RAS Mains Practice Solved Question 25/12/2018


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What do you know about the Haldighati museum and the battle of Haldighati?

A 40km journey from Udaipur will lead to the patriotic land of Haldighati, where the epic battle between the Rajput Hero Maharana Pratap and Mughal Emperor Akbar was fought. This land sings the heroic tales of how Maharana Pratap tried to save his kingdom from Mughal invasion; and the turmeric sand holds several screams of the bloody battle that is reflected in its color.

  • In 1576, the battle of Haldighati was fought between Mughal Army and Mewar Kingdom.
  • The Mughal army outnumbered the Mewar soldiers, yet Maharana Pratap didn’t quit and fought fearlessly for his Kingdom.
  • Maharana Pratap was asked to surrender but he didn’t accept slavery and decided to keep his head-high and fight.
  • The incharge of the Mughal army for the battle was Amer’s Maan Singh I.
  • It is also believed that Maan Singh invited Maharana Pratap on the banks of Udai Sagar for a peace meet. In which he asked Maharana Pratap to surrender, but the Rajputana Hero was in no mood of surrendering his kingdom to a Mughal Emperor, as he considered Akbar as an invader.
  • Haldighati is basically a narrow path, amidst the Aravalli Hills; the Mughal army marched from Haldighati to attack Mewar Kingdom. The Mewar army wanted to have the battle in an open field, hence they made the Mughal army move to an open area, which was later filled with blood because of the bloody battle and then the battlefield was named Rakt Talai (Lake of Blood).

There was a point of time, when Maharana Pratap was seriously injured, that was the time when two heroes came to rescue.

One of the Hero’s was Mana Jhala, who dressed up like Maharana Pratap, to give the Mughals an illusion of Maharana Pratap present in the field. Unfortunately, Mana Jhala lost his life on the same day.

The other hero was, Maharana Pratap’s loyal horse: Chetak. Chetak knew that his master had to be taken to a safe place because he was seriously injured. Chetak fled from the battle ground with his unconscious master on his back.

It is also said that Chetak was himself injured in the battle, and suffered from a deep wound in one of his legs; still he didn’t care about his pain.

In order to take his master to a safe place, he crossed a water stream with his leg injury, and that lead to his sorrowful demise.

Maharana Pratap built Chetak Memorial on the same location where he passed away to salute the courageousness and loyalty of his dear Chetak.

It is said, none of them won the battle of Haldighati, and Maharana Pratap had to live in forest with his army and family and had to consume grass chapattis for several days.

Also his entire life he fought against Mughal emperor Akbar.

Haldighati Museum Udaipur


One has to move 2 kms from the Chetak Samadhi to reach the Haldighati Museum.

It is a private museum that displays various Haldighati scenes in form of portraits, paintings, miniatures, statues etc.

Also metal weapons including swords, shields, knives, double-edged swords and heavy metal armor are showcased in the museum.

There are various bronze statues that depict some scenes of the battle, including Chetak’s attack on Man Singh’s elephant, Maharana Pratap leading the army with a bheel standing next to him and a lot more, Maharana Pratap and his army consuming grass chapattis, etc.

Shergarh of Dhaulpur

  • Shergarh is a fort in Dholpur district of Rajasthan.
  • The fort is situated about 7 km south of Dholpur city on the left bank of the Chambal River near a road bridge on the National Highway No. 2.
  • The fort was built earlier and was enlarged, repaired and used by Shershah Suri in A.D. 1540.
  • The stone fort has four gates and is entered from east through a large gate.
  • The fort has palace buildings, a temple of Hanuman and a tomb, besides some ruined structures.

What are the factors affecting cost of capital?


MPOWER Project

Mitigating Poverty in Western Rajasthan (MPOWER) Project

  • The areas involved in the project have a harsh, arid climate.
  • Rainfall is low and erratic, and drought is recurrent.
  • Poor people in the area face severe water insecurity, low agricultural and livestock productivity, limited income-generating opportunities and a social system that discriminates against women and disadvantaged people.

The project targets poor households headed by landless agricultural labourers and small and marginal farmers, owners of marginal land or wastelands, traditional artisans, women, and young people who are without the skills they need to become employed.

The project was designed to ensure empowerment of the poorest people. Although most of those who will benefit from it are living under the poverty line, activities will also include some other people who are not quite so poor but are eligible for support. The approach is participatory. IFAD will supervise project activities.

The objectives of the project are to:

  • Organize and empower poor people through community-based organizations such as self-help groups, marketing groups, producers’ organizations and village development committees promote income and employment opportunities while reinforcing strategies that mitigate risks provide access to financial services and markets.

The project supports activities with the aim of:

Building grass-roots institutions

Promoting and securing access of marginalized groups to resources Promoting the diversification of on-farm and off-farm livelihood opportunities.

What is durga energy and why Dungarpur chosen for this initiative?

Dungarpur Renewable Energy Technologies Pvt. Ltd. (Durga Energy) is a private limited solar module manufacturing company established through investments from four Cluster Level Federations (CLFs – Antri, Biladi, Jhontri and Punali), and grants from Rajasthan Tribal Development Fund, Rajeevika, Nagar Parishad, and Idea Cellular CSR, with IIT Bombay as the knowledge and technology partner.

  • Durga Energy evolved out of the successful implementation of Dungarpur Solar initiative by the four CLFs.
  • The first-of-its-kind solar module manufacturing company is managed and operated by local tribal women who underwent rigorous training in technology and operations.

Why Dungarpur?

Dungarpur is one the most backward districts of Rajasthan with a predominantly rural economy and high concentration of tribal population. With a literacy rate of 46.98% amongst women, the district is known to be educationally backward. Percentage of households with electricity access is also low at 40%; as a result remaining households depend on kerosene as the main source of light. With the demography and geography of a place like Dungarpur, the conventional solution for electricity is difficult to provide.

Under such circumstances, solar photovoltaic — a clean and renewable energy technology offers the best solution for the rural communities. This could be the most viable option for Rajasthan, as it is endowed with the availability of the resource, i.e. 325 sunny days in a year and an average solar insolation of 6-7 kWh/m2 per day.

Dungarpur and regions with similar characteristics like remoteness, scattered settlements, undulating, hilly, forested terrain, the predominance of marginalized communities, and low purchasing power of consumers who are still waiting for electricity access, off-grid solar PV is the best-suited option.

Vision & Purpose

The vision of the company is to promote quality off-grid solar solutions in a sustainable manner.

Support local rural solar retailer/ entrepreneurs

Provide livelihood opportunities for the local community

The company provides employment to 200 local people at Dungarpur, with 50-75 locals provided direct employment, and about 125 locals supported indirectly.

What do you know about Marwar school of Painting?

Marwar, a southwestern region of Rajasthan has added immense glory to India’s artistic landscape. The region gained prominence in this domain under the rule of the Gurjara-Pratiharas.

The paintings developed in the royal families of Bikaner, Kishangarh, Pali, Nagaur, Ghanerao and Jodhpur are collectively called Marwar school and it greatly reflects the influence of the Mughal school of art.

The magnificence of the Marwar School of Painting is splendidly expressed in the Jodhpur style, the Bikaner style and the Kishangarh style.

Who called the Panch peer of Rajasthan?

1. Pabuji

2. Hadbu ji

3. Ramdev ji

4. Manglia ji

5. Mehaji

What was Wood’s Dispatch?

Wood’s dispatch: Sir Charles Wood, the President of the Board of Control of the British East India Company, had an important effect on spreading English learning and female education in India.

When in 1854 he sent a dispatch to Lord Dalhousie, the then Governor-General of India.This is known as Wood’s dispatch.

Wood’s Dispatch / Despatch are known as Magna Carta (Magna Charta) of Indian Education. Wood’s Dispatch was an act of 1854 implemented by the British rulers during pre-independent India. As a result of this charter Education Departments were established in every province.

Write short notes on Hadoti Plateau?

The region comprises of the eastern & southeastern part of the state & is known as Hadoti. It includes the Bhilwara, Karauli, Dholpur, Sawai Madhopur, Bundi, Kota, Baran & Jhalawar districts of Rajasthan.

Population – 11% of total population of the Rajasthan State.

  • Area – 9% of total area of the Rajasthan State.
  • Rainfall – 80cm to 120cm
  • Soil – Black fertile soil.
  • Climate – Very humid.

This region is the north part of the ‘Malwa Plateau’ & it is also called the Hadoti Plateau or Lava Plateau.

The average height of this region is 500 meters.

The Great Boundary Fault of the Aravallis forms its northwest boundary, which extends eastward across the Rajasthan border.

This area is drained by Chambal River & its tributaries.

Ther ‘Uppermal Plateau’ and ‘Mewar Plateau’ are the parts of Plateau of Hadoti.

‘Chandbadi’ is the highest part of this region.

The Hadoti Plateau is further divided into two regions –

(i) Vindhyan Scarp lands

(ii) Deccan Lava Plateau.

Mahi Bajaj Sagar Dam

Mahi Bajaj Sagar Dam is a dam across the Mahi River. It is situated 16 kilometres from Banswara town in Banswara district Rajasthan, India. The dam was constructed between 1972 and 1983 for the purposes of hydroelectric power generation and water supply. It is the second largest dam in Rajasthan. It is named after Jamnalal Bajaj.

The dam has an installed capacity of 140 MW

Write short notes on the tributaries of Kali Sindh River.

The Kali Sindh River tributaries are:


Originating from the northern slopes of Vindhya Range in Madhya Pradesh, it branches out from Kali Sindh River further flowing in Baran district of Rajasthan state. It flows through Jhalawar district and the Kota district of the state. The Parbati River catchment is approximately 3180 square miles. The river from these districts of Rajasthan finally merges at the right bank of Chambal River.


Pahuj River is the waterway flowing through the historical city of Jhansi situated in Uttar Pradesh. It is the tributary of Kali Sindh River that further joins the Yamuna River in Etawah of Uttar Pradesh state. The river has also been given another name “Pushpavati” in several religious texts. The river originates from the hills of Jhansi and Tikamgarh district of Uttar Pradesh.


Flowing from the state of Madhya Pradesh, Mahuar River is the tributary of Kali Sindh River. Summers can be really scorching here, all rock and heat. The only respite is this small watercourse called Mahuar. It is not a small river, but during summers the water levels dips. However, the river still runs deep enough to give a cool dip during scorching months.


Kunwari River often spelled as “Kwari river” flows in Bhind, Morena districts of Madhya Pradesh. The river has been branched out of Kali Sindh River and merges with Yamuna River in the Etawah district. Districts like Kailaras, Sheopur, Morena and Bijeypur are situated on the banks of this river.

Write Short notes on khadar and Bhangar Plains.

Difference between Bhangar and Khadar are as follows:


1. It is a highland compressed of old alluvium

2. It is always about the level of the flood plains.

3. It is often impregnated with calcareous concre­tions known as Kankar.

4. It is not much suited for cultivation.

5. It is known as ‘dhaya’ in Punjab.


1. It is lowland composed of old alluvium

2. It is flooded almost every year and new alluvium is deposited.

3. It is often characterised by clay soil which is very fertile.

4. Intensive agriculture is practised here.

5. It is called ‘bet’ in Punjab.

Discuss the evolution of centre-state relation in post independent India.

Our constitution adopted for federal system of polity. The Features have been taken from American, Canadian and Australian federalism.  Federalism in the Indian constitution is not a matter of administrative convenience, but it is the outcome of our own process and recognition of the ground realities. India adopted a system which if federal in normal times, but unitary in times of emergency.

  • Over the course of post independent history, Centre-state relations have undergone rapid change and it got stabilized by maturity shown by both the entities. Till the rule of Nehru, there was absolutely no confrontation between the centre and state.
  • As same party was in the power. Further cult politics dominated the era with no personality of equal caliber as that of Nehru.
  • This relationship got a jerk and entered into a confrontational phase. As non congress ministries were forming in the state.
  • This was the era when coalition politics was at its nascent stage. But Constitutional provisions were used in illogical manner like use of article 356. Post 1980 phase coincided with the economic liberalised era and its element was also seen in Indian polity also.
  • Very complex system of centre state relationship developed both at the centre and state. Now Coalition politics became an integral part of Indian polity.

Indian Ocean holds an important position for India. Elucidate

Significance for India:

Today, 95% of India’s trade by volume and 68% of trade by value come via the Indian Ocean. Additionally, 80% of India’s crude oil requirement—is imported by sea via the Indian Ocean. Today 40% of world trade passes through the Strait of Malacca and 40 percent of all traded crude oil passes through the Strait of Hormuz, the two crucial choke points in IOR. Hence from security point of view IOR is very crucial.  Further IOR has an implication over our economy too.

  • IOR hold potential for energy exploration, mineral resources and employment opportunities for Indian companies. India is world’s third largest oil importer with maximum import from West and South East Asian countries.
  • For this purpose, Indian Ocean is a very important medium for India’s energy security. Climate change has exacerbated the issue of cyclones and natural disaster.

IOR is important w.r.t cyclone and earthquake management. As these are regional phenomena so cooperation among countries certainly helps in combating disaster in the region. IOR has many island and archipelago this can provide sustainable solution for coastal area development. IOR can engage in cruise ship as done in Pacific Ocean. This provides ground for people to people contact and cultural engagement.

What is the importance of regulating act? What are the features of the act?

It was the first step taken by the British Government to control and regulate the affairs of the EIC in India.  First time, British government recognized the political and administrative functions of the EIC. British government laid the foundations of central administration in India.

  • The Act designated the Governor of Bengal as the ‘Governor-General of Bengal’ and created an Executive Council of four members to assist him.
  • Governor of Bengal was made ‘Governor-General of Bengal’ and governors of Bombay and Madras presidencies were made his subordinates.
  • Act prohibited servants of EIC from engaging in any private trade or accepting bribes and gifts from native. Real objective was to control and manage corrupt East India Company.
  • The Act told the governing body of the Company i.e. Court of Directors to report all its affairs (revenue, civil, military etc) to British Government.

RBI has taken several steps to deal with stressed asset problems. Discuss the steps taken by the RBI. Also comment on their success.

Steps taken by RBI: 

Establishment of private Asset Reconstruction Companies (ARCs)

Many ARCs have been created, but they have solved only a small portion of the problem, buying up only about 5 percent of total NPAs.

  • Strategic debt restructuring scheme: under this creditors could take over firms that were unable to pay and sell them to new owners.
  • Sustainable structuring of stressed assets: under this creditors, could take over firms with debt reduction up to 50% in order to restore their financial viability.
  • Asset quality review: to stream line the balance sheet to reflect the true picture.
  • Indradhanush scheme: capital infusion in PSB’s

Analysis of the scheme:

Success of the schemes is limited. There are several reasons for this:

  • The Asset Quality Review (AQR) was meant to force banks to recognise the true state of their balance sheets but bank keep on ever greening loan.
  • The RBI has encouraged creditors to come together in Joint Lenders Forums, where decisions can be taken by 75 percent of creditors by value and 60 percent by number. But reaching agreement in these Forums has proved difficult, because different banks have different degrees of credit exposure, capital cushions, and incentives.
  • The S4A scheme recognizes that large debt reductions will be needed to restore viability in many cases. But public sector bankers are reluctant to grant write-downs, because there are no rewards for doing so.

Bisalpur Dam Project in Brief

Bisalpur Drinking water cum irrigation project is constructed across river Banas, a tributary of river Chambal near village Bisalpur of Deoli tehsil in Tonk district of Rajasthan. The dam is about 25 km from Deoli town on Jaipur Kota road.

The project comprises of concrete dam 574 meter long with maximum height of 38.50 meter with gross storage capacity of 1095.84 Mucm and live storage capacity of 1040.95 Mcum. Masonry gated ogee type spillway 338.0 meter long crest having 18 numbers of radial gates of size 15×14 meter to pass design discharge of 29046 cusec at MWL.

Right main canal is 51.64 km long with head discharge capacity of 18.34 cusec and Left bank canal is 19.0 km long with 2.25 cusec head discharge capacity to irrigate an area of 81,800 hectare (CCA) in Tonk district. The Ultimate irrigation potential of the project is 55,224 hectare. In addition to the above the project provides 458.36 Mucm of drinking water for Jaipur, Ajmer, Beawar, Kishangarh, Nasirabad and other enroute cities/town/villag

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