RAS/RTS Mains Exam Paper-I:Part C: History of Modern World. RPSC RAS Mains Exam General Studies Paper-1 Study Material. RAS Mains General Studies
History of Modern World (up to 1950AD)
- Renaissance and Reformation.
- Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution
- Imperialism and colonialism in Asia and Africa
- Impact of World Wars
The religious trends of this period witnessed the rise of the Muslim community and the Muslim world. Christians and Christendom saw the end of the Crusades. Religious Unity under the Roman Church came to an end. Moreover, in this period, the Inquisitions and Protestant reformations also took place. RAS Mains General Studies
The contemporary history includes the span of historical events starting from 1945. These events are most relevant to the present time and scenario. Many historians describe the early modern period as the time frame between 1500 and 1800. This period mainly follows the Late Middle Ages period. Further, it is marked by the initial European colonies, beginnings of recognizable nation-states as well as the rise of strong centralized governments.
Also during the early modern period, people witnessed the age of discovery and trade. This happened as a result of the collective effort of the Western European nations. Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and France went on a colonial expansion. These nations took possession of lands and set up colonies in Africa, southern Asia, and North and South America. Turkey went on to colonize Southeastern Europe, and parts of the West Asia and North Africa. Russian on the other hand, took possession in Eastern Europe, Asia, and North America.
In the Ottoman Empire and Africa, the Muslim expansion took place in East and North Africa. However, in West Africa, several native nations existed. The civilizations of Southeast Asia and the Indian Empires played a pivotal role in the spice trade. In the Indian subcontinent, the presence of Great Mughal Empire was strong. Moreover, the archipelagic empires, the Sultanate of Malacca and later the Sultanate of Johor, exercised power over the southern areas. RAS Mains General Studies
In the Asian subcontinent, different Japanese shogunate and the Chinese dynasties held power. The Edo period from 1600 to 1868 in Japan is regarded as the early modern period. On the other hand, in Korea, the period from the rising of Joseon Dynasty to the enthronement of King Gojong is referred to as the early modern period.
In the Americas, Native Americans started a huge and distinct civilization which included the Aztec Empire and alliance, the Inca civilization, the Mayan Empire and cities, and the Chibcha Confederation. However, in the west, the European kingdoms and movements were in a movement of reformation and expansion. Russia made its way to the Pacific coast in 1647. It went on to consolidate the control over the Russian Far East in the 19th century.
World History Important Questions
- What policy instruments were deployed to contain the great economic depression?
- American Revolution was an economic revolt against mercantilism. Substantiate.
- Africa was chopped into states artificially created by accident of European competition. Analyse.
- “Latecomer” Industrial revolution in Japan involved certain factors that were markedly different from what west had experience.
- The New Economic Policy – 1921 of Lenin had influenced the policies adopted by India soon after independence. Evaluate.
- What were the events that led to the Suez Crisis in 1956? How did it deal a final blow to Britain’s self-image as a world power?
- What were the major political, economic and social developments in the world which motivated the anti-colonial struggle in India?
- To what extent can Germany be held responsible for causing the two World Wars? Discuss critically.
- Why did the industrial revolution first occur in England? Discuss the quality of life of the people there during the industrialization. How does it compare with that in India at present?
- The anti-colonial struggles in West Africa were led by the new elite of Western-educated Africans. Examine.
- What problems are germane to the decolonization process in the Malay Peninsula?
Major changes in Europe caused the medieval period to give way to a new, livelier period. As trade with the East increased, Europeans rediscovered the classical knowledge of ancient Greece and Rome. This knowledge led to a period of creativity and learning called the Renaissance. A new focus on the individual emerged, contributing to new ideas about religion. These ideas caused a struggle in Christianity known as the Reformation.
The movement and displacement of people following the Black Plague and Crusades encouraged the development of a more globalized culture. In this unit, you will discover how ideas impacted cultural and religious change in Europe after the middle Ages.
American Revolution was perhaps the first manifestation of this feeling. This feeling was also quite evident in France during and after French Revolution. It became contagious in Europe after ideals of French revolution spread in other states.
Nationalism is a modern movement in which loyalty of individuals is not to vested interests, a monarch or political group, but to a nation of people. Earlier loyalties were attached to land (in feudal society), territory and so on.