RAS/RTS Prelims and Mains Exam Paper-I: General Knowledge and General Studies Unit-I: Part B: Indian History & Culture. RPSC RAS Mains Exam General Studies Paper-1 Study Material. RAS Mains GS Paper
Indian History & Culture
- Indian heritage: Fine Art, Performing Art, Architecture & Literature from Indus Civilization to British Era.
- Religious Movements and religious philosophy in Ancient and Medieval India.
- History of Modern India from beginning of 19th Century to 1965 AD: Significant events, personalities and issues
- Indian National Movement- Its various stages & streams, important contributors and contribution from different parts of the country
- Socio-religious Reform Movements in 19th and 20th Century
- Post Independence consolidation and reorganisation – Accession of princely states & Linguistic reorganisation of the states
We have made every effort to touch almost all spheres of Indian Art & Culture for RPSC RAS Mains Exam as per syllabus, including architectural developments in ancient, medieval & modern India, music & dances of India, development of paintings, literature, language and cinema etc.
India is a nation where you can observe an ideal merged of countless traditions and culture. Indian culture and heritage is so unique and valuable. The customs and traditions practiced in a particular area of the nation are usually influenced by the geographical and climatic conditions of that area as well as spotlight of the area to other cultures. Moreover, there are numerous regions where cultural practices are based on the local needs of the people. Overseas invaders who attacked the country also brought with them their customs and traditions which ultimately merged with the local cultures of India. This merging of cultures created new forms of art, music, dance, and structural design.
It is through the art and craft that the enthusiasm, creative power and artistic quality of Indian culture, Indian heritage and Indian cultural values is manifested. Indus Valley society was followed by the Vedic era in India. Vedic era that lasted for about 1000 years from 1500 BC to 500 BC was distinguished by Indo-Aryan civilization and the Vedas, the sacred books for the Hindus. This was the era when a new social government system or kingdoms joined in the civilization known as Mahajanapadas.
These were the great kingdoms which joined mostly across the Indo-Gangetic plains. Magadha grew as a main kingdom throughout this age, while Nalanda University became a great learning institution of the world. In around 6th century BC, birth of two great philosophers and thinkers on the land of India gave a new path to history of India. These two thinkers were Gautam Buddha and Mahavira. The philosophies of Buddha and Mahavira spread in main part of India which ultimately led to the birth to two new religions – Buddhism and Jainism.
Art and Culture plays an important role in the development of any nation. It represents a set of shared attitudes, values, goals and practices. Culture and creativity manifest themselves in almost all economic, social and other activities. A country as diverse as India is symbolized by the plurality of its culture.
The architectural styles in India have been really influenced with the overseas styles that reached India with overseas invaders. Muslim and European styles are the famous architectural styles that combined with Indian styles. Stupas, Chaityas, Stambhas, Viharas, rock-cut temples, etc., are some of types of structures that were built on a big scale in earliest India.
India has one of the world’s largest collections of songs, music, dance, theatre, folk traditions, performing arts, rites and rituals, paintings and writings that are known, as the ‘Intangible Cultural Heritage’ (ICH) of humanity. In order to preserve these elements, the Ministry of Culture implements a number of schemes and programmes aimed at providing financial support to individuals, groups and cultural organizations engaged in performing, visual and literary arts etc.
India is known for its penchant for creating sculptural art in caves and temples out of rocks and mountains since the earliest of times. Indian architecture, sculpture and painting went hand-in-hand, creating the beautiful synthesis in the work you see today. The love for colour and design in painting, dance, music or drama has always been a part of the Indian soul. Miniature paintings date back to 11th and 12th Centuries AD. Indian art is deeply rooted in tradition, gods, deities, epical themes, and also warfare. Our classical dance and music is world renowned for its magnificence. Stunning handicrafts and textiles are carried home with a lot of pleasure and enthusiasm by tourists visiting India.
A country as diverse as India is symbolized by the plurality of its culture. India has one of the world’s largest collection of songs, music, dance, theatre, folk traditions, performing arts, rites and rituals, paintings and writings that are known as the ‘Intangible Cultural Heritage’ of humanity.
India is the territory where countless dance forms developed. The folk dances in India describe the specialty of a specific state or tribe. Each dance form, including the classical dance, is characterized by its ideal costume, make-up, elegance and style. The rules of classical dances are being followed for 100s of years by the dancers. Gracious postures and movements of face, eyebrow, cheeks, eyeballs, etc. make a vital part of different classical dance types in India.
A classical dancer as well learns to portray different feelings with expressions of face and movements of different body parts. The main classical dance forms in India include Kuchipudi, Manipuri, Odissi, Ottan Thullal, Krishnattam, Bharatanatyam dance style developed in Tamil Nadu state., Kathak dance form developed in Hindu temples in north India and was refined for hundreds of years., Mohini Attam, Chakiarkoothu, Chhau, Koodiyattam, etc.
This painting outline started flourishing in India from very beginning periods. Indian paintings are mostly categorized as murals and miniatures. Murals are the painting works that are done on the walls of buildings. Some good examples of mural work in India include temples of Thanjavur, Thiruvarur, Ajanta, Kanchipuram, etc. Miniatures, as the name suggests, are the small paintings done on papers, clothes, etc. The most excellent examples of these paintings are Mughal and Rajasthani miniatures as well Tanjore paintings and Madhubani paintings.
India is a land of diversities. This diversity is also visible in the spheres of religion. The major religions of India are Hinduism (majority religion), Islam (largest minority religion), Sikhism, Christianity, Buddhism, Jainism, Zoroastrianism, Judaism and the Bahá’í Faith. India is a land where people of different religions and cultures live in harmony. This harmony is seen in the celebration of festivals. The message of love and brotherhood is expressed by all the religions and cultures of India.
Whether it’s the gathering of the faithful, bowing in prayer in the courtyard of a mosque, or the gathering of lamps that light up houses at Diwali, the good cheer of Christmas or the brotherhood of Baisakhi, the religions of India are celebrations of shared emotion that bring people together. People from the different religions and cultures of India, unite in a common chord of brotherhood and amity in this fascinating and diverse land.
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