RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Question Part-6



1. Write a short note on ‘Maharana Pratap Award’ in the field of sports?

Answer: Maharana Pratap Award:

This is the highest awards for sportsperson in the state of Rajasthan.

The Award includes:

  • Citation
  • Cash prize of INR 1, 00,000
  • Bronze Statute of Maharana Pratap
  • Blazer and Tie

2. What is coal bed methane? What is the problem in the extraction of coal bed methane?

Coal bed methane is found in the impermeable stone and is trapped in the coal seams. A significant portion of this gas remains as free gas in the joints and fractures of the coal seam.  Large quantities of gas are adsorbed on the internal surfaces of the micro pores within the coal itself

Coal bed methane can be accessed by drilling wells into the coal seam and pumping large quantity of water that saturate the seam. Water will occupy the gaps and pores and will push out the gas.

Problem of coal bed methane extraction:

  • It is a capital intensive process and at current state of pricing it is not possible to extract.
  • Private sector has no rights to extract unconventional gas reservoir.
  • Coal bed methane comes under Ministry of petroleum and coal mines come under ministry of coal. So there is overlapping of jurisdiction which creates problems.
  • The technology required is very advanced and the public sector companies have very weak organizational setup to efficiently handle such technologies and extract gas economically.

3. Give an account of the following:

1) Jallianwala Bagh Massacre

2) Nagpur session of INC in 1920

3) Khilafat movement

4) Lahore conspiracy case

RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Questions Part-4  

RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Questions Part-5


JBM: On Baisakhi day, a large, crowd of people mostly from neighboring villages, unaware of the prohibitory orders in the city, had gathered in this small park to protest against the arrest of their leaders, Saifuddin Kitchlew and Satyapal. The Army surrounded the gathering under orders from General Dyer and blocked the only exit point and opened fire on the unarmed crowd killing around1000. The incident was followed by uncivilized brutalities on the inhabitants of Amritsar.

2) Nagpur session of INC in 1920

Nagpur session: Session of INC in 1920 where the Non cooperation movement got the sanction and approval of INC. The Congress decided to have the attainment of swaraj through peaceful and legitimate means as its goal.

3) Khilafat movement: The Khilafat movement (1919–22) was a pan-Islamic, political protest campaign launched by Muslims of India to influence the British government not to abolish the Ottoman Caliphate. The movement collapsed by late 1922 when Turkey gained a more favourable diplomatic position and moved toward secularism. By 1924 Turkey simply abolished the roles of the Sultan and Caliph.

4) Lahore conspiracy case: Bhagat singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru were sentenced to death in the murder case of Saunders, the police official who was responsible for lathi charge on Lala Lajpat rai.

4. Define- Comets, Dark matter, Dark energy and Fundamental particle

Ans: Comets originate in outer solar system and are formed of cosmic snowballs of frozen gases, rock and dust that orbit the sun. When a comet’s orbit brings it close to the sun, it heat up and spewn dust and gases into a giant glowing head larger than most planets.

Dark matter

Ans: Roughly 80% of the mass of the universe is made up of material that scientist cannot directly observe. This is called dark matter. Dark matter is completely invisible to light and other forms of electromagnetic radiation, making dark matter impossible to detect.

Dark energy

Ans: Dark energy is a hypothetical term used for a kind of energy that exerts a negative, repulsive pressure, behaving like the opposite of gravity. Like dark matter dark energy is not directly observed, but rather inferred from observations of gravitational interactions between astronomical objects.

Fundamental particle

Ans: All fundamental particle can be divided into one of two categories, fermions and bosons. Particles that make up matter called fermions eg electrons, protons, leptons, quarks. Particles that carry force are called Boson.

Eg Photons, 4-He atoms, gluons, W-bosonetc


5. Give an account of the following:

1) Simon commission

2) Meerut conspiracy

3) Hindustan republic association

4) Radcliff line


(1) Simon commission:

The commission was to recommend to the Government whether India was ready for further constitutional reforms. It is also known as Indian statutory commission.  It was set up by lord Birkenhead.

(2) Meerut Conspiracy:

Meerut Conspiracy was a controversial court case initiated in British India in March1929 and decided in 1933. Several trade unionists, including three Englishmen were arrested for organizing an Indian railway strike. The British Government convicted 33 leftist trades Union leaders under a false law suit. The Meerut Conspiracy case trial helped the Communist Party of India to consolidate its position among workers.

(3) Hindustan republic association (HRA):

Hindustan Republican Association (HRA) was a revolutionary organization of India established in 1924 at village Bholachang in East Bengal by Sachindra Nath Sanyal, Narendra Mohan Sen and Pratul Ganguly as an offshoot of Anushilan Samiti. Its objective was to establish a “Federated Republic of the United States of India” through an organized and armed revolution.

(4) Radcliff line:

To fix the international boundaries between the two countries, the Boundary Commission was established chaired by Sir Cyril Radcliffe. The commission was to demarcate Bengal and Punjab into the two new countries. The boundary demarcation line is called Radcliffe line. Its western side serves as India-Pakistan border and eastern side serves as India- Bangladesh border.

6. What is the difference between mitosis and meiosis?

Basis Mitosis Meiosis
Number of divisions One Two – meiosis 1 and meiosis II
DNA replication Occurs during inter-phase Occurs during inter-phase
Role Production of somatic cells for growth of the body Produces gametes or game to genesis
Daughter cell produced Two diploid cells that are genetically identical to parent Four haploid cells (n) contain half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell.
Genetics Identical cell Variation
Crossing over No Yes it takes place during pro phase 1
Occurs in All organism Reproductive cells of humans, animals, plants and fungi

7. Give an account for the following:

1) Great lakes

2) Lake Baikal

3) Lake Tanganyika

(4)Aral Sea

(a) Great lakes

  • Great Lakes of North America are a series of interconnected freshwater lakes which connect to the Atlantic Ocean through the Saint Lawrence Seaway.
  • Consisting of Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario. Superior, Huron, Michigan, Erie, and Ontario [In the order of largest to smallest].
  • Lake Superior is the largest continental lake in the world by area, and Lake Michigan is the largest lake that is entirely within one country.

(b) Lake Baikal

Lake Baikal is situated in Siberia, Russia. It is the deepest lake and world largest lake by volume.  It is also the second longest lake.

(c) Lake Tanganyika

It is situated in African rift valley system. It is the longest lake in the world.  It is also second largest in terms of volume.

(d) Aral Sea

It is classical example of human intervention leading to the shrinking of the water bodies. This lake is situated between Kazakistan in the North and Uzbekistan in the south. Aral Sea has been shrinking since 1960s due to the diversion of the river feeding it for irrigation purpose.

8. Give an account of following:

1) Hunter commission

2) Sadler commission

1) Hunter commission: Lord Ripon appointed the first Indian Education Commission on 3rd February 1882. Sir William Hunter (a member of viceroy’s Executive Council) was appointed as the chairman of the commission. The commission was popularly known as Hunter Commission after the name of its chairman. The major objective of Hunter commission was to:

  • Assess wood’s dispatch.
  • To evaluate the performance of primary education sector, state institute and work of missionaries in the field of education.

2) Sadler commission: In 1917 the government appointed the Sadler Commission to inquire into the “conditions and prospects of the University of Calcutta,” an inquiry that was in reality nationwide in scope. The commission recommended the formation of a board with full powers to control secondary and intermediate education; the institution of intermediate colleges with two-year courses; the provision of a three-year degree course after the intermediate stage; the institution of teaching and unitary universities; the organization of postgraduate studies and honours courses; and a greater emphasis on the study of sciences, on tutorial systems, and on research work

9. Give an account of the following:

1) Vaikkom Satyagraha

2) Delhi proposal

3) Alipore conspiracy

4) Muzaffarpur conspiracy case

(a)Vaikkom Satyagraha:

Vaikkom Satyagraha was a movement in Travancore (modern-day Kerala) for temple entry of the depressed classes. It took place near the Shiva Temple at Vaikkom, Kottayam district, Kerala during 1924-25. Vaikkom was at that time a part of the princely state of Travancore.

(b)Delhi proposal:

Earlier, in December 1927, a large number of Muslim leaders had met at Delhi at the Muslim League session and evolved four proposals for Muslim demands to be incorporated in the draft constitution. These proposals, which were accepted by the Madras session of the Congress (December 1927), came to be known as the ‘Delhi Proposals’.

(c)Alipore conspiracy:

The ‘Alipore Bomb Case’ was “the first state trial of any magnitude in India”. The British Government arrested Sri Aurobindo, a prominent Nationalist Leader at the time, Barindra Ghose, and many young revolutionaries. They were charged with “Conspiracy” or “waging war against the King” – the equivalent of high treason and punishable with death by hanging.(1908)

(d)Muzaffarpur Conspiracy:

It was a revolutionary conspiracy by the Khudiran Bose and Prafulla Chaki to kill the Chief Presidency Magistrate DH Kingsford of Muzaffarpur. They threw bombs on a vehicle of DH Kingsford but he was safe and unfortunately two British women were killed in the attack.

10. How does the climate change affect the global distribution of fauna?

Climate change is a result of rapid global warming. The increase of average temperature of earth is termed as Global warming. Global warming is a natural process which has been accelerated by anthropogenic activities. Because of this earth is not getting time to adjust to this change. This is causing climate change.

Effect on fauna:

  • Migratory roots are changing for the birds. For example The arrival of Siberian cranes in India is delayed and they are returning to Russia a bit early.
  • The breeding pattern of birds and aquatic animals is also changing. Tropical fish species are shifting to more temperate waters.
  • Vector borne diseases which were found in tropical areas are also shifting to temperate regions.
  • There is a large scale habitat loss. This is the single biggest reason of pushing species to the brink of extinction. Many endemic species which are confined to a small area like islands have become critically endangered. Right now, 6th mass extinction is going on.
  • Many polar species are finding it uncomfortable to survive in the polar waters because temperature is increasing.

11. Explain the different type of subsidies as per WTO agreements.

Ans:  Green Box Subsidies: The subsidies which cause no, or at most minimal, trade distorting effects or effects on production. These subsidies are permitted under WTO regime, for instance; Government services such as research, disease control, and infrastructure and food security.

Amber Box Subsidies: All domestic support measures considered to distort production and trade (with some exceptions) fall into the amber box. For instance, MSP, Procurement Price, sum total of subsidies on inputs like fertilizer, water, credit, power, etc

Blue Box Subsidies: It contains direct payment subsidies which can be increased without limit, so long as payments are linked to production-limiting programs. This is the “amber box with conditions”, conditions designed to reduce distortion. Any support that would normally be in the amber box is placed in the blue box if the support also requires farmers to limit production.

12. Discuss the reasons for failure of Swadeshi movement?


  • The movement lacked any focus or effective plan. It was spontaneous and failed to create any party structure or effective organization.
  • Lack of leadership
  • Internal rift in congress
  • Congress failure to influence masses at large.
  • It was the class movement whose radius confined to urban elites only.
  • Repression by Britishers was another reason

13. Give an account of following.

1) Project Tiger

2) Project Hangul

3) Sea Turtle Project

4) Project snow leopard

1) Project tiger: To conserve tiger project tiger was started in 1973 in Palamau Tiger reserve and various tiger reserves were created in the country based on a core-buffer strategy. It is sponsored by MoEF. Administered By NTCA

2) Project Hangul: State of J&K, along with IUCN and the WWF Prepared a project for the protection of Hangul (Kashmiri stag)
its habitation is Dachigam National park at elevations 0f 3035m.

3) Sea turtle Project: With the objective of conservation of olive ridley turtles and other endangered marine turtles, MoEF initiated the Sea Turtle Conservation Project in collaboration of UNDP in 1999 with Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun as the Implementing Agency. The project is being implemented in 10 coastal States of the country with special emphasis in State of Orissa.

4) Project Snow leopard: Project Snow Leopard was launched in 2009 to safeguard and conserve India’s unique natural heritage of high-altitude wildlife populations and their habitats by promoting conservation through participatory policies and actions. Project is operational in Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim and Arunachal Prades

14. What is excretion? Outline the functions of kidney.

It refers to the elimination/removal of metabolic wastes from the body. There are four major organs of excretions: kidney, lungs, skin and the liver. Out of these four organs kidneys are the primary excretory organs that eliminate metabolic waste products in the form of urine. The major functions of urine are:

  • Excretions of wastes and toxins such as urea, uric acid, ammonia and excess salts.
  • Maintenance of water balance and electrolyte balance in the body
  • Regulation of blood pressure by producing angiotensin, a substance that constricts blood vessels and signals the body to retain water and sodium when blood pressure is low.
  • Regulating the acid base balance to keep the blood pH 7.2-7.4 and body healthy.
  • Regulation of RBC development in bone marrow with the secretion of hormone erythropoietin.

15. Give the account of the following.

1) Andes

2) Rocky

3) Great dividing Range

4) Drakensberg

Andes:  Longest continental mountain range in the world.  They are   found in South America. They formed due to ocean-continent collisions and subduction of oceanic crust beneath the South American plate. Mount Aconcagua is the highest peak. (6962m)

The Rocky Mountains:   They are Fold Mountains found in the western margin of the North American continent. They are formed due to oceanic and continent plate collision. The Rocky Mountains took shape during an intense period of plate tectonic activity that resulted in much of the rugged landscape of the western North America.

Great Dividing Range:  This range is found in the Australian continent. They are the third longest land based range in the world. They are also known as Australian Alps. They were formed due to rifting.

Drakensberg mountain: The spectacular and ancient Drakensberg Mountain Range is Southern Africa’s highest range at 3 482 m and stretches an enormous 1 000 km from north to east. In Zulu the range is called uKhahlamba, or the barrier of spears, which does justice to its dramatic basalt buttresses. The Blyde River Canyon is situated in the northern part of the mountain range

16. What is electromagnetic wave? Outline the features of electromagnetic waves?

Electromagnetic waves or EM waves are waves that are created as a result of vibrations between an electric field and a magnetic field. In other words, EM waves are composed of oscillating magnetic and electric fields.

Properties of electromagnetic waves:

  • EM waves are composed of oscillating electric and magnetic fields at right angles to each other and both are perpendicular to the direction of propagation.
  • They travel with a constant velocity of 3×108m/s in vaccum.
  • They are not deflected by an electric and magnetic field.
  • They are transverse waves which can show interference and diffraction and may be polarised

17. What are the issues attached with the functioning of tribunals?

Article 323A and 323 B of the constitution empowers parliament and state legislature to establish tribunals. Although the tribunals have reduced the burden of cases on High courts, they are facing some issues:

  • Lack of infrastructure and man power availability.
  • These tribunals do not have power to enforce the decree.
  • Now aggrieved party can appeal against the order of quasi judicial bodies which have diluted the objective of the Tribunals.
  • The lack of complexity to deal with the cases.

Way ahead is to reduce the number of tribunals in accordance with the proposal of S jai Shankar committee. New tribunal service can be incorporated so that staffing problem can be dealt with

18. Define following term

1) Current account

2) Capital account

3) Balance of payment

4) Trade balance

Current account: Current account refers to the account maintained by every government of the world in which every kind of transaction is shown; this account is maintained by the central banking body. Current transactions of an economy in foreign currency all over the world- export, import, interest payments, foreign investments in share.

Capital account: Capital account of Balance of payment records all the transactions, between the residents of country and rest of the world, which cause a change in the assets or liabilities of the residents of the country or its government

Balance of payments: The balance of payment is a statement of all transactions made between entities in one country and the rest of the world.

Trade balance: The balance of trade is the difference between the value of a country’s imports and exports for a given period. The balance of trade is the largest component of a country’s balance of payments

19. What is a Benami transaction? How it affects the economy? Discuss the provisions of the Benami transactions amendment act?

Benami transactions refer to those transactions in which the real beneficiary of the transaction and the person in whose name the transaction is made are different, specifically transactions relating to properties. The property is held by one person while the payment for purchasing the property is made by another.

Effect on economy:

  1. Loss of revenue
  2. Generation of black money
  3. Moral hazard for honest tax payers
  4. Artificial inflationary tendencies
  5. Increase in the prices especially of real estate

Provisions of Benami amendment act:

  • Establishment of adjudicating authority
  • Case has to be decided in a year’s time
  • Adjudicating authority shall have one chairperson and at least two other members.
  • Benami property can be confiscated. The designated officers appointed from among the income tax officers will manage and disposed off these properties.
  • Benami dar or any person who abets other person to enter into such transactions will face rigorous imprisonment ranging from one to seven years in jail. The person may also be liable to pay a fine of upto 25% of the fair market value of such Benami property.

20. What is Desai-Liaqat proposal?

M.K Gandhi convinced that the British rulers would not grant independence to India unless and until the Congress and Muslim League reach some conclusion on the future of the Country or the immediate formation of the Interim National Government. Hence, Gandhi directed Bhulabhai Jivanji Desai to make another attempt to appease the league leaders and find a way out of the 1942-45 political deadlocks.

Desai being the leader of the Congress in the Central Assembly and a friend of Liaqat Ali (Leader of Muslim League), met him in January 1945 gave him proposals for the formation of Interim Government at centre. After Desai’s declaration, Liaqat Ali published the list of an agreement which given below:

  • Nomination of equal number of persons by both in the Central Executive
  • Representation of the minorities in particular of the Schedule caste and the Sikhs.
  • The government was to be formed and was to function with the framework of the existing Government of India Act, 1935.

M.K Gandhi’s attempt to resolve the political deadlock by persuading Bhulabhai Jivanji Desai to make an attempt to appease the league leaders, but the proposal were not formally endorsed either by the Congress or the League.

21. What is SEBI? Write down its functions

SEBI stands for securities and exchange board of India. It was set up through a government resolution in an effort to give the Indian stock market an organised structure. Its initial paid up capital up was Rs. 50 Crore.

Main functions and powers of the SEBI are as follows:

  • Registering and stock exchanges, merchant banks, mutual funds, underwriters, registrars to the issues, broker, sub broker, transfer agents and others.
  • Levying various fees and other charges
  • Promoting investor education
  • Inspection and audit of stock exchanges and various intermediaries
  • Performing other functions as may be prescribed from time to time.

22. Explain the nature and different theories of origin of monsoon.

Answer: The Origin and Mechanism of Indian Monsoons

Monsoon is actually a wind regime operating at a level of 20 km from the earth’s surface. It is characterised by seasonal reversal of wind direction at regular intervals.

Although the monsoon is a global phenomenon influenced by a variety of factors not yet completely understood, the real monsoon rains cover mainly the South Asian region, represented by India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Bhutan and parts of South East Asia.

Besides the monsoons, the Indian climate is influenced substantially by two more factors. The Himalayas contribute a continental nature to the climate, recognised by land winds, dry air, large diurnal range and scanty rainfall. The Indian Ocean, on the other hand, contributes a tropical character to the Indian climate characterised by uniformity of temperature throughout the year, short diurnal range, damp air, and frequent rainfall.

The monsoon system of the Indian subcontinent differs considerably from that of the rest of Asia. The centres of action, air masses involved, and the mechanism of precipitation of the Indian monsoon are altogether different from other monsoon systems.

Classical Theory or Thermal Concept of Indian Monsoons:

According to this theory, the differential heating of land and sea at the time when the sun makes an apparent northward movement is the main cause of the Indian monsoonal regime.

Two factors are mainly responsible for this very strong development of monsoons:

(i) Vast size of the Indian subcontinent and adjacent seas;

(ii) Very high and extensive mountain systems of the Himalayas in the north, extending in an east-west direction, thus posing a formidable physical barrier between tropical and polar air masses.

The second factor is of great meteorological significance.

  • The high mountain chains of the Himalayas which border the subcontinent on three sides work as both a break and motor at the same time.
  • During the winter season, they prevent the penetration of the cold polar air masses from Siberia into the subcontinent, while in summer, the Himalayas do not allow the equatorial maritime air masses to cross the Himalayas and force them to curve round the north-west.
  • The mighty Himalayas produce hydro-dynamic effects that determine the type of precipitation in India.

According to the thermal concept, during the period following the Spring Equinox (March 23), the sun starts its apparent northward shift. As a result, the areas lying north of the equator (tropics and sub-tropics) – get a progressive high incidence of solar radiation.

The effect of this phenomenon on the Indian subcontinent is seen in the form of intense heating of the vast northern plains and the adjoining highlands. As a result, a massive low pressure trough is formed extending from the Punjab plains in the north-west to the Bengal delta in the east.

This low pressure zone attracts wind regimes from the adjoining areas, from short distances in the beginning. But as the level of solar incidence reaches its peak during May-June, the pressure gradient between this low pressure trough and the adjoining seas is so great that it attracts winds from as far as the south of the equator. Accompanying this process and helping this pull of wind regimes is the development of some high pressure centres—in the Indian Ocean, Arabian Sea and over Australia (it being the winter season in Australia).

The wind patterns which are prevalent south of the equator are actually the south-east trade winds which blow from the south-east towards the north-west. These winds, attracted by the low pressure trough over the Indian subcontinent, while moving north of the equator, turn in a clockwise direction (or towards the right), following Farrell’s law. This shift in direction is brought about by the earth’s rotation. Now, the originally south-east trade winds become south-west monsoons blowing towards the north-east.

At this juncture, the Inter- Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) also shifts northwards. The ITCZ is the hypothetical line where the north-east trade winds from the northern hemisphere and the south-east trades from the southern hemisphere meet. The south-west wands now approaching the Indian peninsula have to travel a long distance over the Indian Ocean.

During their long journey, these winds pick up large amounts of moisture and by the time they reach India they are oversaturated. Here, they are known as the south-west monsoons which get divided into the Arabian Sea branch and the Bay of Bengal branch because of the shape of peninsular India. There moisture-laden winds cause heavy rainfall on the windward sides.

The Arabian Sea Branch:

This branch of the south-west monsoons strikes the highlands of the Western Ghats at almost right angles. The windward slopes of the Western Ghats receive heavy orogenic precipitation. Although the western currents of the monsoon penetrate further into the Indian mainland the intensity of rainfall goes on decreasing on the leeward side.

While the windward slopes of the Western Ghats are the areas receiving the highest rainfall, the leeward slopes form a well-marked rain-shadow belt which is drought- prone. For instance, the average annual rainfall at Mumbai and Pune is 188 cm and 50 cm respectively, despite the fact that they are only 160 km apart.

The most characteristic feature of the distribution of rainfall on the windward slope is that the amount of rains is heavier higher up the slopes. However, the heavy rains are concentrated in a narrow strip along the Western Ghats.

After crossing the Western Ghats, the rain- bearing air currents descend the eastern slopes where they get warmed up adiabatically. This results in a pronounced rain-shadow area. The higher the mountains-, the larger are the rain-shadow effect. Towards the north, where the Western Ghats are not very high, the difference in the amount of rainfall between the windward and leeward side is rather negligible.

Bay of Bengal Branch:

This branch is active in the region from Sri Lanka to Sumatra Island of the Indonesian archipelago. Like the Western Ghats of India in the case of the Arabian Sea branch, the windward slopes of the West Coast Mountains of Myanmar (Arakan and Tenasserim mountains) get heavy rainfall when the main monsoon currents of this branch strike the Myanmarese coast. Akyab on the west coast records 425 cm during the June-September period. As in case of the leeward sides of the Western Ghats in India, here too, the rain shadow effect is pronounced on the leeward side.

A northern current of this branch strikes the Khasi hills in Meghalaya and causes very heavy rains. Mawsynram (near Cherrapunji), situated on the southern slopes of Khasi hills, has the distinction of recording the highest annual average precipitation in the old.

This is because of its peculiar geographical location. Mawsynram is flanked on all sides by the Garo, Khasi and Jaintia hills except for a gap through which the rain-bearing winds enter and are forced to rise, thus yielding the heaviest rainfall. Shillong, a mere 40 km away on top of the Khasi hills, receives only about 140 cm of rainfall during June-September.

Another current of the Bay of Bengal branch takes a left turn at the eastern end of the low pressure trough (roughly the Bengal delta). From here, it blows in a south-east to north-west direction along the orientation of the Himalayas. This current causes rainfall over the northern plains.

The monsoon rainfall over the northern plains is assisted by west-moving monsoon or cyclonic depressions called ‘westerly disturbances’. These are formed in the Bay of Bengal and move along the southern fringe of the northern plains causing copious rains there which are vital for the rice crop.

The intensity of rainfall decreases from east to west and from north to south in the northern plains. The decrease westwards is attributed to the increasing distance from the source of the moisture. The decrease in rainfall intensity from north to south, on the other hand, is due to increasing distance from the mountains which are responsible for lifting the moisture-laden winds and causing orogenic rainfall in the plains, especially in the foothills.

The two main branches of the monsoon winds follow different courses:

But originally, they set out to fill the intense low pressure void created in the north-west of the subcontinent. The two branches meet at the Chhotanagpur Plateau. Of the total moisture carried by the two branches, only 20 per cent falls as precipitation. The Arabian Sea branch is more powerful of the two because of two reasons—one, the size of the Arabian Sea is bigger and two, most of the Arabian Sea branch falls over India, while most of the Bay of Bengal branch goes to Myanmar, Malaysia and Thailand.

Retreating or North-East Monsoons:

Towards the end of September, the low pressure centre in the north-west begins to disintegrate and eventually shifts to the equatorial region. The cyclonic conditions are replaced by anti-cyclonic ones. As a result, winds start blowing away from the northern region. Similar anti-cyclonic winds blow from the Tibetan highlands and beyond.

This is also the time when the sun makes an apparent movement south of the equator. The ITCZ also moves equator wards. Now the winds that dominate the sub continental landscape are the ones which move from the north-east to the south-west.

These conditions continue from October till mid-December and are known as the retreating monsoons or the north-east monsoons. By December end, the monsoons have completely withdrawn from India. The retreat of the monsoons is markedly gradual in contrast to the ‘sudden burst’ of the south-west monsoons.

Origin and Mechanism of Indian Monsoons the Thermal Concept

The retreating monsoons over the Bay of Bengal pick up moisture on their way which is dropped over eastern or coastal Orissa, Tamil Nadu and parts of Karnataka during October-November. This is the main season of rains over these areas as they almost lie in the rain-shadow area of the south-west monsoons

During October, easterly depressions occur at the head of Bay of Bengal which move southwards and in November get sucked into Orissa and Tamil Nadu coasts causing heavy rain—sometimes with destructive cyclonic winds in coastal and interior areas. The depressions weaken southwards and towards the interiors.

Winter Monsoons:

The stable, dry anti-cyclonic winds prevailing over the subcontinent after the retreat of the south-west monsoons are not capable of causing precipitation because they are free of moisture. Instead, these winds produce dry and fine weather. However, certain areas in the north get winter precipitation: from sources far away.

The north-western parts of India—Punjab and Ganga plains—are invaded by shallow cyclonic disturbances moving from west to east and having their origin in the Mediterranean Sea. These are called “Westerly Disturbances’ which travel across West Asia and Afghanistan before they reach India. These disturbances come with cloudiness and rising temperature in the front and cold wind in the rear.

These disturbances cause upto 5 cm rainfall in Punjab and Kashmir and up to 2.5 cm over the Uttar Pradesh plains. These showers are very good for the rabi crop, especially wheat and gram, and are very effective because of less run­off, less evaporation (because of low winter temperatures) and the fact that moisture from these showers is confined to the root area of the crops.

23. Why no precipitation in Kachchh and Western Rajasthan?

There is no mountain barrier to tap the advancing winds. As the Aravallis have an almost north-south axis, they fail to block the passage of these monsoon currents (which rather blow parallel to the Aravallis) and lift them.

The monsoon currents heading towards Rajasthan are rather shallow and are superimposed by stable anti-cyclonic air.

The hot and dry continental air masses from western Pakistan (Baluchistan) are drawn towards the thermal low developed in this region. These air masses check the ascent of air and absorb its moisture.

These conditions are unfavourable for precipitation in Kachchh and western Rajasthan where desert conditions prevail.

Some of the currents from the Arabian Sea branch manage to proceed towards Chhotanagpur plateau through the Narmada and Tapti gaps. These currents ultimately unite with the Bay of Bengal branch.

Although a few air currents from the main Arabian Sea branch are diverted northward towards Kachchh and the Thar Desert, these currents continue upto Kashmir without causing rain anywhere on their way. In fact, an east-to- west line drawn near Karachi in Pakistan practically marks the limit of the monsoon rainfall.

24. Enumerate salient features of India’s Nano Mission.

Answer: Nano Technology is a knowledge-intensive and “enabling technology” which is expected to influence a wide range of products and processes with far-reaching implications for national economy and development. The Government of India, in May 2007, has approved the launch of a Mission on Nano Science and Technology (Nano Mission) with an allocation of Rs. 1000 crore for 5 years.

The Department of Science and Technology is the nodal agency for implementing the Nano Mission. Capacity-building in this upcoming area of research will be of utmost importance for the Nano Mission so that India emerges as a global knowledge-hub in this field. For this, research on fundamental aspects of Nano Science and training of large number of manpower will receive prime attention. Equally importantly, the Nano Mission will strive for development of products and processes for national development, especially in areas of national relevance like safe drinking water, materials development, sensors development, drug delivery, etc. For this, it will forge linkages between educational and research institutions and industry and promote Public Private Partnerships.

The Nano Mission has been structured in a fashion so as to achieve synergy between the national research efforts of various agencies in Nano Science and Technology and launch new programmes in a concerted fashion. International collaborative research efforts will also be made wherever required.

25. What is the meaning of ‘Rit’ as per the Vedas?

Answer: Rit/Rita, Sanskrit ṛta (“truth” or “order”), in Indian religion and philosophy, the cosmic order mentioned in the Vedas, the ancient sacred scriptures of India. As Hinduism developed from the ancient Vedic religion, the concept of Rita led to the doctrines of dharma (duty) and karma (accumulated effects of good and bad actions). Rita is the physical order of the universe, the order of the sacrifice, and the moral law of the world. Because of Rita, the sun and moon pursue their daily journeys across the sky, and the seasons proceed in regular movement. Vedic religion features the belief that Rita was guarded by Varuna, the god-sovereign, who was assisted by Mitra, the god of honour, and that the proper performance of sacrifices to the gods was necessary to guarantee its continuance. Violation (anrita) of the established order by incorrect or improper behaviour, even if unintentional, constituted sin and required careful expiation.

26. Is Election Commission of India, a constitutional or statutory body?

Answer:The Election Commission of India is an autonomous constitutional authority responsible for administering election processes in India. The body administers elections to the Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha, state Legislative Assemblies in India, and the offices of the President and Vice President in the country.

The basic difference is that while statutory bodies come into existence by an act of parliament or a state legislature. For example, Delhi University comes into existence by Delhi University Act, 1912. Constitutional bodies come into existence or rather derive their power from Constitution itself.

27. What role does ‘Staffing’ play in the field of management?

Answer: Human resources management is the management of the planning and staffing of intellectual and physical inputs, or people of different skill levels, needed for an organization to meet its objectives. This means hiring the right people for each job in the organization.

The staffing function is a very important function of the management due to the following reasons. Staffing helps in discovering and obtaining competent personnel for various jobs. It helps in the optimum utilization of the human resources. It helps in developing professionals in every field of organizational activity.

28. Describe the span of settlement of Bhil tribe in India?

Answer: Bhils or Bheels are primarily an ethnic group of people in West India. Bhils are also settled in the Tharparkar District of Sindh, Pakistan. They speak the Bhil languages, a subgroup of the Western Zone of the Indo-Aryan languages.

Places they inhabit:

Bhils are popularly known as the bow men of Rajasthan. They are the most widely distributed tribal groups in India. They form the largest tribe of the whole South Asia. Bhils are mainly divided into two main groups the central or pure bills and eastern or Rajput Bhils. The central Bhils are found in the mountain regions in the Indian states of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujrat and Rajasthan. Bhils are also found in the north eastern parts of Tripura.

Bhils-tribe History:

Bhils belong to the race of the pre-Aryans. The name ‘Bhil’ is derived from the word villu or billu, which according to the Dravidian language is known as Bow. The name Bhil is also finds mentioned in the great epic called Mahabharata and Ramayana. The Bhil women offered ber to Lord Rama, when he was wandering through the jungles of Dandaka, searching Sita. The popular legend represents them as being descended from Nishada, son of Mahadev by the human female. Nishad was brutal and ugly, who killed his father’s bull and as the consequence he was banished to mountains and forests. During the ancient era they were considered as the great warriors who fought against the Mughals, Marathas and the Britishers.

Language and Costumes:

Apart from other states, Bhils comprise 39% of Rajasthan’s total population. Speak Bhili, which is an Indo Aryan language. Bhil women wear traditional saris and the Bhil men wear loose long frock along with pyjama. The peasants wear turbans. Bhils also wear brass ornaments. Bhils are tall, well built with the handsome features. They are known for their truthfulness and simplicity. They love independence. They are brave and their National weapon is bow made of bamboo. Earlier they were the great haunters. They now practice agriculture as the source of livelihood.

Culture and Religion:

Religion practice among the Bhils differs from place to place. Most of them worship local deities like Khandoba, Kanhoba, Bahiroba, and Sitalmata. Some of the worship Tiger God called ‘vaghdev’. They have no temples of their own. They consult Badvas -the hereditary sorcerers on all the occasions. Bhils are highly superstitious tribal people. They have Bhagat or Gurus who perform the religious rites. They have village headsmen, who deal with their disputes. Bhils strictly follow rules and regulations. They marry only in their own classes. Their close relationships are tightly based on mutual love and respect. They have rich cultural history and give much importance to dance and music. Ghoomar is the most famous dance among the Bhils. Than Gair is the religious dance drama performed by the men in the month of Shravana (July and August). The Bhils are talented in the sculptured work. They make beautiful horses, elephants, tigers, deities out of clay.

Fair and Festivals:

The Beneshwar fair is the main festival celebrated among the Bhils. This fair is held during the period of Shivaratri (in the month of January or February) and is dedicated to Beneshwar Mahadev also known as Lord Shiva. On this occasion Bhils gather all together set up camps on the banks of the Som and Mahi River. They perform dance around the fire and sing traditional songs. At night they all of them enjoy Raslila at the Lakshmi Narayan temple. Cultural shows, magic shows, animal shows acrobatic feast are the main attraction of the fair. This fair is actually the combination of two fairs, which are held in reverence of Lord Shiva and the other one that commenced after the setting up of Vishnu temple by Jankunwari. Holy and Dusshera are the other major festivals celebrated among the Bhils in India.

29. Describe the phenomenon of Monsoon?

Answer: the monsoon is a result of the shift of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) under the influence of the vertical sun. This results in the southwest monsoon. The dynamic theory explains the monsoon as a global weather phenomenon rather than just a local one.

A monsoon is a seasonal shift in the prevailing wind direction that usually brings with it a different kind of weather. It almost always refers to the Asian monsoon, a large region extending from India to Southeast Asia where monsoon conditions prevail.

30. Write short Note on Medieval Indo-Islamic Architecture.

  • With establishment of Turkish rule in India, a new phase coming in history of Indian art and architecture. Turks brought Islamic style of architecture in India. This new style easy significantly different from traditional Indian style. But over a period of time both style underwent assimilation.

Essential feature of Indo -Islamic architecture were

Islamic architecture characterised by uses of arches, domes and minarets. Arches were used for making doors. Dome was used to make roof and minarets were erected in 4 corners of building

  • Assimilation of Indian style i.e. trabeate architecture, use of columns and pillars
  • Use of lime mortar as binding agent. Which provided solidarity to the monuments and buildings
  • Charbhagi style brought by Babar added to the beauty of monuments.
  • Double dome architecture was another significant feature of the Indo-Islamic architecture. Eg. Humayun Tomb, Taj Mahal etc.
  • Use of new techniques like Pietra deura, calligraphy technique, arabesque etc.
  • Elements of Indian architecture like Jali, Chatra, jharaokha, chhajjas etc.

Right from the beginning of Turkish rule to the age of Mughal rule, process of assimilation of Indian and Islamic continued and it lead to the genesis of new kind of architecture in India. It represents our unique, assimilative cultural identity.

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