RAS Mains Exam Practice Solved Questions Part-5



1. Write short notes on the followings:

  1. Ghatiyala Inscription
  2. Ghosundi Inscription
  3. BuchKalan Inscription
  4. Ranthambore Fort
  5. Chittorgarh Fort
  6. Mandawa Fort

Ghatiyala Inscription

Ghantiyala or Ghatiyala is a village in Jodhpur Tahsil of Jodhpur district in Rajasthan. Its ancient names are Rohimsakupaka, Rohimsakupaka and Rohimsaka.

The subjoined inscriptions are all engraved on a column standing in situ in Ghatiyala, twenty-two miles west-north- west of Jodhpur. The column is not far distant from an old ruined Jaina structure, now called Mata-ki-Sal.

Ghosundi Inscription

The earliest epigraphic evidence regarding the worship of Lord Narayana is found from the Ghosundi Stone Inscription of Maharaja Sarvatata of 1st Century B.C. Ghosundi is a village in the chittorgarh district of rajasthan.

The inscription record the erection of enclosing wall around the stone object of worship called Narayana Vatika for the divinities  Sankarshana and Vasudeva  by one Sarvatta  who was a devotee of Bhagavat and had performed an Asvamedha Sacrifice.

BuchKalan Inscription

BuchKalan is an ancient historical town in Bilada tahsil of Jodhpur district in Rajasthan. Its ancient name was Rajyaghangakam.

This inscription was first discovered by a Brahmabhatta of Jodhpur named Nannurama whose zeal for antiquarian matters is as unflagging as it is disinterested. It was found at BuchKalan in the Bilada district, Jodhpur State. It is incised on a pilaster on the proper right forming part of the shrine wall jutting out into the sabha mandapa of what is popularly known there as the temple of Parvati.

Ranthambore Fort

Ranthambore Fort is housed in the wildlife sanctuary of the same name in Sawai Madhopur. Built in the 10th century by Nagil Jats, these are the oldest remnants of the royalty of Rajasthan. Built on two hills, the fort is mainly in ruins. Witnessing attacks of Mughals, British and ravages of time, few structures remain standing.

Attractions to check out are Hammir’s Court, Badal Mahal, Dhula Mahal, Ganesha temple, Jogi Mahal, Shiva Temple, Ramlal ji Temple and temple of Lord Sumatinath and Lord Sambhavanath. The roar of the Royal Bengal Tigers and the call of wild animals can be frequently heard. The calls are reminders that the fort is their territory.

Adventure is the allure of the fort. Now it is a free sanctuary of animals which was previously hunting grounds of the Royalty.

Chittorgarh Fort

One of the oldest forts in Rajasthan, Chittorgarh Fort is the origin of many stories of valor, courage and sacrifice. The impregnable fortress is one of the most significant places to learn the history of Rajasthan. The 7th century fort is the land of Meera Bai who drank poison than leave the love of her Lord Krishna, and, Rani Padmini and Karanavati who protected honor by jumping into the fire of Jauhar and the heroics of Gora, Badal and Panna Dhai.

  • The UNESCO World Heritage Site is the breathing grounds of the romantic tales of Rajasthan.
  • Sieged numerous times in various periods of history, a lot of stories lies within its boundaries. Check out the beautiful attractions of Rana Kumbha Mahal, Ratan Singh’s Palace, Badal Mahal, Rani Padmini’s Palace, Kanwar Pade Ka Mahal, etc.
  • The Vijay Stambha and Kirti Stambha and several cenotaphs stand as memorials.

The temples of Kalika mata Temple, Adbuthnath Temple, Kumbha Shyam Temple, etc are worshipped by Hindus and Jains and still draw crowds. The seven gates of Chittorgarh deserve attention as they have lots of history associated with it.

Mehrangarh Fort

Mehrangarh Fort stands as one of the most important heritage sites of Jodhpur, Rajasthan. The foundation of the fort was laid way back in 1458 by Rathore ruler, Rao Jodha. The Citadel of the Sun was not once sieged. The fort remains invincible and inspires awe from all. There are numerous mysteries and scandals hidden.

  • What does not hide is its architectural splendor.
  • The exquisite palaces of Moti Mahal, Sheesha Mahal, Phool Mahal, Daulat Khana and Sileh Khana.
  • The fort itself is a museum where the lifestyle of the Rathore clan and even Mughals is preserved. From weaponry, palanquins, cradles, musical instruments, furniture to the clothes of the era get an insight of the glorious era.

Taragarh Fort

Taragarh Fort in Bundi is one of the magnificent forts in Rajasthan. The fort overlooking the city of Bundi has sadly been ravaged by time but its charm does not fade. Built in 1354 A.D., the fort remains as glorious remnants of the Chauhan dynasty. The breathtaking views are delightful. The gateway to the fort is decked with stone statues of elephants.

  • There are mainly 3 entries named Lakshmi Pol, Gagudi ki Phatak and Phuta Darwaza.
  • Taragarh fort also houses an excellent network of tunnels which were saviors in times of need. The huge properly planned water reservoirs must be visited.
  • The beautiful Rani Mahal was designed with murals; artwork and lattice artworks inspire awe.
  • The Bhim Burj and Garbha Gunjan, the huge field cannons are few of the popular attractions.

Gagron Fort

One of the UNESCO World Heritage sites, the hill fort of Rajasthan is a beauty. The Gagron Fort is a beautiful site of archaeological importance. This structure is the epitome of a “Jal Durg” as it is surrounded by water on all sides.

  • Built for protection from armies, in 1195 A.D by King Bijaldev of the Parmara Empire, the fort draws visitors and devotes from all over. Here also lies the tomb of a Sufi saint, Pipa Baba.
  • The glory of the fort has been faded with time but its charm still lives. The Rajputana glory lives in these structures forgotten in the chapters of history.

Mandawa Fort

Founded in 18th Century by Nawal Singh, Mandawa Fort of Shekhawati is an impressive structure of heritage of Rajasthan. The exquisite artwork, architecture and the ambiance has been preserved beautifully and converted into a heritage hotel. The charm has been pleasantly treasured.

  • The medieval themed rooms, balconies, the antique collection, the family portraits of the rulers and their belongings take you back in history.
  • The grand archways and the paintings of Lord Krishna and his cows are a visual treat. Wander through areas opened for tourists and you shall witness the impressive aura and architecture of the Royal state of Rajasthan.

2. Write the Name of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Rajasthan

There are eight world Heritage sites in Rajasthan Namely:

  1. Chittorgarh Fort
  2. Kumbhalgarh Fort
  3. Ranthambore Fort
  4. Jaisalmer Fort
  5. Gagron Fort
  6. Keoladeo National Park
  7. Jantar Mantar
  8. Amber Fort


3. Write in brief on e-waste management.

The rapid growth of technology, upgradation of technical innovations and a high rate of obsolescence in the electronics industry have led to one of the fastest growing waste streams in the world which consist of end of life electrical and electronic equipment products. It comprises a whole range of electrical and electronic items such as refrigerators, washing machines, computers and printers, televisions, mobiles, i-pods, etc., many of which contain toxic materials. Many of the trends in consumption and production processes are unsustainable and pose serious challenge to environment and human health.

E-waste is not hazardous if it is stocked in safe storage or recycled by scientific methods or transported from one place to the other in parts or in totality in the formal sector. The e-waste can be considered hazardous if recycled by primitive methods

Major Toxins in Ewaste

• Toxins in e‐waste include polyvinyl chloride (PVC plastics), copper, lead, mercury, arsenic (in older models), cadmium, manganese, cobalt, gold, and iron.
• Between 1994 and 2003, disposal of PCs resulted in 718,000 tons of lead, 287 tons of  mercury, and 1,363 tons of cadmium
• Mercury, chromium, lead, and  Brominated flame retardants are likely to cause the most adverse health effects in humans.

Survey was carried out by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) during 2005

In India, among top ten cities; Mumbai ranks first in generating e-waste followed by Delhi, Bangalore, Chennai, Kolkata, Ahmadabad, Hyderabad, Pune, Surat and Nagpur.


4. Give an account of the following

1) Mahila e-Haat

2) Sakhi-one stop centres

3) Ujjwala scheme


Mahila-e-Haat:  It’s an online marketing platform for women. Beneficiary- All Indian women citizens more than 18 years of age and women SHGs.It’s an initiative for meeting aspirations and need of women entrepreneurs which will leverage technology for showcasing products made/manufactured/sold by women entrepreneurs It has been set up with an investment of under Rs.10 lakh from the Rashtriya Mahila Kosh—an autonomous body under the WCD ministry for the socio-economic empowerment of women.

Sakhi-one stop centres: To provide integrated support and assistance to women affected by violence, in private and public spaces, within the family, community and at the workplace under one roof. All women including girls below 18 years of age affected by violence, irrespective of caste, class, religion, region, sexual orientation or marital status are its beneficiaries. It is funded through Nirbhaya fund

Ujjwala scheme: For prevention of trafficking and rescue, rehabilitation, reintegration and repatriation of cross-border victims to their country of origin. Women and children who are vulnerable and victims to human trafficking are its intended beneficiaries. Rehabilitative centres are given     financial support for providing shelter and basic amenities such as food, clothing, medical care, legal aid etc.

5. Give an account of the following:



c) Aspirational district programme

SAKAAR: Sakaar is Indian Space Research Organisation’s (ISRO) Augmented Reality (AR) application designed for Android devices. The application consists of 3 Dimensional (3D) models of Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM), RISAT, indigenous rockets such as PSLV, GSLV Mk-III etc.

PRAGATI: PRO-ACTIVE GOVERNANCE AND TIMELY IMPLEMENTATION, Addressing common man’s grievances, and simultaneously monitoring and reviewing important programmes and projects of the Government of India as well as projects flagged by State Governments.

Aspirational district programme: To quickly and effectively transform some of the most underdeveloped districts of the country. It focuses on transforming 115 districts across 28 states that have witnessed the least progress along certain development parameters


6. Discuss the following:

1) Corruption perception index

2) Press freedom index

3) Global peace index

4) World investment report


1) Corruption perception index: Released by Berlin based non- government organisation Transparency International. India’s ranking slid to 81 among a group of 180 countries.

2) Press freedom index: The Press Freedom Index is an annual ranking of countries compiled and published by Reporters without Borders based upon the organization’s own assessment of the countries’ press freedom records in the previous year. India dropped two ranks from 136 to 138.

3) Global peace index: It is presented by institute for economic and peace. It ranked country on the basis of peace fulness.India ranked at 136th position and Iceland is the most peaceful country.

4) World investment report: Released by UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). It gives analysis on foreign direct investment.

 7. Discuss the importance of Champaran Satyagraha.

This was the first experiment of novel method adopted by Gandhiji i.e. civil disobedience and passive resistance in the Champaran. This has huge historical significance as it marks the advent of Gandhiji in mainline politics and paved the ground for Gandhi ji popularity as leader. It also gave sanctions to the method adopted by Gandhiji.

Gandhiji was able to convince the administration that tinkathia was an exploitative system and need revamping. He became the member of the committee to make an enquiry. The recommendations of the committee were in the favour of Peasants and it recommended to abolish tinkathia and asked to compensate the peasants for illegal collection of rents and taxes.

First time rural problem in general and the problem of peasants were taken into consideration which were obscure hitherto in the Indian politics. It makes the way for participation of peasants in mass movements.


8. Discuss the following:

1) LED

2) Insulated Gate Bipolar transistor

3) Properties of tungsten


(1) LED: Led is light emitting diode. It is a P-N junction diode, which emits light when gets activated. When a suitable energy is applied, electron combines with the electron holes within the device releasing energy in the form of photons.LED lamps have a lifespan and electrical efficiency which are several times longer than incandescent lamps, and significantly more efficient than most fluorescent lamps.

(2) Insulated Gate Bipolar transistor: It is a transistor device and forms the basic component of all electronic devices. It used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electric power. IGBTs are also used to generate the (mercury) discharge, which lights up the bulb. It can also fit in a small volume.

(3) Properties of tungsten: Tungsten has a very high melting point; it has low vapor pressure and greatest tensile strength out of all the metals.  Because of these properties tungsten is used as filament in incandescent bulb.

9. Outline the features of the government of India act, 1909.


System of dyarchy was introduced. The dyarchy means a system of double government in which the principle of dyarchy was a division of the executive branch of each provincial government into authoritarian and popularly responsible sections. The first was composed of executive councillors, appointed, as before, by the crown. The second was composed of ministers who were chosen by the governor from the elected members of the provincial legislature. These latter ministers were Indians.

Subjects were divided into two lists: “reserved” which included subjects such as law and order, finance, land revenue, irrigation, etc., and “transferred” subjects such as education, health, local government, industry, agriculture, excise, etc.

Expansion of provincial legislative council- 70% of the members were to be elected. The system of communal representation and class electorate were further consolidated. Women were given right of vote. The legislative council could initiate legislation but governor assent was required. The governor can veto bill and ordinances. The Legislative Councils could reject the budget but the governor could restore it, if necessary. The legislators could ask questions and supplementaries, pass adjournment motions and

Vote a part of the budget, but 75% of the budget was still not votable.


10. Discuss the reproductive events in the Human?

Gametogenesis: The game to genesis is the formation of gametes i.e. sperm in males and ovum in females. It is also known as spermatogenesis and Oogenesis.

Insemination: Insemination is the deliberate introduction of sperm into a female animal or plant for the purpose of impregnating or fertilizing the female for sexual reproduction. The sperm is introduced into the uterus of a mammal or the oviduct of an oviparous (egg-laying) animal.

Fertilisation: fusion of male and female gametes and it eventually lead to the formation of zygote.

Implantation: After the formation of blast cyst and its development. Blast cyst gets attached to the uterus wall. This process is called implantation.

Gestation:  Gestation, in mammals, the time between conception and birth, during which the embryo or foetus is developing in the uterus.

Parturition:  Parturition is the process of giving birth to the offspring.

11. What is Universal base income? Why it was suggested and what are their advantages?

Universal basic income (UBI) is a model for providing all citizens of a country or other geographic area with a given sum of money, regardless of their income, resources or employment status. The purpose of the UBI is to prevent or reduce poverty and increase equality among citizens. It is one of the kinds of redistribution system.

It was suggested because:

  • Inefficiencies of existing subsidies scheme.
  • Exclusion error.
  • According to the survey most of the scheme was not able to reach targeted beneficiaries. Often the very districts that house the most number of poor are the ones facing the greatest shortfall in the allocation of.
  • One of the key problems with many programs is that the take-up and effectiveness of targeting will be correlated with a state’s institutional and implementation capacity.

Benefits of UBI:

A UBI has the merit that it will not necessarily be driven by take-up capability from below but given from above to all the deserving. In that sense, it is less likely to be prone to exclusion errors.

And by directly transferring money to bank accounts, and circumventing multiple layers of bureaucracy, the scope for out-of- system leakages (a feature of PDS schemes) is low.



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