelary divinity, Goddess Kaila Devi, of the former princely rulers of Jadaun Rajput of Karauli state. Kaila Devi is a marble construction with a hefty patio of a plaid floor.
Shila Mata:- Headed towards the end of 16th century, Maharaja Mansingh carried the effigy of Shila Mata from the Eastern area of Bengal. In Pratapaditya’s sovereignty, Maharaja Mansingh faced trounce at the hands of Kedar king. Mortified and dejected, the Maharaja prayed Goddess Kali to gratify her and obtain her blessings in order to amend his defeat into conquest. Kali emerged in a dream to sanctify him. The goddess also acquired a pledge from the Maharaja that he would institute her place of pilgrimage in his capital. The statue of goddess was recuperated from sea in the form of slab (Shila) and it was fetched to Amer when cleaned and sluiced, the present idol emerged. This is why the deity was recognized as Shila Mata. Her shrine is situated in Amber Fort.
Aaiji:- Rajput , Incarination of Sakti, worshiped by Aai Panth.
Jeen Mata:- is an embodiment of Goddess Durga. Her domicile is snuggled in the quaint Aravalli hills in Raiwasa, Rajasthan. The consecrated holy place of Jeen Mata is supposed to be hundreds of years old. Thousands of followers swarm the temple all through the year. The flock of devotees presumes a much multihued gaze during bi-annual Navratri revelry – held two times a year in the stellar calendar months of Ashwin and Chaitra commonly acknowledged as the Navratri.
Karni Mata:-was a Hindu astute born in the Charan class. She is revered as the embodiment of deity Durga by her followers. She is the deity of the imperial family of Bikaner and Jodhpur. She survived an abstemious life and was extensively venerated during her lifetime. At the appeal of Bikaner Maharaja, she laid the underpinning shingles for 2 significant citadels in the area. The most famed of her temples is the shrine in Deshnoke town, near Bikaner, which was formed following her inexplicable desertion from her home.
Sachiya Mata:-The Sachchiya Mata Temple is located in Osian, near Jodhpur city in Rajasthan.Shri Sachchiyay Mataji also called Shri Osiya Mataji is kuldevi of Oswals.
Sakambhari Mata:-In Hindu tradition, Shakambari is an embodiment of Ishwari, ensemble to Shiva. She is the celestial mother, entitled “Bearer of the Greens”. In Hindu tradition, any Vegetarian article is measured as Shakambari Devi’s Prasad. The prehistoric place of reverence of the Diety Shakambari is located at Sakarai, Rajasthan.
Sakariya Mata: Worshiped in the sekhawati region and is appeased by sweet offerings.
Holika Mata:- Regarded by Rajasthani ladies as mother and ashes of Holi are considered sacret.