Daily News Prescription – 18 January 2020

Daily News Prescription – 18 January 2020 / Daily current affairs January 2020 for competitive exams. Myupsc.com : is dedicated to preparation of Indian Administrative Services (UPSC) and Rajasthan Administrative Services (RPSC). The site intends to provide free study notes, knowledge or information related to IAS/RAS exams that can help to crack these Examinations. The Study Portal has also published its Ebooks/ PDF on various aspects & dimensions of World, India and Rajasthan. The vision of the Study Portal is to consolidate all the relevant information related to India and Rajasthan, regarding its History, Geography, Polity, Art-Culture, Heritage, Economy, Environment & Biodiversity and Current Affairs etc. Daily News Prescription-18 January 2020. Daily News Analysis UPSC Exam 2020

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Daily Current Affairs for Competitive Exams 2020

1. What is National Investigation Agency Act, and why is Chhattisgarh challenging it?

2. Open Acreage Licensing Policy.

3. Telecommunication Consumers Education and Protection Fund (TCEPF).

4. Punjab’s new Right to Business Bill.

5. GSAT-30.

6. Bru-Reang refugee agreement.

7. Yada Yada virus.

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GS1: Geographical phenomenon

Explained: What new monsoon dates mean (IE) Over the past many years, however, significant changes have been seen in precipitation patterns

Can’t prevent earthquakes, but can minimise Damage: Earth Sciences ministry (DTE) Can’t prevent earthquakes, but can minimise Damage: Earth Sciences ministry. Vulnerable areas include all north-eastern states

GS2: Governance

Nirbhaya killers to hang on February 1 (TH) Court issues death warrants on a plea by the victim’s parents to expedite their execution. Daily News Analysis UPSC Exam 2020

Merger plan of RSTV and LSTV in final stages (TH)  By any reckoning RSTV has a far greater brand value but LSTV has the financial and administrative muscle

Bru deal could fuel tensions’ (TH) The move, they feel, has set a bad precedent but is the “State-level variant” of the Bharatiya Janata Party’s “national policy of keeping minorities

GS2: International Relations

Quiet, for now (TH) The trade deal between the U.S. and China allows President Trump to claim some success

Explained: How Russia’s new constitutional amendment will help Putin stay in power (IE) How Russia’s new constitutional amendment will help Putin stay in power

GS3: Science and Technology

GSAT-30 gives India a communication boost (TH) GSAT-30, for DTH television services, broadband operations, has been launched from Kourou

GS3: Environment

Renewable energy: Curtailment is a bane that must be done away with (DTE)  Curtailment is a bane that must be done away with. If solutions to the problem are not found,it will add to the.. Daily News Analysis UPSC Exam 2020

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India UNSC Permanent Member P-5 Case Study

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization responsible for maintaining international peace and security, developing friendly relations among nations, achieving international cooperation, and being a center for harmonizing the actions of nations. It is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world. The UN is headquartered on international territory in New York City; other main offices are in Geneva, Nairobi, Vienna and The Hague. India UNSC Permanent Member

The UN was established after World War II with the aim of preventing future wars, succeeding the ineffective League of Nations. On 25 April 1945, 50 governments met in San Francisco for a conference and started drafting the UN Charter, which was adopted on 25 June 1945 and took effect on 24 October 1945, when the UN began operations. Pursuant to the Charter, the organization’s objectives include maintaining international peace and security, protecting human rights, delivering humanitarian aid, promoting sustainable development, and upholding international law. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; this number grew to 193 in 2011, representing the vast majority of the world’s sovereign states.

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The organization’s mission to preserve world peace was complicated in its early decades by the Cold War between the United States and Soviet Union and their respective allies. Its missions have consisted primarily of unarmed military observers and lightly armed troops with primarily monitoring, reporting and confidence-building roles. UN membership grew significantly following widespread decolonization beginning in the 1960s. Since then, 80 former colonies have gained independence, including 11 trust territories that had been monitored by the Trusteeship Council. By the 1970s, the UN’s budget for economic and social development programmes far outstripped its spending on peacekeeping. After the end of the Cold War, the UN shifted and expanded its field operations, undertaking a wide variety of complex tasks. India UNSC Permanent Member

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The UN has six principal organs: the General Assembly; the Security Council; the Economic and Social Council; the Trusteeship Council; the International Court of Justice; and the UN Secretariat. The UN System includes a multitude of specialized agencies, such as the World Bank Group, the World Health Organization, the World Food Programme, UNESCO, and UNICEF. Additionally, non-governmental organizations may be granted consultative status with ECOSOC and other agencies to participate in the UN’s work. The UN’s chief administrative officer is the Secretary-General, currently Portuguese politician and diplomat Antonio Guterres since 1 January 2017. The organization is financed by assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states.

The UN, its officers, and its agencies have won many Nobel Peace Prizes, though other evaluations of its effectiveness have been mixed. Some commentators believe the organization to be an important force for peace and human development, while others have called it ineffective, biased, or corrupt.

Background

In the century prior to the UN’s creation, several international treaty organizations such as the International Committee of the Red Cross was formed to ensure protection and assistance for victims of armed conflict and strife. In 1914, a political assassination in Sarajevo set off a chain of events that led to the outbreak of World War I. As more and more young men were sent down into the trenches, influential voices in the United States and Britain began calling for the establishment of a permanent international body to maintain peace in the postwar world. President Woodrow Wilson became a vocal advocate of this concept, and in 1918 he included a sketch of the international body in his 14-point proposal to end the war. In November 1918, the Central Powers agreed to an armistice to halt the killing in World War I. Two months later, the Allies met with Germany and Austria-Hungary at Versailles to hammer out formal peace terms. President Wilson wanted peace, but the United Kingdom and France disagreed, forcing harsh war reparations on their former enemies. The League of Nations was approved, and in the summer of 1919 Wilson presented the Treaty of Versailles and the Covenant of the League of Nations to the US Senate for ratification. On 10 January 1920, the League of Nations formally comes into being when the Covenant of the League of Nations, ratified by 42 nations in 1919, takes effect. However, at some point the League became ineffective when it failed to act against the Japanese invasion of Manchuria as in February 1933, 40 nations voted for Japan to withdraw from Manchuria but Japan voted against it and walked out of the League instead of withdrawing from Manchuria. It also failed against the Second Italo-Ethiopian War despite trying to talk to Benito Mussolini as he used the time to send an army to Africa, so the League had a plan for Mussolini to just take a part of Ethiopia, but he ignored the League and invaded Ethiopia, the League tried putting sanctions on Italy, but Italy had already conquered Ethiopia and the League had failed. After Italy conquered Ethiopia, Italy and other nations left the league. But all of them realized that it had failed and they began to re-arm as fast as possible. During 1938, Britain and France tried negotiating directly with Hitler but this failed in 1939 when Hitler invaded Czechoslovakia. When war broke out in 1939, the League closed down and its headquarters in Geneva remained empty throughout the war. Although the United States never joined the League, the country did support its economic and social missions through the work of private philanthropies and by sending representatives to committees. India UNSC Permanent Member

How does a country become a Member of the United Nations?

Membership in the Organization, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, “is open to all peace-loving States that accept the obligations contained in the United Nations Charter and, in the judgment of the Organization, are able to carry out these obligations”. States are admitted to membership in the United Nations by decision of the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council (P-5).

How does a new State or Government obtain recognition by the United Nations?

The recognition of a new State or Government is an act that only other States and Governments may grant or withhold. It generally implies readiness to assume diplomatic relations. The United Nations is neither a State nor a Government, and therefore does not possess any authority to recognize either a State or a Government. As an organization of independent States, it may admit a new State to its membership or accept the credentials of the representatives of a new Government.

The procedure is briefly as follows:

The State submits an application to the Secretary-General and a letter formally stating that it accepts the obligations under the Charter.

The Security Council considers the application. Any recommendation for admission must receive the affirmative votes of 9 of the 15 members of the Council, provided that none of its five permanent members — China, France, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America — have voted against the application.

If the Council recommends admission, the recommendation is presented to the General Assembly for consideration. A two-thirds majority vote is necessary in the Assembly for admission of a new State.

Membership becomes effective the date the resolution for admission is adopted.

At each session, the General Assembly considers the credentials of all representatives of Member States participating in that session. During such consideration, which routinely takes place first in the nine-member Credentials Committee but can also arise at other times, the issue can be raised whether a particular representative has been accredited by the Government actually in power. This issue is ultimately decided by a majority vote in the Assembly. It should be noted that the normal change of Governments, as through a democratic election, does not raise any issues concerning the credentials of the representative of the State concerned.

Current Members

The Council is composed of 15 Members:

Five permanent members: China, France, Russian Federation, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and ten non-permanent members elected for two-year terms by the General Assembly (with end of term year):

Belgium (2020)

Dominican Republic (2020)

Estonia (2021)

Germany (2020)

Indonesia (2020)

Niger (2021)

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (2021)

South Africa (2020)

Tunisia (2021)

Viet Nam (2021)

Non-Council Member States;

More than 50 United Nations Member States have never been Members of the Security Council.

A State which is a Member of the United Nations but not of the Security Council may participate, without a vote, in its discussions when the Council considers that country’s interests are affected. Both Members and non-members of the United Nations, if they are parties to a dispute being considered by the Council, may be invited to take part, without a vote, in the Council’s discussions; the Council sets the conditions for participation by a non-member State. India UNSC Permanent Member

Why isn’t India a permanent member of the UN Security Council?

At the time the United Nations was formed, it simply wasn’t an independent nation, nor was it anywhere near powerful or influential enough even if it had been. The point of having permanent membership on the UN Security Council is to give the Security Council some sort of foundation that provided for both the ability to act and the ability to maintain order. While there is no requirement for a permanent member of the Security Council nuclear weapons, there is a requirement, albeit an implicit one, that the permanent members are to a certain extent strong (in a militaristic sense), economically vibrant, and capable of displays international influence. During the 1940’s India would not have met any of these criteria. India UNSC Permanent Member

The UNSC, even with five permanent members, manages to pass resolutions on very few important things. Having a sixth country will only worsen the problem.

Why will the five countries want to share power with the sixth? The privilege is like a dinner table with a cake. One additional member means less space and less cake for all.

The permanent members have a veto power over all the decisions of the UNSC. What does this imply?  This ensures that no big decision is taken which will make a powerful country unhappy. This veto power serves well to the five members as it helps them protect their interests. China uses its veto power and opposes India.

Why should India be on UN Security Council?

The current P5 were among the strongest nations at the time of the creation of the UNSC. Germany and Japan were in shambles, and much of the world was still colonized. It made sense for nations like the US and USSR to become permanent members, as well as their major allies. However, the UN is a global organization, and it needs to have diversity that reflects the globe, in its most powerful body. This isn’t just to appear to be a more diverse body. The more different countries you have, the more perspectives you see brought to the table.

India is a major player on the world stage currently. It’s strategically located, and has warm relations with most of the P5. India could bring perspectives to the table that would differ greatly from those of the Western countries, China and Russia. That is because the issues India faces are different from the issues these nations face, and a fresh perspective would be refreshing to say the least.

India has a GDP of about 2 Trillion dollars and has been on an upward curve as far as the economy goes ever since the early 1990s. It’s also one of the fastest growing major economies of the world, and has even overtaken China in the rate of growth of the economy per year. It’s the 3rd largest economy in the world in terms of Purchasing Power Parity (PPP). There’s also the elephant in the room: the elephant that consists of 1.2 billion people. India could give representation to a vast number of these people. India UNSC Permanent Member

India: Statement by the Mission to the UN

Reform and improvements are an intrinsic part of any organization which has to serve the needs of a changing environment. The United Nations is no exception. India supports a strengthened and revitalized United Nations with its various organs functioning within their mandates in accordance with the UN Charter. India supports an enhanced role for the United Nations in development and development cooperation dialogue. India firmly believes that development should be central to UN’s agenda and be pursued in its own right. It is an indispensable prerequisite to the maintenance of international peace and security.

India has actively participated in all reforms and restructuring exercises that could enhance the capacity of the UN in the fulfillment of its primary tasks. India actively supported the establishment of UNICEF on a permanent basis, the creation of the UN Development Programme, establishment of UNEP and restructuring of the UN in the economic and social fields. It was also represented in the High Level Expert Group established by the UN Secretary-General in the mid-nineties on the financing of the UN. It participated constructively in the discussions on the Agenda for Peace and the Agenda for Development. India was also one of the co-chairs of the Working Group on Strengthening of the United Nations.

India has been supportive of the UN Secretary-General Mr. Kofi Annan’s reform proposals. While some of these have been agreed and implemented, discussions continue on others. An important proposal is the holding of the Millennium Assembly. India believes that the Millennium Assembly must identify concrete goals for the promotion of development cooperation and disarmament and must also provide the United Nations with the required resources to effectively tackle these challenges. India UNSC Permanent Member

India shares the concerns for improving efficiency, avoidance of duplication, and the minimization of waste in the functioning of the entire UN system. While efforts for these objectives need to be intensified, India believes that the Member States should pay their contributions unconditionally, in full and on time, as delays in payments have caused an unprecedented financial crisis in the UN system. Contributions of the Member States should have, as their fundamental underpinning, the capacity to pay principle. Financial reforms hold the key to the future of the world body. Without sufficient resources, the UN’s activities and role would suffer.

The United Nations as a universal forum should have as its guiding principles transparency, non-discrimination, consensus, and equal respect for the dignity of all individuals, societies and nations. Be it world trade, environment and development, resolution of the global debt crisis, or economic assistance for the poorest members of the world community, these values have to be the touchstone of global initiatives and actions.

The composition of the Security Council has remained largely static, while the UN General Assembly membership has expanded considerably. This has undermined the representative character of the Council. An expanded Council, which is more representative, will also enjoy greater political authority and legitimacy. India UNSC Permanent Member

In 1965, the membership of the Security Council was expanded from 11 to 15. There was no change in the number of permanent members. Since then, the size of the Council has remained frozen. Even more dramatic than the increase in the number of Member States of the UN, is the change in composition of the General Assembly. The overwhelming majority of the UN General Assembly members today are developing countries. They are also, most often the objects of the Council’s actions. They must have a role in shaping those decisions which affect them. The present composition of the Security Council, particularly the permanent members’ category, is weighted heavily in favour of industrialized countries. This imbalance must be redressed in an expansion of the Council, by enhancing the representation of developing countries in both permanent and non-permanent members’ categories. India UNSC Permanent Member

Activities of the Security Council have greatly expanded in the past few years. The success of Security Council’s actions depends upon political support of the international community. Any package for restructuring of the Security Council should, therefore, be broad-based. In particular, adequate presence of developing countries is needed in the Security Council. Nations of the world must feel that their stakes in global peace and prosperity are factored into the UN’s decision making.

Any expansion of permanent members’ category must be based on an agreed criteria, rather than be a pre-determined selection. There must be an inclusive approach based on transparent consultations. India supports expansion of both permanent and non-permanent members’ category. The latter is the only avenue for the vast majority of Member States to serve on the Security Council. Reform and expansion must be an integral part of a common package.

PM Modi to inaugurate ‘Gandhi Solar Park’ – India’s gift to the UN Headquarters

At a contribution of about one million dollars, India has gifted solar panels that have been installed on the roof of the UN Headquarters here, one panel each for every 193 UN Member State.

In a first of its kind symbolic effort by India at the UN, Prime Minister Narendra Modi will inaugurate a 50KW ‘Gandhi Solar Park’ next week during his visit to the world organisation, a gesture that highlights India’s willingness to go beyond the talk on climate change.

At a contribution of about one million dollars, India has gifted solar panels that have been installed on the roof of the UN Headquarters here, one panel each for every 193 UN Member State.

PM Modi will remotely inaugurate the solar park at the UN Headquarters and the ‘Gandhi Peace Garden’ during a special commemorative event on September 24, 2019 marking Gandhi’s 150th birth anniversary. On the occasion, a special UN Postage on Gandhi’s 150 years will also be released.

The ‘Gandhi Peace Garden’ is an innovative initiative under which the Consulate General of India in New York, Long Island-based NGO Shanti Fund and the State University of New York – Old Westbury have entered into an agreement to plant 150 trees. India UNSC Permanent Member

India UNSC Permanent Member

What are the chances of India for getting a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council?

What are the chances of India for getting a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council?

Why doesn’t Brazil have a permanent seat in the UN’ Security Council?

Is it true that Nehru rejected a permanent seat offered to India in the UN Security Council by The US, and if so, why did Nehru do so, and if …

United Nations in India

Source

General Awareness/Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

MYUPSC.COM – Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 covered from The Hindu, Indian Express, PIB, Yojana and some useful government resources for UPSC IAS Prelims, Mains and Other State PSC Exams 2020. General Awareness/ Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 is very useful book for both objective and subjective papers. This Current Affairs/General Awareness Yearbook 2020 is Prepared by experts team of MYUPSC.COM is dedicated to preparation of Indian Administrative Services (UPSC) and Rajasthan Administrative Services (RPSC). The site intends to provide free study notes, knowledge or information related to IAS/RAS exams that can help to crack these Examinations. The Study Portal has also published its Ebooks/ PDF on various aspects & dimensions of World, India and Rajasthan. The vision of the Study Portal is to consolidate all the relevant information related to India and Rajasthan, regarding its History, Geography, Polity, Art-Culture, Heritage, Economy, Environment & Biodiversity and Current Affairs etc.

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General Awareness/Current Affairs Year Book 2020

Current Affairs Yearbook – 2020

Current Affairs / General Awareness 2020

Useful For UPSC, PSC & All Other Competitive Exams

“Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world.” – Nelson Mandela

Preface

It gives us immense pleasure in presenting the Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, Useful for UPSC, State PSC and all other competitive exams.

This book deals with the relevant features and topics of Current affairs of India & World in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. Varied subjects covered are Geography, History, Art-Culture & Heritage, Polity & Administration,  Economy, Science & Technology and other trending topic related to current affairs of India & world in detailed for exams point of view. We hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book. I would like to heartfelt thanks to all my team members for their efforts to prepare this book.

Wish you happy reading and best wishes for the examinations.

(Team MYUPSC.COM)

Current Affairs Yearbook 2020

Current Affairs/General Knowledge has become an integral part of a lot of entrance exams being conducted at the graduate and under-graduate levels. It is very important for students to remain updated on the current happenings in their surroundings especially those that are important from the perspective of India. Current Affairs Yearbook 2020, a thoroughly revised, reorganised, updated and ENLARGED edition, presents a comprehensive study of all the sections that are covered under the subject of General Knowledge. The Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on Current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like UPSC and State PSC Civil services Exams across the country. The material has been written in a lucid language and prepared as per the requirements of the various competitive exams.

Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 consists of latest news/ information about India/ World based on The Hindu, Indian Express, PIB, Yojana, People, Events, Ideas and Issues across the Social, Economic & Political climate of the country. General Knowledge covers India/ World Panorama, Geography, History, Polity, Economy, General Science, Technology, Ecology and Environment, Art & Culture, Sports, Healthcare, Communication, News & Media, Education & Career, IT & Computers.

Why should you buy this Book?

Latest and Authentic information must for All Competitive Exams – The Mega Current Affairs Yearbook 2020 provides the latest information & most authentic data reference material on current Affairs and General Knowledge. It has specially been designed to cater to aspirants of various competitive exams like Civil services, UPSC and PSC exams and across the country.

Student-Friendly Presentation – The material has been given in bulleted points wherever necessary to make the content easy to grasp. The book has ample tabular charts, mind Maps, Graphic Illustrations which further makes the learning process flexible and interesting.

Must Have for Multiple Reasons: The Current Affairs Mega Yearbook 2020 is a Must-Have book for all kinds of Objective & Descriptive Tests, Essay Writing and Group Discussions & Personal Interviews; The General Knowledge section provides crisp and to-the-point information in Geography, History, Polity, Economy, General Science, etc. which otherwise could be very exhaustive.

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MYUPSC! Daily Current Affairs 18 December 2019

UPSC Prelims Exam 2020 Test Series

Important Topics for UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam 2020

Study Notes for UPSC Prelims 2020

New definition of kilogram

What is Trakea?

Wi-Fi Calling

ISRO’s PSLV helps increase forex by 90 crores this fiscal

India’s UNMISS wins prestigious medal

India donates solar powered lamps to Palestine

Centre approve changes in MSME interest subvention guidelines

VP asks mining industries not to compromise of worker’s safety

Project Dolphin

Finance ministry assures payment of GST compensation to states

PM assures citizenship act not to affect Indian citizens

What is Strand Hogg?

Daily Current Affairs 08 December 2019

UPSC Prelims Test Series 2020

Important Topics for UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam 2020

VP expresses concern over crimes against women

NGT directs for 100% treatment of sewage entering rivers

Govt. to rework findings of household consumer expenditure

States demand GST compensation from centre

PM meets Mauritian counterpart to expand cooperation

OPEC decides to cut oil production

India to outreach towards arctic region for mineral explorations

Asian Elephant Specialist Group (AsESG)

Odisha’s Kalia to be merged with PM- KISAN

Head on Generation (HOG) technology

Neutrino Project

Adaptation fund

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All PDF which are provided on myupsc.com are for Education purposes only. Please utilize them for building your knowledge and don’t make them Commercial. We request you to respect our Hard Work. Best wishes!!

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Must Read Books For UPSC Prelims

UPSC Civil Services Preliminary Exam 2020 Complete Study Material GS Paper-1

How to Prepare Current Affairs for UPSC Civil Services Examination

Current Events/Affairs has become a very prominent component and its role in Civil services examination. In exams many questions are asked from this section, so prepare thoroughly. Because your efforts will be useful for you in all stages of the competition and make it a part of your daily routine.

 

Current Events

Make an aerial view of Newspaper by making Political Administrative, Socio-Cultural, Economic, Technical, and Geographical News.

Now majority of objective questions are conceptual and asked in the negative terms, e.g., which is/are not true regarding Right to Information Act, 2005? It means you have to know each and every aspect of the law. So, no short cut is sustainable for Prelims examination.

 

Here is the list of those important events or affairs:

  1. Which become the headlines of the newspapers and editorial are written.
  2. Which have a negative/positive effects on the society?
  3. Which remain in topic or discussion in society and people for a long time?
  4. Which find a special attention in reputed newspapers for a long time?
  5. Which have a quality in making exam oriented notes under national/international issues and Bilateral Relation?

 

General Knowledge

In GK section, very few questions are usually asked. Remember “Do not study exhaustively and spending too much time in memorizing unneeded topics or facts”. Keep yourself updated and aware broadly about various fields. At in meantime, explore and focus more on those areas, which have been asked in the previous exams from online & offline resources like exam preparation articles, books, newspapers etc.

  • Good News Paper (preferably The Hindu/Indian Express)
  • Books and Authors
  • Sports/Games & Awards
  • Important Days and Years
  • Awards and Honours
  • Popular and Great Personalities in News
  • Indian Defence and Space Programmes in News
  • Technology and Computers

 

India Year Book

This book is an essential tool for aspirants as well as important for the CSAT and in two marks questions part of the Mains exam. Reading this book needs logical and concentrated approach on the basic notes, which can be usually asked in competition? One should prepare own notes in regard with various terms/topics explained in the book. Remember there are loads of unnecessary facts given in the book. Do not spend much time on them. You can buy this book online. Click Here to Order This Book.

 

Current affairs sources for UPSC Civil services examination: The Hindu, Indian express, PIB, PRS, Yojana, Kurukshetra, RSTV, Magazine.

 

Explained in detail: Watch our video         

Current Events/Affairs has become a very prominent component and its role in Civil services examination. In exams many questions are asked from this section, so prepare thoroughly. Because your efforts will be useful for you in all stages of the competition and make it a part of your daily routine.

Current affairs weekly 5-12 September- 2019

UPSC CSE and PSC Exams Study Notes- Current Affairs

Current Affairs – Weekly (5-12 September, 2019)

UPSC IAS Prelims – 2020

Civil Services Preliminary Exam- 2020

Join – IAS Prelims-2020 Test Series

As per the official UPSC Exam Calendar, Civil Services Preliminary Exam 2020 (objective) will be conducted on May 31, 2020 (Sunday). The Main Exam (written) 2020 will start from September 18, 2020.

current-affairs-indian-polity

UPSC Examination Calendar 2020 – Important Dates

Date of Notification for Civil Service Prelims and Indian Forest Service Prelims: February 12, 2020

Last date to apply for Civil Service Prelims and Indian Forest Service Prelims: March 03, 2020

Date of UPSC CSE Prelims 2020 and IFS Prelims 2018: May 31, 2020

Date of UPSC CSE Mains 2020: September 18, 2020

Date of UPSC IFS Mains 2020: November 22, 2020 (Only for Indian Forest Service Aspirants)

Current Affairs Study Notes with MCQ July-Sept 2019

Current Affair Notes/PDF/MCQ/2019

Current Affairs Study Notes with MCQ

July – August – September 2019

Useful for All Competitive Exams: 2019-20

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Demo MCQ:

For Complete Study Notes + Solved MCQ

Buy This Book

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Part -I

Q1. Consider the following statements regarding occurrence of forest fires:

1) Human activities near or within forested areas are the number one cause of forest fires.

2) Lightning is the biggest natural cause of forest fires.

3) Sometime volcanic activities such as eruptions and lava flow can cause forest fires.

4) Human-caused fires constitute the greater percentage of forest fires in our forests, but natural fires constitute the great majority of the total area burned.

Which of the above statements are true?

a) 1 & 2 only

b) 2 & 3 only

c) 1 & 3 only

d) all of the above

Q2. Consider the following hill stations of India with their location states :

1) Panchgani : Madhya Pradesh

2) Chail : Himachal pradesh

3) Horsley hills : Maharashtra

4) Patnitop : Jammu & Kashmir

5) Almora :Uttarakhand

Which of the above pairs are incorrectlymatched ?

a) 1,2& 3 only

b) 3 & 5 only

c) 1 & 3 only

d) 2 & 4 only

Q3. Recently beaches in Chennai witnessed a blue shimmer on the waves. The visitors spotted a magical blue glow on the beach. Which of the following statements regarding the same stands true ?

1) According to marine experts, the blue glow is known as Bioluminescence. The phenomenon is caused by Noctilucascintillans, a type of phytoplankton that converts their chemical energy into light energy when washed ashore.

2) Similar to the sight of fireflies, bioluminescence is found in many marine organisms such as bacteria, algae, jellyfish, worms, crustaceans, sea stars, fish and sharks.

3) The occurrence of these phytoplanktons is highly beneficial to the ecosystem in the long run as they provide food for the fishes.

a) 1 & 2 only

b) 2 & 3 only

c) 1 & 3 only

d) all of the above

Q4. Consider the following statements :

1) The RBI earns money in a variety of ways like the Open market operations, wherein a central bank purchases or sells bonds in the open market in order to regulate money supply in the economy, are a major source of income for the RBI.

2) Dealings in the foreign exchange market that the RBI engages in may also contribute to the bank’s profits.

3) However, that unlike commercial banks, the primary mandate of the RBI is not to earn profits but to preserve the value of the rupee. Profit and loss are thus merely a side effect of its regular operations to shape monetary policy.

Which of the above statements stands true ?

a) 1 & 2 only

b) 2 & 3 only

c) 1 & 3 only

d) all of the above

Q5. Which of the following cities have been ranked number one in the safe city index (SCI-2019) by the economic intelligence unit ?

a) London

b) Tokyo

c) Beijing

d) Ottawa

Q6. The Centre has asked all milk cooperatives and private dairies to halve plastic usage by October 2, which of the following statements regarding the same stands true?

1) The milk industry is one of the largest users of single use plastics, with the growing use of disposable pouches replacing milk vendors and vending machines in many areas.

2) Under the Extended Producer Responsibility component of the Plastic Waste Management (PWM) Rules, revised in 2018, industries are already required to recover and recycle part of the plastic packaging they generate.

3) In case of plastic wastage in milk industry, only the packets collected by rag pickers get recycled while the rest of them end up clogging drains, rivers, lakes, creating sewage and toxic foam.

a) 1 & 2 only

b) 2 & 3 only

c) 1 & 3 only

d) all of the above

Q7. The Earth’s surface- geologically called the Lithosphere- is made up of large plates, in constant motion, travelling a few centimeters every year. The hot magma or molten rock inside the core of the earth causes convection currents which move the plates in different directions. Which of the following plates are connected with the Indian plates?

1) Nazca plate

2) Indo-Australian plate

3) Cocos plate

4) Eurasian plate

5) Arabian plate

a) 1,2 & 3 only

b) 2,4 & 5 only

c) 3,4 & 5 only

d) all of the above

Q8. Which of the following statements regarding the LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory) project consortium stands true?

1) The LIGO-India project is an international collaboration between the LIGO Laboratory and three lead institutions in the LIGO-India consortium which can detect even the faintest ripples from cosmic explosions millions of light years away.

2) The project operates three gravitational-wave (GW) detectors. Two are at Hanford in the State of Washington, north-western USA, and one is at Livingston in Louisiana, south-eastern USA.

3) The project, piloted by ISRO and Department of Science and Technology (DST), reportedly costs ₹1,200 crore and is expected to be ready by 2030.

a) 1 & 2 only

b) 2 & 3 only

c) 1 & 3 only

d) all of the above

Q9. Consider the following statements regarding National Cooperative Consumers’ Federation of India (NCCF):

1) NCCF was established on 16thOctober, 1965 to function as the apex body of consumer cooperatives in the country.

2) The main objectives of the NCCF are to provide supply support to the consumer cooperatives and other distributing agencies for distribution of consumer goods at reasonable and affordable rates besides rendering technical guidance and assistance to the consumer cooperatives.

3) It is registered under the society registration at 1860.

Which of the above statements are true ?

a) 1 & 2 only

b) 2 & 3 only

c) 1 & 3 only

d) all of the above

Q10. The “Dindigul lock” and “Kandangisaree” which recently got Geographical Indication(GI) tag belongs to which of the following southern states of India ?

a) Kerala

b) Tamilnadu

c) Andhra Pradesh

d) Karnataka

Answer:

1. (d) 2. (c) 3. (a) 4. (d) 5.(b) 6. (d) 7. (b) 8. (a) 9. (a) 10.(b)

Part – II

1. Amazon rainforest spans over 9 countries. In August 2019, in which country deadly fire broke out in the amazon forest?

(A) Venezuela

(B) Brazil

(C) Colombia

(D) Argentina

2. About how much amazon rainforest contained within Brazil?

(A) 40%

(B) 50%

(C) 60%

(D) 70%

3. In Russian Presidential elections 2018, Vladimir Putin elected as president for the

(A) second time

(B) third time

(C) fourth time

(D) fifth time

4. In Rio Olympics 2016 the women’s football gold was won by

(A) Brazil

(B) Germany

(C) France

(D) Italy

5. The Nobel Prize 2018 in Physiology or Medicine was won by

(A) Yoshinori Ohsumi

(B) Kazuo Ishiguro

(C) James P. Allison and Tasuku Honjo

(D) William D. Nordhaus and Paul M. Romer

6. James P. Allison and Tasuku Honjo won the Nobel Prize-2018 in the field of Physiology or Medicine for their discovery of

(A) molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm

(B) cancer therapy by inhibition of negative immune regulation

(C) mechanisms for autophagy

(D) novel therapy against malaria

7. The Paris agreement of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is to limit global warming well below

(A) 1.0 °C

(B) 1.5 °C

(C) 2.0 °C

(D) 2.5 °C

8. Recep Tayyip Erdogan was elected as president of Turkey in the presidential elections 2018 for the

(A) second time

(B) third time

(C) fourth time

(D) fifth time

9. Who is current secretary general of the United Nations?

(A) Javier Perez de Cuellar

(B) Kofi Annan

(C) Ban-Ki-Moon

(D) Antonio Guterres

10. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change deals with

(A) reduction in fossil fuel usage

(B) CO2 emissions mitigation

(C) reduction in Uranium production

(D) greenhouse gases emissions mitigation

11. Antonio Guterres became secretary general of the United Nations on

(A) 1 January 2017

(B) 3 January 2017

(C) 5 January 2017

(D) 7 January 2017

12. Secretary general United Nations Antonio Guterres belongs to

(A) United States

(B) Portugal

(C) Czech Republic

(D) Germany

13. The Paris Agreement entered into force on

(A) October 25, 2016

(B) October 28, 2016

(C) November 1, 2016

(D) November 4, 2016

14. The United States presidential elections were held on

(A) November 5, 2016

(B) November 6, 2016

(C) November 7, 2016

(D) November 8, 2016

15. Barack Obama, who completed his tenure as the president of the United States belongs to

(A) Democratic Party

(B) Republican Party

(C) Libertarian Party

(D) Green Party

16. President Donald Trump was the presidential nominee of the

(A) Democratic Party

(B) Republican Party

(C) Libertarian Party

(D) Green Party

17. President Donald Trump took office of the presidency on

(A) 18 January 2017

(B) 20 January 2017

(C) 22 January 2017

(D) 24 January 2017

18. Hillary Clinton has also served as US __________ from 2009 to 2013.

(A) Vice President

(B) Foreign Minister

(C) Secretary of States

(D) Interior Minister

19. The largest museum in the world is

(A) Vatican Museums

(B) State Hermitage Museum

(C) Louvre Museum

(D) National Museum of China

20. The Louvre Museum is located in

(A) France

(B) Italy

(C) United States

(D) United Kingdom

ANSWERS:

1. B

2. C

3. C

4. B

5. C

6. B

7. C

8. A

9. D

10. D

11. A

12. B

13. D

14. D

15. A

16. B

17. B

18. C

19. C

20. A

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GS Score PIB Compilation – 1st August to 15th August 2019 for UPSC Civil Services Exam

UPSC IAS Civil Services and State Public Services Commission Examination 2019-20. PIB magazine is must read magazine for all the aspirants preparing for competitive examinations. GS Score compile it and everyone who is preparing for UPSC known very well about GS Score Study Centre, which is one of the best institute. GS Score PIB

The Press Information Bureau (PIB) is a nodal agency of the Government of India. PIB disseminates information to the print, electronic and new media on government plans, policies, programme initiatives and achievements.

Is PIB important for UPSC exam?

The articles published by the Press Information Bureau or PIB have authentic information relating to the government policies, plans, achievements etc. A serious UPSC aspirant should read PIB selectively to gather relevant information to enrich his/her content both for prelims and mains.  Benefits of taking information from PIB fortnightly updates:

  • Authentic information directly from the government
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  • All schemes of the government
  • Our compilations will help you to segregate the topics according to General Studies Papers

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Important/Useful Press Information Bureau (PIB) Compilation for All Competitive Examinations 2019-20

Important Topics of Magazine

  • Environment -Army Launches E Car to Combat Pollution
  • Economy -Kabil set up to Ensure Supply of Critical Minerals
  • Education -20 Institution Recommended for Status of ‘Institutions of Eminence
  • Security -DRDO Successfully Flight-Tests State-of the-Art Quick Reaction Surface-to-Air
  • Missiles against Live Aerial Targets from Itr, Chandipur
  • Polity -Landmark Consumer Protection Bill, 2019 Gets Parliamentary Approval
  • Energy -Unido and National Institute of Solar Energy to Partner for Skill Development Program
  • Economy -E-Rozgar Samachar Launched to Spread Awareness about Job Opportunities
  • Social Issues -Niti Aayog to Launch the Fourth Edition of Women Transforming India Awards
  • Defence -INS Tarkash at Bergen, Norway
  • Governance -RPF Launches “Operation Number Plate” Across Indian Railways- a Drive against Unattended/Unclaimed Vehicles in all Railway Premises
  • Social Issues- India’s Largest Rural Sanitation Survey Launched
PIB-Compilation-General-Studies-Civil-services-state-psc-exams

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GS Score PIB Compilation – 16th July to 31st July for UPSC Prelims & Mains

The Press Information Bureau (PIB) is a nodal agency of the Government of India. PIB disseminates information to the print, electronic and new media on government plans, policies, programme initiatives and achievements.

Is PIB important for UPSC exam?

The articles published by the Press Information Bureau or PIB have authentic information relating to the government policies, plans, achievements etc. A serious UPSC aspirant should read PIB selectively to gather relevant information to enrich his/her content both for prelims and mains.  Benefits of taking information from PIB fortnightly updates:

  • Authentic information directly from the government
  • Relevant for current affairs section of the UPSC civil services
  • All schemes of the government
  • Our compilations will help you to segregate the topics according to General Studies Papers

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BOGIBEEL RAIL-ROAD BRIDGE

Context

PM Modi inaugurated the 4.94-km-long Bogibeel Bridge in Assam, India’s longest rail-cum-road bridge, on Bramhaputra River.

About

  • The bridge is Asia’s second longest rail-cum-road bridge.
  • It is constructed at an estimated cost of Rs 5,900 crore.
  • It has a ‘serviceable period of around 120 years.’
  • The bridge will reduce travel time from Assam to Arunachal Pradesh to four hours. It will also reduce the Delhi to Dibrugarh train-travel time by about three hours to 34 hours as against 37 hours presently.
  • It is the fourth rail-road bridge being built on the Brahmaputra; others are Pandu Saraighat, Kolia Bjumuraguri and Narayan Setu.
  • It is the fourth largest bridge in the country and also the largest structure built on the river Brahmaputra.
  • The bridge is among the infrastructure projects planned by India to improve logistics along the border in Arunachal Pradesh.
  • The bridge will boost economic activity as well as tourism in the region.
  • This is very strategic from the defence point of view, and the Army has been demanding it for years. The bridge classification is on the higher side for movement of heavy military equipment. It will drastically cut time for induction of troops and logistics during a war-like situation.
  • On downside, the Inland Water Transport (IWT) Department of Assam fears that the Bogibeel Bridge will impact ferry services to a large extent.

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G7 SUMMIT 2019

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Introduction/Context

External Affairs Ministry had announced that Prime Minister of India will attend the outreach session of the G7 meet at Biarritz, France, where India is a special invitee.

The G7 is a collective of seven of the world’s most industrialized and developed economies. Their political leaders come together annually to discuss important global economic, political, social and security issues. Together, the G7 countries represent 40% of global GDP and 10% of the world’s population.

Function of G7

1. The G7 was formed initially to discuss economic and political concerns prompted by the 1973 oil crisis – when members of OPEC, the Organization of Petroleum Export Countries, increased the price of oil and cut global supplies to countries seen as having backed Israel in the Yom Kippur War.

2. Since then, the group has expanded its brief to cover a large number of international issues, including energy security, trade, climate change, global health issues, gender equality, poverty – and any other topic the country holding the G7 presidency chooses to put on the agenda.

3. Today, the G7 are reckoned as the seven wealthiest and most advanced nations in the world because China, which holds the second largest net worth in the world, nonetheless has a low net worth per individual and an economy that has not yet fully modernized.

Members of G7

The seven members of the group are the following:

1.         France

2.         Italy

3.         Japan

4.         Germany

5.         Canada

6.         United States

7.         United Kingdom

The European Union is also represented at the G7 summit.

Background

• Its first summit was held at Rambouillet, France, in 1975

• This year, the 45th G7 summit will be held on August 24-26, 2019, in Biarritz, France. It will focus on fighting income and gender inequality and protecting biodiversity.

• The 2019 G7 Summit, presided over by France, will focus on fighting inequality.

Following are the five objectives for the 2019 Summit:

1. Fighting inequality of opportunity, promoting in particular gender equality, access to education and high quality health services;

2. Reducing environmental inequality by protecting our planet through climate finance and a fair ecological transition, preserving biodiversity and the oceans;

3. Strengthening the social dimension of globalization through more fair and equitable trade, tax and development policies;

4. Taking action for peace against security threats and terrorism which weaken the foundations of our societies; and

5. Tapping into the opportunities created by digital technology and artificial intelligence (AI).

NITI Aayog releases Report on the Composite Water Management Index 2.0

To supplement the efforts of Jal Shakti Ministry, NITI Aayog has prepared the second Round of Composite Water Management Index (CWMI 2.0).The Report was launched today by Shri Gajendra Singh Shekhawat, Minister of Jal Shakti, and Dr. Rajiv Kumar, Vice Chairman, NITI Aayog. 

Shri Ramesh Chand, Member, NITI Aayog, Shri Amitabh Kant, CEO, NITI Aayog, Shri Parameswaran Iyer, Secretary, Jal Shakti Ministry; Shri U.P. Singh, Secretary, Jal Shakti Ministry; Dr. Amarjeet Sinha, Secretary Ministry of Rural Development; Shri Yaduvendra Mathur, Special Secretary, NITI Aayog, Shri Avinash Mishra, Adviser, Water and Land Resources, NITI Aayog and senior officials of Ministry Jal Shakti, Rural Development and NITI Aayog were also present at the launch event.

Scientific management of water is increasingly recognized as being vital to India’s growth and ecosystem sustainability. Government is being proactive about water management and has created the Ministry of Jal Shakti to consolidate interrelated functions pertaining to water management. The newly formed Jal Shakti Ministry under the guidance of Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi has strived to over bridge the water challenges by launching the Jal Shakti Abhiyan – a campaign for water conservation and water security.

NITI Aayog first launched and conceptualized the Composite Water Management Index in 2018 as a tool to instill the sense ofcooperative and competitive federalism among the states. This was a first ever attempt at creating a pan-India set of metrics that measured different dimensions of water management and use across the lifecycle of water. The report was widely acknowledged and provided actionable guidance to States on where they were doing well absolutely and relatively and what they needed to focus on to secure their water future.

The CWMI is an important tool to assess and improve the performance of States/ Union Territories in efficient management of water resources.  This has been done through a first of its kind water data collection exercise in partnership with Ministry of Jal Shakti, Ministry of Rural Development andall the States/ Union Territories.The index would provide useful information for the States and also for the concerned Central Ministries/Departments enabling them to formulate and implement suitable strategies for better management of water resources. 

CWMI 2.0 ranks various states for the reference year 2017-18 as against the base year 2016-17.In the report released today, Gujarat hold on to its rank one in the reference year (2017-18), followed byAndhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Goa, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.  In North Eastern and Himalayan States, Himachal Pradesh has been adjudged number 1 in 2017-18 followed by Uttarakhand, Tripura and Assam. The Union Territories have first time submitted their data and Puducherry has been declared as the top ranker. In terms of incremental change in index (over 2016-17 level), Haryana holds number one position in general States and Uttarakhand ranks at first position amongst North Eastern and Himalayan States.On an average, 80% of the states assessed on the Index over the last three years have improved their water management scores, with an average improvement of +5.2 points.

The overall ranking for reference year 2017-18and change in the rankings from the base year 2016-17 of different States in the Report is given in Charts-1 and Chart 2.

Chart-1: Ranking of Different States  in CWMI 2.0 2019

Chart-2: Incremental Ranking of Different States  in CWMI 2.0

Source

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WORLD BIOFUEL DAY

In a bid to encourage the biofuel sector, Petroleum and Natural Gas Minister announced that the state ­run oil marketing companies would procure the entire supply of biodiesel produced from used cooking oil for a three­ year period.

  • Recently, Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) directed that Food Business Operators (FBOs), whose consumption of edible oils for frying is more than 50 litres per day, shall stop reusing the oil more than three times.
  • Rather this used cooking oil should be used by the Oil Manufacturing Companies (OMCs) to produce Biodiesel.
  • As per the order, the state­ run oil marketing companies would procure the entire supply of biodiesel produced from used cooking oil for a three­ year period.
  • The scheme is applicable in 100 cities across the country.

World Biofuel Day

  • World Biofuel Day is observed every year on 10th August to create awareness about the importance of non-fossil fuels as an alternative to conventional fossil fuels and highlight the various efforts made by Government in the biofuel sector.
  • This year the theme of the World Biofuel Day is “Production of Biodiesel from Used Cooking Oil (UCO)”.
  • The National Policy on Biofuels – 2018 envisages a target of 5% blending of Biodiesel in High Speed Diesel (HSD) by 2030.

RUCO

  • During frying, several properties of oil are altered, Total Polar Compounds(TPC) are formed on repeated frying.
  • The toxicity of these compounds is associated with several diseases such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, liver diseases.
  • In order to safeguard consumer health, FSSAI has fixed a limit for Total Polar Compounds at 25 percent beyond which the vegetable oil shall not be used.
  • Repurpose Used Cooking Oil (RUCO) is an ecosystem that will enable the collection and conversion of UCO to biodiesel.
  • Under this initiative, 64 companies at 101 locations have been identified to enable collection of used cooking oil. For instance: McDonald’s has already started converting used cooking oil to biodiesel from 100 outlets in Mumbai and Pune.

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The Strait of Magellan

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The Strait of Magellan is located near southern Chile along the southern edges of the South American continent and links the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.

It is named after the Portuguese adventurer, Ferdinand Magellan, the first explorer to circumnavigate the globe.

Sheltered by mainland South America and the islands of Tierra Del Fuego archipelago, this route was considered much safer than the Drake Passage, a more violent stretch of chaotic water between Antarctica and South America.

Located on the Strait of Magellan, Chile’s port city, Punta Arenas was once one of the most important supply stops for mariners, until the Panama Canal opened in 1914.

Ferdinand Magellan

He set off from Spain 500 years ago on an audacious voyage to sail all the way around the globe for the first time, a landmark in the history of exploration.

While crossing the strait, the explorer and his crew observed two galaxies visible to the naked eye from the southern hemisphere, now known as the Magellanic Clouds.

The voyage also contributed to Europeans’ knowledge of the universe.

Magellanic Clouds

  1. They are comprised of two irregular galaxies, the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), which orbit the Milky Way once every 1,500 million years and each other once every 900 million years.
  2. Lying only about 200,000 light years away, they were the closest known galaxies to the Milky Way until recently, when the Sagittarius and Canis Major dwarf galaxies were discovered and found to be even closer.
  3. Although very close to us, the Magellanic Clouds have played a significant role in our understanding of the distant Universe.

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Jammu & Kashmir and 15th Finance Commission

UPSC IAS Preliminary Examination Test Series 2020 (Weekly)

UPSC IAS Prelims Exam – 2020

UPSC IAS Mains Exam – 2019

RPSC RAS Prelims Exam

RPSC RAS Mains Exam

General Knowledge

Current Affairs

With the change in status of Jammu & Kashmir’s statehood, the Fifteenth Finance Commission will have to rework its calculations for inter se distribution of central resources among different states.

  1. The state of J&K is proposed to be organized into two Union Territories – Jammu & Kashmir (with Legislative Assembly) and Ladakh (without Legislative Assembly).
  2. Instead of 29 states, the Finance Commission (FC) would have to decide devolution for 28 states now.
  3. Funds for Union territories (including Delhi, Puducherry, etc) are decided by the Central government in the Union Budget and voted by the Parliament.
  4. Jammu and Kashmir was one of the few states that were accorded a special category status (SCS) by the Central government.
  5. Almost 30% of the total central assistance was earmarked for these states. Further, they used to get favourable treatment in terms of the grant versus loan mix compared with other states.
  6. Following the constitution of the NITI Aayog and the recommendations of the 14th Finance Commission (FFC), central plan assistance to SCS States has been subsumed in an increased devolution of the divisible pool to all States from 32% to 42%.
  7. Of the states’ share, the 14th FC recommended that Jammu and Kashmir should receive 1.854% from 2015-16 till 2019-20. This is higher than 1.551 % that the state received during the previous five years.

Finance Commission

The Finance Commission is a constitutional body that determines the method and formula for distributing the tax proceeds between the Centre and states, and among the states as per the constitutional arrangement and present requirements.

Under Article 280 of the Constitution, the President of India is required to constitute a Finance Commission at an interval of five years or earlier.

The 15th Finance Commission was constituted by the President of India in November 2017, under the chairmanship of NK Singh. This Commission is expected to submit its report by November end 2019. Its recommendations will cover a period of five years from April 2020 to March 2025.

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Current Affairs Practice Question Bank Free PDF-2

UPSC IAS Preliminary Examination Test Series 2020 (Weekly)

In the last 5-6 years, the weightage and hence, the importance of current affairs in the UPSC CSE and State Public Services Exams has increased substantially. That Current Affairs is important in all the three stages of the examination speaks volumes of the key role it plays in helping an aspirant to get selected and also be a better individual. The enhanced importance to current affairs has further strengthened the dynamicity and unpredictability of the questions in the examination which has led to a fear in the minds of all kinds of aspirants- be it fresheres or repeaters. The undefined nature and unlimited scope of the current affairs related happenings/events poses a dilemma to the aspirants as to what to read? From where to read? How to read? And this leads to many aspirants getting depressed and not able to do full justice to their preparation.

We are providing here the Current Affairs Practice Question Bank for UPSC / State PSC Prelims Exams 2019-20 covered from The Hindu, Yojna, PIB, Indian Express and other Government sources.

1. Consider the following statements about Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) or e-cigarettes:

1. ENDS is a non-carcinogenic alternative for smoking.

2. E-cigarette use adversely affects the cardiovascular system, impairs respiratory immune cell function and airways in a way similar to cigarette smoking.

Select the correct answer using the given below code:

(a) 1 only                      (b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2          (d) neither 1 nor 2

2. Consider the following statements about Jal Shakti Ministry:

1. Ministries of Water Resources and Drinking Water and Sanitation have been merged

2. Jal Shakti Ministry will encompass issues ranging from international and inter-State water disputes, the Namami Gange project etc.

Select the correct code:

(a) 1 only                  (b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2      (d) neither 1 nor 2

3. Consider the following statements about Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi (PM- KISAN):

1. It extends the ₹6000 per annum income support scheme to all land-owning farm families.

2. Cash transfer scheme under PM-KISAN can be substituted for subsidies and other institutional support systems.

Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct?

(a) 1 only                     (b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2          (d) neither 1 nor 2

4. Consider the following statements about project called REPLAN (Reducing Plastic in Nature):

1. Under this project the waste plastic from nature is collected, de-structured and de- gradated and then mixed with paper pulp in a ratio of 80 is to 20.

2. It‘s an initiative of Ministry of Environment, forests and climate change.

Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct?

(a) 1 only                     (b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2          (d) neither 1 nor 2

5. Consider the following statements about Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC)

1. It is a statutory body.

2. It is an apex organisation under the Ministry of Rural development.

Which of the above-mentioned statements are correct?

(a) 1 only                      (b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2          (d) neither 1 nor 2

6. Which of the following best describe the term “Bajada”?

(a) A large mass of subsurface intrusive igneous rock that has its origins from mantle magma.

(b) Zone in the Earth’s mantle that exhibits plastic properties

(c) A roughly circular depression in the ground caused by volcanic activity

(d) A Consecutive series of alluvial fans

7. Which of the following country has coastline with both Caspian Sea and Black Sea?

(a) Turkey

(b) Russia

(c) Iran

(d) Georgia

8. Democracy Index report is released by which of the following organization

(a) World Intellectual property organization

(b) The Economist Intelligence Unit

(c) UNESCO

(d) World Economic Forum

9. Which of the following is related to “Windhoek declaration”?

(a) Human Rights

(b) Freedom of Press

(c) Status of women in society

(d) None of these

10. Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct regarding earth quakes waves?

1. Propagation of S waves tells us about internal structure of core.

2. Primary (P) waves do not travel through liquid medium.

3. Primary waves (P-waves) are faster than S- waves.

(a) 1 and 3 only

(b) 3 only

(c) 2 and 3 only

(d) 1Only

Total Number of Questions-69 (July-2019)

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ISRO Launched CHANDRAYAAN-2: Complete Notes for Exams

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Congratulations to India-Proud to be an Indian

Chandrayaan-2 is India’s second lunar exploration mission after Chandrayaan-1. Developed by the Indian Space Research Organisation, the mission has launched from Sriharikota Space Center on 22 July 2019 to the Moon by a Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III.

One of India’s most ambitious space-based mission, Chandrayaan-2, took flight today. The brainchild of Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), the mission will attempt to explore the south polar region of the Moon. It is a region hitherto unexplored by any country.

Delayed yet undeterred

The lunar mission, which was originally planned for July 15, 2019, was delayed when a ‘technical snag’ was discovered just before the final countdown. Chandrayaan-2 will reach its orbit with the help of GSLV MK-III, which is capable of carrying 4-tonne class of satellites to the Geosynchronous Transfer

The technology being used

The payload will include terrain mapping cameras to prepare a 3-D map of the intended area; while a collimated large array soft x-ray spectrometer will map the majority of major rock-forming elements. An orbiter high resolution camera will capture high-resolution images of the landing site and an imaging infrared spectrometer will identify minerals along with signatures of hydroxyl (OH) and water (H2O) molecules in Polar Regions.

While there, we will also explore discoveries made by Chandrayaan-1, such as the presence of water molecules on the Moon and new rock types with unique chemical composition. Through this mission, we aim to expand India’s footprint in space, surpass international aspirations and inspire a future generation of scientists, engineers and explorers”, ISRO said in a statement.

Made in India

India’s Central Tool Room and Training Centre (CTTC) has manufactured 22 types of valves for fuel injection and other parts for the cryogenic engine of the GSLV Mark III rocket. This Bhubaneswar-based institution had started manufacturing the parts for this particular lunar mission in March 2017.

What is Chandrayaan 2?

Chandrayaan is an amalgamation of Chandra – Moon and Yana – vehicle. Chandrayaan-1 was India’s first unmanned mission which was launched in October 2008. Chandrayaan 2 is the second unmanned mission and will launch after almost a decade since the first mission. The ambitions with the second Moon mission are understandably greater.

What are the objectives of Chandrayaan 2?

Chandrayaan 2 is expected to make a soft landing on the unmapped surface of the Moon on the South Pole. This will be the first time any mission touched down so far from the equator, according to a report in Science. One of the primary objectives is to demonstrate the ability to soft-land on the lunar surface.

Among the scientific objectives, there are experiments that will be conducted to study the lunar topography, mineralogy, elemental abundance, the lunar exosphere and signs for hydroxyl – a molecule involving hydrogen and oxygen which has, among other things, significance when it comes to the search for extraterrestrial life – and water ice on the lunar surface.

What do you mean by a soft-landing?

A soft landing is actually a technical term to indicate a landing technique that prevents any kind of damage to sensitive instruments onboard. Hard landings are those where damage to the craft or instruments occurs, when an aircraft crash lands, for example. With the onboard central-mounted propulsion system, the lander will make a vertical descent to the predetermined landing site near the South Polar Region of the moon.

What is the duration of Chandrayaan 2?

The scientific experiments will be conducted on the lunar surface for 14 Earth days (1 lunar day) by the Lander and Rover. The Orbiter will be operational for a year.

Why go to the Moon when we have already been there with Chandrayaan-1?

Well, why not? Chandrayaan 2 mission has different objectives which were not part of Chandrayaan-1, so it makes the mission quite relevant. According to ISRO, in addition to being only the fourth nation (after the US, Russia and China) to be attempting a soft landing on the lunar surface, Chandrayaan 2 will achieve lots of firsts.

  • Chandrayaan 2 will be the first space mission to conduct a soft landing on the Moon’s south polar region
  • Chandrayaan 2 will be the first Indian expedition to attempt a soft landing on the lunar surface with home-grown technology
  • Chandrayaan 2 will be the first Indian mission to explore the lunar terrain with home-grown technology

The Moon also happens to be a sort of preparation for demonstrating technologies that can be used for further deep space missions. To quote from the ISRO website, “The Moon provides us with the best linkage to Earth’s early history and an undisturbed record of the nascent Solar System environment. While a few mature models do exist, the Moon’s origin still needs further explanations. Extensive mapping of the lunar surface will aid us in studying variations in its composition — an essential piece of information in tracing the Moon’s origin and evolution. Evidence of water molecules — discovered by Chandrayaan 1 — and the extent of its distribution on the lunar surface and sub-surface also require further studies.”

So it’s clear that a lot still needs to be discovered on the Moon.

How much will Chandrayaan 2 cost?

The total cost of building and testing the Chandrayaan-2 orbiter, lander and rover is Rs 603 crores, according to ISRO chief Dr Sivan. This does not include the cost of building the GSLV-Mk-III rocket. According to Sivan, the mission will be supported by over 500 academic institutions and 120 industries who have contributed around 60 percent of the Rs 603 crore budget and 80 percent of the Rs 375 crore cost of the GSLV Mk-III. That pegs the total cost of the Chandrayaan 2 mission at around Rs 978 crore or around $140 mn.

In terms of cost, how does Chandrayaan 2 compare with other Moon missions?

ISRO is renowned for completing space missions at affordable costs. Mangalyaan, India’s mission to Mars, cost less than the amount it took Hollywood to make the movie The Martian. Putting things into perspective, it cost more money for Hollywood to make a movie about sending someone to Mars, than ISRO took for an actual space mission that reached the Red Planet. So here’s a table comparing Moon missions.

Mission Name Country Year Cost (in USD)
Chandrayaan 2 India  July  2019 140 mn
Beresheet Israel  February 2019 100 mn
Chang’e 4 China  December 2018 180 mn
TESS USA  April 2018 287 mn
LADEE USA  September 2013 280 mn

What is so significant about the South Pole of the Moon?

It’s not explored much. A large section of the lunar South Pole stays under the shadow of the North Pole. There is speculation of water being present there in the permanently shadowed areas around it. Moreover, the South Pole is also said to have cold traps which can contain fossilized information of the early Solar System.

What comprises Chandrayaan 2?

Chandrayaan 2 comprises three modules: The Orbiter, Vikram Lander and Pragyan Rover. According to ISRO, the Orbiter and Lander modules will be having a mechanical interface and will be stacked together as an integrated module inside the GSLV MK-III launch vehicle. 

“The Rover is housed inside the Lander. After launching into Earth-bound orbit by GSLV MK-III, the integrated module will reach Moon orbit using the Orbiter propulsion module. Subsequently, Lander will separate from the Orbiter and soft land at a predetermined site close to the lunar South Pole. Further, the Rover will roll out for carrying out scientific experiments on the lunar surface. Instruments are also mounted on the Lander and Orbiter for carrying out scientific experiments,” according to ISRO. 

Chandrayaan 2 will be carrying 14 payloads: 8 on the Orbiter, 3 on Lander and 2 on Rover. 

Chandrayaan Orbiter: Highlights

Chandrayaan-2 orbiter Image: ISRO

  • Weight: 2,379 kg
  • Power generation: Solar arrays capable of generating 1,000 W.
  • Communication: It will communicate with the Indian Deep Space Network and the Lander.
  • Payload: 8 instruments
  • Scientific experiments expected: The Imaging Infra-Red Spectrometer (IIRS) will try to identify minerals and indicators of hydroxyl and water molecules. Other payloads include a visible terrain mapping camera, a neutral mass spectrometer, a synthetic aperture radar, a radio occultation experiment, solar X-Ray monitor and a soft X-Ray spectrometer.

Vikram Lander: Highlights

Vikram Lander. Image: ISRO

  • Weight: 1,471 kg
  • Power generation: Solar arrays can generate 650 W. 
  • Period of operation: 14 days or 1 Lunar Day. 
  • Communications: It can communicate directly with the Indian Deep Space Network as well as the Orbiter and the Rover. 
  • Payloads: 3 
  • Scientific experiments expected: The first payload is a Langmuir probe, an instrument that can measure the electron temperature, electron density and electric potential of plasma. It is expected to study and measure the lunar surface plasma environment. A thermal probe onboard will be running the Chandra’s Surface Thermo-physical experiment to measure the vertical temperature gradient and thermal conductivity of the lunar surface. The third payload is a simple seismometer named ‘Instrument for Lunar Seismic Activity’ or ILSA for short and will be studying lunar quakes. 

Pragyan Rover

Pragyan Rover. Image: ISRO

  • Weight: 27 kg
  • Power generation: Runs on 50 W of solar power.
  • Period of operation: 14 days or 1 Lunar Day.
  • Communications: Communicates directly with the Lander. 
  • Travel speed: 1 cm per second for 500 metres. 
  • Payloads: 2
  • Scientific experiments expected: Pragyan will have two instruments onboard. The instruments will test mineral and chemical compositions on the surface of the Moon as well as the soil and rocks. Data on and around the South side of the pole will be collected and sent.

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Green Propellants by ISRO

Key features:

The Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) is developing green propellants for future rockets, considering the harmful effects of exhausts released by rockets on the earth’s atmosphere.

  1. ISRO has developed eco-friendly solid propellant based on Glycidyl Azide Polymer (GAP) as fuel and Ammonium Di-Nitramide (ADN) as oxidizer at the laboratory level, which will eliminate the emission of chlorinated exhaust products from rocket motors.
  2. The LOX/LH2 (liquid oxygen – liquid hydrogen) combination is already being used in the cryogenic upper stages of GSLV and GSLV Mk-III launch vehicles.
  3. Additional Facts: ISRO has successfully developed ISROSENE, which is a rocket grade version of kerosene as an alternative to conventional hydrazine rocket fuel.
  4. The propellants that are being used now have a very reactive effect on the ozone layer due to the release of chlorinated exhaust products.

UPSC IAS Prelims 2020: Important Study Notes

UPSC and State Public Services Commission Prelims and Mains Exam 2019-20

General Studies of Rajasthan-All in One

UPSC IAS Prelims Exam – 2020

UPSC IAS Mains Exam – 2019

RPSC RAS Prelims Exam

RPSC RAS Mains Exam

General Knowledge

Current Affairs

Western Disturbances

  • Western Disturbance is an extra tropical storm originating in the Mediterranean region that brings sudden winter rain to the north-western parts of the Indian sub-continent.
  • It is a non-monsoonal precipitation pattern driven by the westerlies.
  • Extra-tropical storms are a global phenomenon with moisture usually carried in the upper atmosphere, unlike their tropical counterparts where the moisture is carried in the lower atmosphere.
  • Western disturbances bring moderate to heavy rain in low-lying areas and heavy snow to mountainous areas of the Indian Subcontinent.
  • Precipitation has great importance in agriculture, particularly for the Rabi crops. Wheat among them is one of the most important crops, which helps to meet India’s food security.

UNESCO Geo Park

UNESCO Global Geoparks are single, unified geographical areas where sites and landscapes of international geological significance are managed with a holistic concept of protection, education and sustainable development.

At present, there are 147 UNESCO Global Geoparks in 41 countries

UNESCO Global Geoparks is given this designation for a period of four years after which the functioning and quality of each UNESCO Global Geoparks are thoroughly re-examined during a revalidation process.

In 2018 Lonar Lake in Maharashtra and St. Mary’s Island and Malpe beach in coastal Karnataka are listed for UNESCO Global Geopark Network status.

Helium Hydride Ion

Scientists have detected that Helium hydride ion (HeH+) was the first molecule to be formed in the universe.

During big bang, ionized hydrogen and neutral helium atoms reacted to form HeH+.

The molecule will emit its strongest spectral line at a characteristic wavelength of 0.149 mm.

NASA’s high-flying observatory SOFIA detected this molecule towards a planetary nebula.

SOFIA

Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is an aircraft with reflecting telescope, flying into the stratosphere at 38,000-45,000 feet.

SOFIA is put above Earth’s infrared-blocking atmosphere, allowing astronomers to study the solar system and beyond in ways that are not possible with ground-based telescopes.

The observatory’s mobility allows researchers to observe from almost anywhere in the world and enables studies of transient events that often take place over oceans where there are no telescopes.

Genome Sequencing

Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) with co-operation of Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB) has initiated a genome sequencing project for educating a generation of students on the “usefulness” of genomics.

Globally, many countries have undertaken genome sequencing of a sample of their citizens to determine unique genetic traits, susceptibility (and resilience) to disease.

This is the first time that such a large sample of Indians will be recruited for a detailed study.

The project aims to sequence at least 10,000 Indian genomes, where Genomes will be sequenced based on a blood sample.

International Fleet Review

International Fleet Review (IFR) is a parade of naval ships, aircraft and submarines, and is organized by nations to promote goodwill, strengthen cooperation and showcase their organizational capabilities.

IFR also serves as an ideal platform for the world’s navies to showcase their prowess and indigenous ship designing and shipbuilding capabilities in a global/ international arena.

Indian Navy warships INS Kolkata and INS Shakti will be participating in IFR 2109, China.

Indo-Pacific Division

Ministry of External Affairs has setup Indo-Pacific division to integrate the Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA), ASEAN region and the Quad to the Indo-Pacific table.

Countries falling in the direct hinterland of the vast Indian and Pacific oceanic expanse are termed ‘Indo-Pacific countries’.

It is a multipolar region, contributing more than half of the world’s GDP and population.

It has several important regional trading blocs, many of which have implemented free trade agreements (FTAs) in goods and services and some of which have even been elevated to the Customs Union.

This move will give a coherent architecture to the policy articulated at the Shangri-La Dialogue in 2018.

Shangri-La Dialogue is an annual security dialogue that brings together defence ministers and military chiefs from 28 Asia-Pacific countries to talk about security in the region.

Tiger census

Tiger census in India is conducted every four years by the National Tiger Conservation Authorities (NTCA).

The first all India tiger census was conducted in 2006.

Wildlife Institute of India (WII), a Union Environment Ministry funded body, is coordinating agency for the tiger estimation exercise.

NTCA uses an android app named MSTrIPES (Monitoring system for Tigers – Intensive Protection and Ecological Status), for the proper location data feeding and filling the record more accurately.

The app will capture the forest team’s route throughout the forest and assist them in uploading geo-tagged images into the database

According to the last survey conducted in 2014, the tiger count was 2,226.

Microplastics

Microplastics are a type of plastic fragment that is less than five millimetres in length, which are atmospheric pollutants.

Microplastics include fragments, fibres and sheet-like pieces of film.

According to recent reports, microplastics are carried away by winds and being deposited in a remote, high-altitude mountain location far from any major city causing microplastic-pollution.

Zinc Deficiency

According to recent research, it is found that inadequate zinc intake has been rising in India for decades, causing tens of millions of people to become newly deficient in it.

Rising carbon dioxide levels can accelerate zinc deficiency in crops and thus in human consumption.

The highest rate of inadequate zinc intake was concentrated mainly in the southern and northeastern States with rice-dominated diets: Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Manipur and Meghalaya.

Salt Tolerant Rice

Researchers have developed a new salt-tolerant transgenic rice plant by over-expressing a gene from wild rice called Porteresia coarctata into the commonly used IR 64 indicia rice variety.

Porteresia coarctata is a native of India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Myanmar and is grown mainly in saline estuaries.

The new crop can withstand salt concentration of up to 200 micromoles per litre or about half as saline as seawater without affecting normal growth and grain yield under greenhouse conditions.

Origin of life from Ponds

According to a recent study, primitive ponds may have provided a suitable environment for creating the earth’s first life forms, more so than oceans.

Shallow water bodies could have held high concentrations of nitrogen, a key ingredient for jump-starting life on the earth.

Nitrogenous oxides were likely deposited in water bodies, including oceans and ponds, as remnants of the breakdown of nitrogen in earth’s atmosphere.

Atmospheric nitrogen comprises two nitrogen molecules, linked via a strong triple bond that can only be broken by an extremely energetic event namely, lightning.

In the ocean, UV light and dissolved iron would have made nitrogenous oxides far less available for synthesizing living organisms.

In shallow ponds, however, life would have had a better chance to grow, mainly because ponds have much less volume over which compounds can be diluted.

 As a result, nitrogenous oxides would have built up to much higher concentrations in Ponds.

Mariana Trench

  1. The Mariana Trench is located in the western Pacific Ocean and has the deepest natural trench in the world.
  2. It is a crescent-shaped trough in the Earth’s crust averaging about 2,550 km long and 69 km wide.
  3. The maximum known depth is 10,994 meters (36,070 ft) at the southern end of a small slot-shaped valley in its floor known as the Challenger Deep.
  4. For comparison: if Mount Everest were dropped into the trench at this point, its peak would still be over two kilometres (1.2 mi) under water.
  5. The trench is not the part of the seafloor closest to the centre of the Earth since the Earth is not a perfect sphere.
  6. Recently scientists have discovered unique oil-eating bacteria in the Mariana Trench.
  7. The found microorganisms eat compounds similar to those in oil and then use it for fuel.

3D- Printed Heart

Recently Scientists have unveiled a 3D print of a heart with human tissue and vessels.

This invention is a major medical breakthrough that advances possibilities for transplants in near future.

Maternal Spindle Transfer

Fertility doctors in Greece and Spain have produced a baby from three people in order to overcome a woman’s infertility; the team used a technique called maternal spindle transfer (MST).

It was developed to help families affected by deadly mitochondrial diseases which are passed down from mother to baby.

The experimental form of MST uses an egg from the mother, sperm from the father, and another egg from a donor woman.

All cells have mitochondria, which are like power packs for the cells and create the energy that keeps cells alive.

While a child’s DNA is a mixture from both the mother and father, mitochondria are separate “packages of genetics” that come solely from the mother.

Some people have a mitochondrial disease a problem with the genetics in their mitochondria which can lead to severe, life-threatening conditions, although this is rare.

One treatment for a woman who might have one of these diseases is to replace the mitochondria in her eggs via IVF.

Central Monitoring Committee on Pollution

  1. National Green Tribunal (NGT) has formed a Central Monitoring Committee to prepare and enforce a national plan to make over 350 river stretches across the country pollution free.
  2. The Chairman of the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) will be the nodal authority for coordination.
  3. The Chief Secretaries of the states will act as the nodal agency at the state level.
  4. The committee has been composed to monitor pollution of rivers, as it has caused a serious threat to the safety of water and environment.

Besides checking river pollution, the central monitoring committee will coordinate with the River Rejuvenation Committees of the states and oversee the execution of the action plans.

Wholesale Price Index

A wholesale price index (WPI) is an index that measures and tracks the changes in the price of goods in the stages before the retail level – that is, goods that are sold in bulk and traded between entities or businesses instead of consumers.

Usually expressed as a ratio or percentage, the WPI shows the included goods average price change and is often seen as one indicator of a country’s level of inflation.

Some countries use WPI changes as a central measure of inflation, but India has adopted new CPI to measure inflation.

WPI is published by the Economic Adviser in the Ministry of Commerce and Industry, where CPI is released by CSO.

The Wholesale Price Index focuses on the price of goods traded between corporations, rather than goods bought by consumers, which is measured by the Consumer Price Index.

DART Mission

  • Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) is NASA’s first mission to demonstrate kinetic impact or technique which will strike the asteroid to shift its orbit to defend against a potential future asteroid impact.
  • The target for DART is an asteroid that will have a distant approach to Earth in October 2022 and then again in 2024.
  • The asteroid is called Didymos, an asteroid binary system that consists of two bodies: Didymos A, and Didymos B.
  • The kinetic impact technique works by changing the speed of a threatening asteroid by a small fraction of its total velocity, which would shift the asteroid’s path away from Earth.

Nirbhay Missile

Nirbhay is a Long Range Sub-Sonic Cruise Missile designed and developed by DRDO.

The missile has been recently test fired from the Integrated Test Range (ITR), located in Abdul Kalam Island, Odisha.

The missile has way point navigation and sea-skimming capability to cruise at very low altitudes.

Leucistic Squirrel

For the first time, Leucistic five-striped palm squirrel has been reported from north India.

Funambulus pennanti is more frequently found in the northern part of India including Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and Bihar.

Colour abnormalities are very rare in wild mammals; these abnormalities may be governed by several factors like environmental pollution, congenital infection, low nutrition food and genetic causes.

Leucism is a condition where there is partial loss of pigmentation in animals on the skin; however, the loss of colour does not extend to the eye.

On the other hand, in albinism, the affected individual is totally white, with red eyes.

The survival rate of Leucistic animals is comparatively lesser than non-Leucistic ones because of their distinctive features which easily gets noticed by predators.

Yangtze giant soft-shell turtles

  • The only known female member of Yangtze giant soft-shell turtle has died recently in China.
  • The animal was one of four known to be remaining in the world, rest three turtles are male.
  • It is also known as the Red River giant soft-shell turtle.
  • It is listed as critically endangered in the IUCN Red List.

PEETHA

Odisha Chief Minister announced a new programme “PEETHA” for transparency and awareness on various government schemes.

The programme, the Peoples Empowerment Enabling Transparency and Accountability or PEETHA aims to improve transparency in the distribution of individual and social benefits.

TROPEX- 2019 Exercise

Indian Navy will conduct its flagship large-scale coastal defence exercise “Theatre Level Operational Readiness Exercise” (TROPEX) from next year to test the robustness of entire coastal security apparatus.

It is an annual exercise that takes place on Western Seaboard.

It is a tri-service exercise in which troops from the Indian Army and fighter aircraft from Indian Air will also participate.

It is conducted to test various aspects of not only joint combat capabilities but also to test the war capabilities of three services in a war-like situation.

SWADESH DARSHAN SCHEME

Swadesh Darshan scheme is one among the flagship schemes of the Ministry of Tourism for development of thematic circuits in the country in a planned and prioritized manner.

The scheme was launched in 2014 -15.

Under this scheme, the Government is focussing on the development of quality infrastructure in the country with the objective of providing better experience and facilities to the visitors on one hand and on other hand fostering the economic growth.

One World One Sun One Grid

  1. 24thmeeting of Conference of Parties (COP-24) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was held at Katowice, Poland.
  2. This year the theme of the Indian Pavillion was “One World One Sun One Grid”.
  3. India will try for achieving 175 GW target for installed Renewable Energy capacity by 2022.
  4. India stands 4th in wind power 5th in renewable power and 5th in solar power.   
  5. Under Ujjwala scheme, 58 million households are already covered under and it will not only contribute to improved health of women and children but also help on reducing deforestation.
  6. India also pledged to get rid of single-use plastic by 2022 across the country.
  7. India’s leadership in global climate action has been recognized and PM Narendra Modi has been awarded the “champions of Earth Award” this year by the United Nations in promoting International Solar Alliance and resolve to make India plastic free by 2022.

Rihand Dam

Rihand Dam, also known as Govind Ballabh Pant Sagar, is the country’s largest reservoir by volume and largest artificial lake, located on the Rihand River.

Its catchment area spread over Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh

The largest floating solar plant to date is a 2MW one in Vishakhapatnam.

Another is a 500-kWh plant built by the Kerala State Electricity Board at the Banasura Sagar Dam.

Recently a 50 Mega Watt floating solar plant will be set up in the country’s largest reservoir Rihand dam in Sonbhadra district of Uttar Pradesh.

PRASAD (Pilgrimage Rejuvenation and Spiritual, Heritage Augmentation Drive) Scheme

  • The scheme was launched by Ministry of Tourism in 2014-15.
  • The scheme aimed at infrastructure development such as entry points (road, rail, and water transport), last mile connectivity and basic tourism facilities.
  • Under the scheme ‘Prasad’, the Ministry of Tourism provides Central Financial Assistance (CFA) to State Governments/Union Territory Administrations for development and beautification of the identified pilgrimage destinations.
  • It is a 100% Central Government funded scheme.
  • Initially, Twelve cities were identified, namely Amaravati (Andhra Pradesh), Gaya(Bihar), Dwaraka(Gujarat), Amritsar(Punjab), Ajmer(Rajasthan), Kanchipuram(Tamil Nadu), Velankanni (Tamil Nadu), Puri(Odisha), Varanasi(Uttar Pradesh), Mathura(Uttar Pradesh), Kedarnath (Uttarakhand) and Kamakhya (Assam) for development under PRASAD by the Ministry of Tourism.
  • To implement the PRASAD scheme a Mission Directorate has been set up in the Ministry of Tourism.
  • Recently, Centre has included Gangotri and Yamunotri in Uttarakhand, Amarkantak in Madhya Pradesh and Parasnath in Jharkhand under this central scheme to develop pilgrimage and heritage destinations in the country.

With the new additions, the number of sites under the Pilgrimage Rejuvenation and Spiritual, Heritage Augmentation Drive (PRASAD) scheme has now become 41 in 25 states.

Colistin

Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) said that a ban on the use of the antibiotic colistin would be a step in the right direction.

India’s highest drug advisory body, the Drug Technical Advisory Board had recommended a stoppage on the use of colistin by poultry farmers.

Colistin is a last resort antibiotic which is administered to human beings when most other antibiotics fail to function.

However, it is indiscriminately used by the poultry industry to promote growth and prevent the occurrence of infections in chicken.

Increasing evidence has linked this to the development of resistance against colistin in humans.

OSIRIS-REx

NASA’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) spacecraft completed its journey to arrive at the asteroid Bennu on 3 December 2018.

The primary goals of this survey are to refine estimates of Bennu’s mass and spin rate and to generate a more precise model of its shape.

The mission will help scientists investigate how planets formed and how life began, as well as improve our understanding of asteroids that could impact Earth.

Geosynchronous satellite

A geosynchronous satellite is a satellite in geosynchronous orbit, with an orbital period the same as the Earth’s rotation period.

A satellite in such an orbit is at an altitude of approximately 36000 km above mean sea level.

A special case of the geosynchronous satellite is the geostationary satellite, which has a geostationary orbit– a circular geosynchronous orbit directly above the Earth’s equator.

Geostationary satellites have the special property of remaining permanently fixed in exactly the same position in the sky, as viewed from any location on Earth, meaning that ground-based antennas do not need to track them but can remain fixed in one direction.

Such satellites are often used for communication purposes.

GSAT-11

ISRO’s heaviest and most-advanced high throughput communication satellite GSAT-11 was successfully launched from the Spaceport in French Guiana on December 5, 2018.

The launch vehicle Ariane 5 VA-246 lifted off from Kourou Launch Base, French Guiana carrying India’s GSAT-11 and South Korea’s GEO-KOMPSAT-2A satellites, as scheduled.

Ariane 5 is one of three launch vehicles operated by Arianespace along with Soyuz and Vega.

The 5,854-kg GSAT-11 will provide high data rate connectivity to users of Indian mainland and islands through 32 user beams in Ku-band and 8 hub beams in Ka-band.

GSAT-11 will boost the broadband connectivity to rural and inaccessible Gram Panchayats in the country coming under the Bharat Net Project, which is part of Digital India Programme.

GSAT-11 will be positioned at 74-degree east longitude in the geostationary orbit.

Subsequently, the two solar arrays and four antenna reflectors of GSAT-11 will be deployed in orbit.

Mukhyamantri Tirth Yatra Yojana

Under the scheme, any resident of Delhi above 60 years of age will be eligible for the scheme and those above 70 years can have one attendant.

The scheme does not have any income criterion, but preference will be given to those who are from the economically weaker section.

The applicant should not be an employee of the central, state, local government or autonomous bodies.

The journey will be performed through Indian Railways.

A total of 77,000 pilgrims will be able to avail this facility every year.

The pilgrimage duration will be of three days and two nights and will be for any of the following routes:

(a) Delhi-Mathura-Vrindavan-Agra-Fatehpur Sikri-Delhi;

(b) Delhi-Haridwar-Rishikesh-Neelkanth-Delhi;

(c) Delhi-Ajmer-Pushkar-Delhi;

(d) Delhi-Amritsar-Wagah border-Anandpur Sahib-Delhi;

(e) Delhi-Vaishno Devi-Jammu-Delhi.

The Scheme will help and promoting communal harmony and brotherhood in society.

Shahpurkandi Dam

The Union Cabinet has approved implementation of Shahpurkandi Dam Project, Punjab on river Ravi.

Central Assistance of Rs. 485.38 cr (for irrigation component) would be provided over five years from 2018-19 to 2022-23.

Implementation of this project would help to minimize some of the water of the River Ravi which at present is going waste through the Madhopur Headworks downstream to Pakistan whereas there is a requirement for the same for use in Punjab and J&K.

Funding for Central Assistance to Shahpurkandi Dam project shall be made through NABARD under the existing system for funding of 99 PMKSY-AIBP projects under LTIF.

The project would be implemented by Govt. of Punjab with Central Assistance of Rs. 485.38 crore the project would be completed by June 2022.

Digital Sky Platform

The DGCA announced the Civil Aviation Regulations (CAR) to enable safe flying of Remotely Piloted Aerial Systems (RPAS) popularly referred to as drones in India.

It specified the obligations of operators, remote pilots/ users and manufacturers/ OEM for safe operations of RPAS and co-operative use of airspace.

It also announced Digital Sky Platform, a first of its kind that implements ‘no permission, no take-off’ (NPNT) – a novel system of software based self-enforcement to minimize deviations from the CAR.

The Digital Sky Platform will register and monitor the drones, pilots, and operators for online permission before the take-off.

This platform is built to evolve with the needs of the rapidly changing industry with Digital Sky Service Providers (DSPs) by extending the functionality of the platform through Application Program Interfaces (APIs).

Emergency Response Support System (ERSS)

The Union Home Minister launched Emergency Response Support System (ERSS) for the State of Nagaland at Kohima.

Nagaland is the first amongst the North-Eastern States and the second State in India to launch Pan-India single emergency number ‘112’ under ERSS.

Under this project, one Emergency Response Centre (ERC) has been established in Kohima along with 3 District Command Centers (DCCs), namely Kohima, Dimapur and Mokokchung.

The Emergency Response Centre is capable of receiving emergency calls through voice call to 112 emails; panic buttons activated calls and 112 India mobile App.

State of Nagaland has integrated ERSS with Tourist Police and Highway patrol and will expand to interior districts subsequently.

As a special feature, to ensure safety of women, a unique ‘SHOUT’ feature exclusively for women has been introduced in 112 India mobile App.

This feature allows victims to seek immediate assistance from registered volunteers in the vicinity apart from contacting Emergency Response Centre.

Tree Cover & Forest Cover

The MoEFCC defines ‘forest cover’ in India as all lands, more than one hectare in area with a tree canopy density of more than 10%.

The ‘tree cover’ is defined as tree patches outside recorded forest areas exclusive of forest cover and less than the minimum mappable area of one hectare.

Classification scheme for the purpose of Forest Cover assessment is described as follows:

Class Description

Very Dense Forest  All lands with tree canopy density of 70% and above.

Moderately Dense Forest  All lands with tree canopy density of 40% and more but less than 70%.

  • Open Forest all lands with tree canopy density of 10% and more but less than 40%.
  • Scrub Degraded forest lands with canopy density less than 10%.
  • Non-forest   Lands not included in any of the above classes.

Scheme for Higher Education Youth in Apprenticeship and Skills (SHREYAS)

The Ministry of Human Resources Development has launched the Scheme for Higher Education Youth in Apprenticeship and Skills (SHREYAS) for providing industry apprenticeship opportunities to the general graduates exiting in April 2019 through the National Apprenticeship Promotional Scheme (NAPS).

SHREYAS is a programme basket comprising the initiatives of three Central Ministries, namely the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship and the Ministry of Labour& Employment viz the National Apprenticeship Promotion Scheme (NAPS), the National Career Service (NCS)and introduction of BA/BSc/BCom (Professional) courses in the higher educational institutions.

  • SHREYAS is a programme conceived for students in degree courses, primarily non-technical, with a view to introduce employable skills into their learning, promote apprenticeship as integral to education and also amalgamate employment facilitating efforts of the Government into the education system so that clear pathways towards employment opportunities are available to students during and after their graduation.
  • To enhance the employability of Indian youth by providing ‘on the job work exposure’ and earning of stipend.
  • In all the tracks together, it is proposed to cover 50 lakh students by 2022.

Yuva Sahakar-Cooperative Enterprise Support and Innovation Scheme

To cater to the needs and aspirations of the youth, the National Cooperative Development Corporation (NCDC) has come up with a youth-friendly this scheme for attracting them to cooperative business ventures.

The newly launched scheme would encourage cooperatives to venture into new and innovative areas.

The scheme will be linked to Rs 1000 crore ‘Cooperative Start-up and Innovation Fund (CSIF)’ created by the NCDC.

The funding for the project will be up to 80% of the project cost for these special categories as against 70% for others.

The scheme envisages 2% less than the applicable rate of interest on term loan for the project cost up to Rs 3 crore including 2 years moratorium on payment of principal.

It would have more incentives for cooperatives of North Eastern region, Aspirational Districts and cooperatives with women or SC or ST or PwD members.

All types of cooperatives in operation for at least one year are eligible.

Feni

  • It is popular local traditional brew (liquor) distilled from the cashew fruit.
  • Cashew feni was given the Geographical Indication tag as manufactured goods.
  • The name feni is derived from Sanskrit word ‘phena’ meaning froth or foam.
  • It is also distilled from fermented toddy from coconut palm.
  • It is prepared in a typical Portuguese way that does not entail the use of electricity in the process.

Inclusive Internet Index 2019

The Inclusive Internet Index, commissioned by Facebook and conducted by The Economist Intelligence Unit, seeks to measure the extent to which the Internet is not only accessible and affordable, but also relevant to all, allowing usage that enables positive social and economic outcomes at individual and group level.

The aim of the Inclusive Internet Index is to provide researchers and policymakers with the information they need to enable the beneficial use of the Internet, irrespective of age, gender, location or background.

The index assesses the performance of 100 countries in four categories of inclusion: Accessibility, Affordability, Relevance and Readiness. Each category incorporates key indicators of internet inclusion, including quantitative measures such as network coverage and pricing, and qualitative measures such as the presence of e-inclusion policies and the availability of local-language content.

Sweden has topped the rankings followed by Singapore and the US.

India has been ranked 47th.

 PRANAM Commission

Assam has launched the PRANAM Commission, a panel set up to look after the issues concerning a Bill brought in for protection of parents of state government employees.

The Parents Responsibility and Norms for Accountability and Monitoring (PRANAM) Bill, stated to be the first-of its-kind Bill in the country, is an effort to protect elderly parents of government employees in their times of need.

To ensure that no state government employee ignores their elderly parents and unmarried differently-abled siblings.

The PRANAM Bill makes it mandatory for the state government employees to look after their parents and unmarried differently-abled siblings who do not have their own sources of income.

Under the bill’s provisions, if the PRANAM Commission gets a complaint that parents of a state government employee are being ignored, then 10 or 15 per cent of the employee’s salary will be deducted by the government and paid to the parents or differently-abled siblings.

The employees of private companies and the central government working in the state would also be covered by the bill at a later stage.

Mirage 2000 Fighter Jet

  • Indian Air Force Mirage 2000 fighters were used to destroy the Jaish-e-Mohammad camps at Balakot along the Line of Control.
  • It is a French multirole, single-engine fourth-generation fighter jet.
  • It is manufactured by Dassault Aviation.
  • It gained prominence after their remarkable success rate in the 1999 Kargil war.
  • It has a maximum climbing speed of 60,000 feet per minute and is designed for all weather penetration at low altitude.

Benefits of Repo Rate

It will make the system more transparent since every borrower will know the fixed interest rate and the spread value decided by the bank.

It will help borrowers compare loans in a better way from different banks.

Under the new system, a bank is required to adopt a uniform external benchmark within a loan category so that there is transparency, standardisation and ease of understanding for the borrowers.

This would mean that same bank cannot adopt multiple benchmarks within a loan category.

Repo Rate

Technically, Repo stands for ‘Repurchasing Option’.

It refers to the rate at which commercial banks borrow money from the RBI in case of shortage of funds. It is one of the main tools of RBI to keep inflation under control.

When we borrow money from the bank, they charge an interest on the principal. Basically, it is cost of credit.

Similarly, banks too can borrow money from RBI during cash crunch on which they must pay interest to the Central Bank. This interest rate is repo rate.

Marginal Cost of Funds based Lending Rate (MCLR)

Marginal Cost of Funds based Lending Rate (MCLR) is the minimum interest rate, below which a bank is not permitted to lend. RBI can give authorization for the same in exceptional cases.

MCLR replaced the earlier base rate system to determine the lending rates for commercial banks.

RBI implemented it on 1 April 2016 to determine rates of interests for loans.

It is an internal reference rate for banks to decide what interest they can levy on loans.

For this, they take into account the additional or incremental cost of arranging additional rupee for a prospective buyer.

Quick Reaction Surface-to-Air missiles (QRSAM)

India has successfully test-fired two indigenously developed Quick Reaction Surface-to-Air missiles (QRSAM) from a test range off the Odisha coast.

  1. The trials were conducted by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) from Launch Complex 3 of the Integrated Test Range (ITR) at Chandipur.
  2. This missile has been developed to replace the ‘Akash’ missile defence system, and has 360-degree coverage, light weight, high mobility and shorter second reaction time as compared to ‘Akash’.
  3. It also uses solid fuel propellant and has a stated range of strike range of 25-30 km with capability of hitting multiple targets.

It is capable of hitting the low flying objects.

It successfully demonstrated the robust Control, Aerodynamics, Propulsion, Structural performance and high maneuvering capabilities thus proving the design configuration.

Radars, Electro Optical Systems, Telemetry and other stations have tracked the Missiles and monitored through the entire flights.

Exercise Sampriti-2019

It is an important bilateral defence cooperation endeavour between India and Bangladesh and this will be the eighth edition of the exercise which is hosted alternately by both countries.

As part of the ongoing India Bangladesh defence cooperation, the joint military exercise will be conducted at Tangail, Bangladesh.

The exercise is aimed to strengthen and broaden the aspects of interoperability and cooperation between the Indian and Bangladesh Armies.

The exercise will involve tactical level operations in a counter insurgency and counter terrorism environment under the UN mandate.

In addition to understanding each other in tactical level operations, emphasis will also be laid for greater cultural understanding to strengthen military trust and cooperation between the two nations.

Phen Wildlife Sanctuary

It is a popular buffer zone of Kanha national park, Madhya Pradesh.

It lies in Southern region of Kanha tiger reserve, close to Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh state borders.

It was declared as a wildlife sanctuary in year 1983 by Government of Madhya Pradesh.

The Fauna at this sanctuary mainly consists of the Tiger, Leopard, Wild boar, Cheetal, Sambar etc.

Marine Clouds

Marine clouds could break up and vanish if CO2 in the atmosphere triples.

It protects us from hothouse Earth conditions by reflecting sunlight back into space.

It is the stratocumulus clouds that cover about 20 % of subtropical oceans, mostly near western seaboards such as the coasts of California, Mexico and Peru.

These clouds cool and shade the earth as they reflect the sunlight that reflects them back into space.

Due to the rise in Carbon Dioxide it may become unstable and disappear.

The consequence will trigger a spike in global warming.

Global Digital Health Partnership (GDHP)

Global Digital Health Partnership (GDHP) is an international collaboration of governments, government agencies and multinational organisations.

It is dedicated to improving the health and well-being of their citizens through the best use of evidence-based digital technologies.

Governments are making significant investments to harness the power of technology and foster innovation and public-private partnerships that support high quality, sustainable health and care for all.

The GDHP facilitates global collaboration and co-operation in the implementation of digital health services.

Hayabusa 2 and Ryugu asteroid

  1. Hayabusa 2 is a Japanese probe sent to collect samples from an asteroid for clues about the origin of life and the solar system.
  2. It fired a bullet into the surface of the Ryugu asteroid.
  3. The Ryugu asteroid is thought to contain relatively large amounts of organic matter and water from some 4.6 billion years ago when the solar system was born.
  4. It was launched in December 2014 and is scheduled to return to the Earth with its samples in 2020.
  5. The probe will observe the surface of the asteroid with its camera and sensing equipment.

Central Information Commission (CIC)

The Central Information Commission (CIC) set up under the Right to Information Act is the authorized quasi judicial body, established in 2005.

It acts upon complaints from those individuals who have not been able to submit information requests due to either the officer not having been appointed, or because the respective Officer refused to receive the application for information under the RTI Act.

The Commission includes 1 Chief Information Commissioner (CIC) and not more than 10 Information Commissioners (IC) who are appointed by the President of India.

CIC and members are appointed by the President of India on the recommendation of a committee consisting of—Prime Minister as Chairperson, the Leader of Opposition in the Lok Sabha; a Union Cabinet Minister to be nominated by the Prime Minister.

Hindu Succession Act, 1956

Under the Hindu Succession Act, 1956, only sons had a direct right to ancestral property, excluding daughters from inheritance claims where the father did not leave a will.

From the 1970s onwards, changes in inheritance legislation sought to empower women by strengthening their financial and social position and reducing dependence on male relatives.

The traditional preference for sons was also supposed to lessen, because daughters, backed by possession of the family home, would be able to offer parents security in old age.

Equally, this was expected to eradicate the dowry system, a key contributing factor to the perception of a daughter as a financial burden.

MUDRA Scheme

The Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana was introduced in April 2015 as an effort to extend affordable credit to micro and small enterprises.

Loans up to Rs. 10 lakh are extended to these non-corporate, non-farm enterprises by the Micro Units Development and Refinance Agency (MUDRA) through last-mile financial institutions.

So far, 15.56 crore loans worth a total of Rs. 7.23 lakh crore have been disbursed.

In December 2017, faced with mounting criticism on the failure to create job opportunities, the Labour Ministry had asked the Labour Bureau to initiate the survey on jobs created through the MUDRA scheme.

Wallace’s giant bee

It is the world’s largest bee that was recently rediscovered in a remote part of Indonesia.

Wallace’s giant bee was discovered in the 19th century by British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace.

The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species lists the bee as “vulnerable”.

It was nicknamed the “flying bulldog as it is nearly four times bigger than the European bee.

It lives in the Indonesian island region of North Moluccas and makes its nest in termite mounds.

Invisible Ink

The NPL prepared the ‘invisible ink’ as part of a pilot project mooted by the Mysore Paints and Varnish Ltd. (MVPL)

It is a transparent liquid as an organic-inorganic mixture that was biodegradable and could be washed off in 48 hours.

It works on the well-known principle of fluorescence — certain materials emit a characteristic glow when exposed to ultraviolet light.

The NPL ink, however, glows only when exposed to a narrow band of frequencies of ultraviolet (UV) light.

The NPL’s invisible ink experiment is linked to a larger project of creating security inks that could be used to make bank notes and documents, such as passports, more secure.

Indelible Ink in India

The ink was first used during India’s third General Elections in 1962. Indelible ink has been used in every General Election since

At the time, the country’s election commission was having a tough time dealing with identity theft, as they soon discovered that there were duplicate or fake votes.

Indelible ink is made of a chemical compound called silver nitrate.

When applied to the skin and exposed to ultraviolet light, it leaves a mark that is almost impossible to wash off.

The stain is so strong; in fact, it is only removed when the external skin cells are replaced

When put on the skin, silver nitrate reacts with the salt present on it to form silver chloride.

Silver chloride is not soluble in water, and clings to the skin. It cannot be washed off with soap and water.

Fernandina Giant Tortoise

  • It is a rare Giant Tortoise (Chelonoidis phantasticus).
  • It was feared to be extinct but has been found in a remote part of the Galapagos island of Fernandina recently.
  • The IUCN listed it as critically endangered & possibly extinct.
  • Its habitat is largely dry brush land at lower elevations, but much of that habitat has been destroyed by extensive lava flows.
  • Fernandina is the third largest Galapagos Island and features the La-Cumber volcano, one of the most active in the world.

Padayani

It is a ritual art and folk dance form performed at Bhadrakali temples in the state of Kerala.

The word ‘Padai-ani’ means line-up or formation of the soldiers.

The story behind Padayani is the re-enactment of the killing of Demon Darika and calming the Goddess Kali after it.

The dance is to appease the Goddess so that there is eradication of social evils and there is rain, good crop and prosperity.

Permanent Resident Certificate

  1. Permanent resident certificate is a legal document issued to Indian citizens that serves as evidence of residence and is required to be submitted as residential proof for official purpose.
  2. It is a domicile certificate otherwise called as Permanent Residence Certificate (PRC) to the residents of the state who stayed therein over a period.
  3. Those citizens who are not currently residing in the state but are sure of permanently staying therein can also apply for it.
  4. Besides the permanent residence certificate, the State also offers Temporary Residence Certificate (TRC) for those who reside in the State on a temporary basis.
  5. It enables the citizens to avail various policies and claims made in their particular state.

FAME-India Scheme

The Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of (Hybrid &) Electric Vehicles (FAME) India was launched in 2015 under National Electric Mobility Mission (NEMM). It aims at promoting eco-friendly vehicles in the country. The scheme is being administered by the Heavy Industries Ministry.

Objectives of the scheme:

Provide fiscal and monetary incentives for adoption and market creation of both hybrid and electric technologies vehicles in the country and incentivise all vehicle segments, including two- wheelers, three wheeler auto, passenger four- wheeled vehicle, light commercial vehicles and buses. In order to promote manufacturing of electric and hybrid vehicle technology and to ensure sustainable growth of the same, Department of Heavy Industry is implementing FAME-India Scheme- Phase-I [Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of (Hybrid &) Electric Vehicles in India] from 1April 2015. The scheme, which was initially upto 31April 2017, has been extended upto 31March, 2019 or till Notification of FAME-II, whichever is earlier.

The Phase-II of the Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of (Hybrid &) Electric Vehicles (FAME-India) Scheme proposes to give a push to electric vehicles (EVs) in public transport and seeks to encourage adoption of EVs by way of market creation and demand aggregation.

IAS Prelims Exam 2019 Study Notes with MCQ

Click Here to Download

Important Topics for IAS Prelims Exam-2019

  • Current Affairs from Oct 2018 to March 2019
  • Practice MCQ
  • Financial Stability Report
  • Mission Shakti
  • Law Commission favours One Nation, One poll proposal
  • India forest report
  • Human Development index
  • UNHRC Report
  • Geographical indication
  • Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (PMJAY)
  • Swachh Bharat Mission- Gramin in States/ UTs
  • Development of Inland Fisheries and Aquaculture
  • Shekatkar committee
  • Recent WTO Reports
  • Climates Conferences
  • Law Commission on Uniform Civil Code (UCC)
  • New India @75
  • SDG India Index Baseline Report
  • Sarkaria Commission & Punchhi Commission
  • Health System for New India
  • Move Summit Reports
  • Chilika Lake possesses 20% of India’s sea grass
  • Kyasanur Forest Disease
  • National Skills Qualification Framework (NSQF)
  • New quota and basic structure
  • Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome (CCHS)
  • ASER surveys since 2010 show
  • Advanced Motor Fuels Technology Collaboration Programme
  • Cabinet approves IRSDC as nodal agency for railway station redevelopment
  • Jharkhand to become ODF by 15th of this month
  • India elected as a Member of the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) Council
  • Operation Greens
  • UTSONMOBILE
  • DHARMA GUARDIAN – 2018
  • Deep Submergence Rescue Vessel (DSRV)
  • 2nd International Conference on Primary Health Care towards UHC & SDGs at Astana, Kazakhstan
  • Asian Economic Integration Report 2018
  • National Monitoring Framework on Sustainable Development Goals
  • IIP: how this index is calculated, and what it says about factory output
  • India warming: what trends show
  • Three Year Action Agenda
  • Young India-Vibrant India initiative for IAS Exam
  • Triple Talaq Bill
  • The Fugitive Economic Offenders Bill 2018
  • Model Agricultural Produce and Livestock Marketing (Promotion & Facilitation) Act, 2017
  • Geospatial Information Regulation Bill
  • Land Acquisition Act and Reforms
  • GST Bill
  • Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Marriage) Bill, 2017
  • National Water Framework Bill
  • Real Estate Bill
  • Enemy Property Amendment Bill 2016
  • Carriage by Air (Amendment) Bill, 2015
  • Juvenile Justice Act, 2015
  • Anti-Hijacking Bill
  • Compensatory Afforestation Fund Bill, 2015
  • Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Amendment Bill, 2015
  • Regional Centre for Biotechnology Bill, 2016
  • Industries (Development and Regulation) Amendment Bill, 2015
  • Aadhaar (Targeted Delivery of Financial and Other Subsidies, Benefits and Services) Bill, 2016
  • Most Important Government Schemes II
  • Most Important Government Schemes I
  • Provisions of National Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs)
  • National Mineral Exploration Policy
  • National Health Policy
  • What is the Golden Globe Race?
  • What is hypersonic aircraft?
  • What is West Nile Virus?
  • Antarctica
  • Did you know?
  • What is ‘mating mind hypothesis’ in biology?
  • What is ‘patriotic correctness’ in politics?
  • WHAT ARE NORTHERN LIGHTS?
  • Modi Government’s Schemes and Policy
  • NITI Aayog’s Draft National Energy Policy
  • National Wind-Solar Hybrid Policy
  • New Aviation Policy
  • National Disaster Management Plan
  • Hydrocarbon Vision 2030 for North-East
  • Hydrocarbon Exploration and Licensing Policy
  • Bills and Acts
  • SC and ST (Prevention of Atrocities) Amendment Rules, 2016
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  • Model Shops and Establishments (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) Bill, 2016
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  • Union Budget 2019-20: Highlights
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  • Inflation and its dynamics
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  • 4th Industrial Revolution
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  • Geography + Environment
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  • Green Climate Fund
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  • GM Mustard Crop Approval and Other Issues
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  • Agrarian Revolts
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  • Gautama Buddha, Buddhist Councils and principles of Buddhism
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  • Gupta Rulers and its overview
  • Foreign Visitors
  • Accession of Qutub-ud-Din Aibak
  • Sultanate Period
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  • Vijay Nagar Empire-Harihara and Bukka
  • Mughals Rulers, Arts, Architecture and major achievement of Mughal Rulers
  • Akbar and his religious philosophy- in Details
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10 Practice Set-IAS Prelims Exam 2019 GS Paper-I


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UPSC CSE IAS Prelims Exam 2019 Practice Solved Paper-10 Set.
we have covered the following topics in this PDF:
Current Affairs (from Sep-2018 to Feb 2019)
Art and Culture
Indian Economy
Environment and Ecology
Geography (India + world)
Indian History
International Relations
Indian Polity
Latest Govt Schemes
Science and Technology

Daily Current Affairs 29 March 2019

UPSC IAS, PSC, SSC, Banking, LIC and other Exams Practice MCQ

Q1. India has approved the continuation of the Biomedical Research Career Programme (BRCP), and Wellcome Trust (WT) / DBT India Alliance beyond its initial 10-year term.

Which of the following statements regarding the BRC Programme are true?

1) The Programme has fulfilled its objectives of building and nurturing talent of highest global standards in cutting-edge biomedical research in India, which has led to important scientific breakthroughs and applications to meet societal needs.

2) BRCP has made it attractive for high quality Indian scientists working abroad to return to India, and has increased the number of locations geographically within India where world-class biomedical research is undertaken.

3) In the extending phase, the Programme would continue to build this capacity as also strengthen clinical research and work towards addressing important health challenges for India.

A) 1 & 2 only

b) 2 & 3 only

c) 1 & 3 only

D) all of the above

Answer-d

Q2. Consider the following statements:

1) TheBumpheads are the world’s largest parrotfish. Ramming its enormous green head against corals to dislodge them, a single bump head can nibble up to five tonnes of coral every year.

2) This activity by the parrot fish destroys the coral growth and keeps reef ecosystems unhealthy.

3) But the survival of the threatened bump head parrotfish in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands hinges on the persistence of coral reefs and presence of marine protected areas.

Which of the above statements are true?

A) 1 & 2 only

b) 2 & 3 only

c) 1 & 3 only

D) all of the above

Answer- c

Q3. The coffee board has launched blockchain based coffee e-marketplace in India. Which of the following statements regarding the technology and the coffee production in the country are true?

1) Blockchain based market place app for trading of Indian coffees is intended to bring in transparency in the trade of Indian coffee, maintain the traceability of Indian coffee from bean to cup so as the consumer tastes real Indian coffee and the grower is paid fairly for his coffee produced.

2) India is the only country in the world where entire coffee is grown under shade, handpicked and sun dried.

3) Indian coffee is highly valued in the world market and sold as premium coffees. The share of farmers in the final returns from coffee is also high.

A) 1 & 2 only

b) 2 & 3 only

c) 1 & 3 only

D) all of the above

Answer- a

Q4. Consider the following statements regarding money multiplier in India:

1) A higher value for this ratio, called the money multiplier, indicates that the banking system generates a higher money supply out of money given by central bank.

2) India has a higher money multiplier than the EU and the U.S.

3) In India, the recent push to financial inclusion has led to people holding less cash in hand (relative to deposits) leading to an increase in the money multiplier.

Which of the above statements are true?

A) 1 & 2 only

b) 2 & 3 only

c) 1 & 3 only

D) all of the above

Answer-C

Q5. The recently concluded “AFINDEX 2019” field training military exercise took place between India and which of the following country/ countries?

a) Afghanistan

b) African nations

c) Maldives

d) Islands of Micronesia

Answer:-b

Q 6. —— passes resolution to combat terrorist financing

 A.UN Council

B. European Council 

C. World Affairs Councils of America

D. World Future Council

Correct Ans: A

  • UN Council passes resolution to combat terrorist financing.

Q7.Delhi government school teacher Manu Gulati honoured with ———-

 A. Martha Farrell Award 2019

B. Padma Awards 

C. Padma Bhushan

D. Padma Shri award 2019

Correct Ans: A

  • Delhi government school teacher, Manu Gulati was honoured with the Martha Farrell award for Excellence in Women’s Empowerment 2019 in the Most Promising Individual category with prize money of INR 1, 50,000 for promoting gender equality and women’s empowerment.

Q8. —— government unveiled its Digital portal for MSMEs

 A. Tamilnadu

B. Telengana 

C. Himachal Pradesh

D. Bihar

Correct Ans: B

  • Telengana government unveiled its Digital portal for MSMEs.

9. Which of the following was awarded the ‘Best Sports Federation’ award in the country?

 A. Sports Authority of India (SAI)

B. Netaji Subhash National Institute of Sports 

C.National Rifle Association of India (NRAI)

D. Sports Association of India (SAI)

Correct Ans: C

  • The National Rifle Association of India (NRAI) was awarded the ‘Best Sports Federation’ award in the country by the Association Chambers of Commerce and Industry (ASSOCHAM).

10. What is the following is the first Indian Ship between India and Bangladesh?

 A. Goa Bengal 

B. Chilika Bengal  

C. Brahmaputra Bengal 

D.R V Bengal Ganga

Correct Ans: D

  • A regular river cruise will start between Kolkata, India and Dhaka, Bangladesh for the first time in the history of the two countries. The Indian ship, R V Bengal Ganga, will start at 11 a.m. from a west Kolkata jetty.

11. Which railway station received Gold Rating for being Clean & Eco-Friendly?

 A. Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus

B. Allahabad Junction 

C. Vijayawada Junction

D. Howrah Junction

Correct Ans: C

  • Vijayawada railway station, one of the busiest railway junctions in India, has received Gold Rating by the Indian Green Building Council (IGBC) for Green Measures.

12 .Which of the following Salt cave held the record of World’s longest salt cave before Israel’s Melham?

 A.N0 cave

B.N1 cave 

C.N2 cave

D.N3 cave

Correct Ans: D

  • In 2006, researchers mapped over 6 km of the N3 cave in southern Iran’s Qeshm Island, granting it the widely recognized status of the world’s longest salt cave.

13. Which Country recently discovered the world’s longest salt cave?

 A. Iran 

B. Israel  

C. Saudi Arabia 

D. Palestine

Correct Ans: B

  • Israeli cave explorers discovered, Malham, the world’s longest salt cave with striking stalactites near the Dead Sea. Previously, Iran’s N3 cave held the record.

14. Who can pass the Ordinance on the recommendation of the Union Cabinet?

 A. Cabinet Members

B. Prime Minister 

C. President

D.MPs

Correct Ans: C

  • Ordinances are laws that are promulgated by the President of India on the recommendation of the Union Cabinet. They can only be issued when Parliament is not in session.

15. Ordinance can be passed when _________.

 A. Parliament is not in session

B. Parliament is in session 

C. President/PM seat is vacant

D. Anytime for emergency

Correct Ans: A

  • An Ordinance can be passed when parliament is not in session matured at number 59

Daily Current Affairs 23 March 2019

Current Affairs 23 March 2019

1. RBI declined which Bank’s proposal to name change after its merger with LIC?

 A. Dena Bank 

B.IDBI Bank  

C.Indus Ind Bank 

D.Karur Vysya Bank

Answer: B

Explanation:

The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has turned down IDBI Bank’s proposal to change its name following the transfer of a controlling 51% stake to LIC, insurance behemoth, from the government of India.

2.Due to the squalid conditions in the Gaza Strip 40 animal were moved to the sanctuaries of ________.

 A.Israel

B.Jerusalem 

C.Jordan

D.West Bank

Answer: C

Explanation:

Forty animals, including five lions, are to be rescued from squalid conditions in the Gaza Strip, Palestinian. The animals would be taken out of a zoo in the Palestinian enclave and relocated to sanctuaries in Jordan next week.

3. Which of the following spacecraft has its mission of the asteroid Ryugu?

 A.Hayabusa

B.SELENE  

C.IKAROS 

D.Akatsuki

Answer: A

Explanation:

Japanese space agency, JAXA’s Hayabusa2 spacecraft has its mission of the asteroid Ryugu.

4.Social media platforms and _________ presented a ‘Voluntary Code of Ethics’ for the General Election 2019.

 A.Lok Sabha (House of the People)

B.Election Commission of India (ECI) 

C.Internet and Mobile Association of India (IAMAI)

D.Ministry of Information and Technology 

Answer: C

Explanation:

Social media platforms and the Internet and Mobile Association of India (IAMAI) presented a ‘Voluntary Code of Ethics’ for the General Election 2019 to the Election Commission of India.

5.India Post released a special stamp cover on Ice Stupa in ________.

 A.Jammu 

B.Gulmarg  

C.Pahalgam

 D.Leh

Answer: D

Explanation:

India Post released a special stamp cover on Ice Stupa in Leh at an event in the presence of Himalayan Institute of Alternatives Ladakh founder Sonam Wangchuk who spearheaded the Ice Stupa initiative.

6.What is the position occupied by Indian shuttler PV Sindhu in the latest World Badminton Rankings?

 A.Third

B.Fourth 

C.Fifth

D.Sixth

Answer: D

Explanation:

In the women’s singles rankings, P V Sindhu and Saina Nehwal are static with Sindhu at sixth and Saina at ninth position. Japan’s Kento Momota is leading the men’s chart while Chinese Taipei’s Tai Tzu Ying is topping the women’s singles list.

7.Who is the recipient of the 2019 Templeton Prize?

 A.Gérard Mourou

B.Marcelo Gleiser 

C.Donna Strickland

D.John Templeton

Answer: B

Explanation:

Brazilian physicist and astronomer Marcelo Gleiser (60) was awarded 2019 Templeton Prize worth $1.4 million for his work on blending science and spirituality. It makes him first Latin American to win this award.

8.Power Finance Corporation (PFC) will acquire the entire 52.63 per cent shares of the government in REC for Rs __________.

 A.14,500 crore

B.12,500 crore 

C.18,500 crore

D.16,500 crore

Answer: A

Explanation:

State-owned Power Finance Corporation (PFC) will acquire the entire 52.63 per cent shares of the government in REC for Rs 14,500 crore by the month-end, a move that will help the centre to meet its disinvestment target.

9.Recently, Ministry of Defence has cleared the proposal to procure _______ lakh hand grenades for the Indian Army under its Make in India programme.

 A.20

B.10 

C.5

D.15

Answer: B

Explanation:

Ministry of Defence (MoD) has cleared the proposal to procure 10 lakh hand grenades for the Indian Army under its Make in India programme. The Rs 500 crore proposal comes shortly after the Defence Ministry cleared the acquisition of assault rifles and signed a joint venture with Russia to manufacture AK-203 rifles for the infantry units of the Indian Army.

10.Which of the following Indian shuttler placed in top 10 in the latest World Badminton Rankings?

 A.Sai Praneeth

B.Lakshya Sen 

C.Parupalli Kashyap

D.Kidambi Srikanth

Answer: D

Explanation:

Kidambi Srikanth remains static and is the best placed Indian in the men’s rankings at seventh. He is followed by Sameer Verma (14th), H S Prannoy (24th), Subhankar Dey (43rd), Parupalli Kashyap (48th), Ajay Jayram (52nd) and Sourav Verma (53rd).

11.Fitch Cuts India GDP Growth Forecast For FY20 To ———-

 A.6.8%

B.7.2% 

C.8.5%

D.3.8%

Answer: A

Explanation:

Fitch Cuts India GDP Growth Forecast For FY20 To 6.8%

12.Which country ban Assault Weapons

 A.New Zealand

B.Russia 

C.Thailand

D.Pakistan

Answer: A

Explanation:

New Zealand ban Assault Weapons.

13.—– to donate IPL opener proceeds to families of Pulwama attack

 A.CSK

B.Mumbai Indians 

C.Rajasthan Royals

D.Delhi Daredevils

Answer: A

Explanation:

CSK to donate IPL opener proceeds to families of Pulwama attack.

14.Which Ministry releases national guidelines on responsible business conduct

 A.Ministry of Coroprate Affairs

B.Ministry of Defence 

C.Ministry of External Affairs

D.Ministrey of Internal Affairs

Answer: A

Explanation:

Ministry of Coroprate Affairs releases national guidelines on responsible business conduct.

15.Which state plans to introduce caravans in major spots to boost tourism

 A.Uttarkhand

B.TamilNadu 

C.Andhra Pradesh

D.Himachal Pradesh

Answer: A

Explanation:

Uttarkhand state plans to introduce caravans in major spots to boost tourism.

Q16. The RBI’s decision to infuse rupee liquidity through long term foreign exchange swap, a first of its kind in liquidity management policy, is likely to boost investments by foreign portfolio investors under the voluntary retention route.

Which of the following statements regarding the same are true ?

1) Such a swap route has been explored by various emerging market economies as an effective tool to manage liquidity.

2) Apart from liquidity infusion, the move will boost the country’s foreign exchange reserves and is likely to support the exchange rate.

3) The objective of the regulator (RBI) is also to attract long-term and stable FPI investments in the debt market while providing FPIs with operational flexibility to manage their investments.

A) 1 & 2 only

B) 2 & 3 only

C) 1 & 3 only

D) all of the above

Answer: D

Q17. Consider the following pairs of hydro power projects in India and their corresponding rivers :

1) NathpaJakri :Satluj

2) Srisailam : Godavari

3) Indira sagar : Narmada

4) Dehar( Pandoh) : Ravi

5) Idukki :Periyar

Which of the above pairs are correctly matched ?

A) 1,2& 3 only

B) 3,4 & 5 only

C) 1,3 & 5 only

D) all of the above

Answer: C

Q18. Which of the following statements regarding Rajiv Gandhi Panchayat Sashaktikaran Yojana (RGPSY) are true?

1) The goals of the scheme include to strengthen Gram Sabhas to function effectively as the basic forum of people’s participation, transparency and accountability within the Panchayat system.

2) The scheme recognizes the fact that States have different needs and priorities and therefore allows for State specific planning, whereby States can choose from a menu of permissible activities.

3) This scheme is applicable to all States/ UTs except those which presently are not covered by Part IX of the Constitution.

A) 1 & 2 only

B) 2 & 3 only

C) 1 & 3 only

D) all of the above

Answer: A

Q19. Consider the following statements regarding RTI act & the exemptions under the act:

1) The RTI act mandates that all records that are appropriate to be computerized and within a reasonable time and subject to availability be digitized.

2) Under the act any information received under the confidence of a foreign government is deemed to be valid unless it endangers the life or physical property of a person.

3) Even though national parties are public authorities, they are exempted from RTI disclosures under section 8(1) of the RTI act.

Which of the above statements are not correct?

A) 1 & 2 only

B) 2 & 3 only

C) 1 & 3 only

D) all of the above

Answer: B

Q20. The books “Abhyuday Hindustan & Leader was written by which of the following Indian freedom struggle personalities?

A) Lalahardayal

B) Hakim Ajmal Khan

C) Madan Mohan Malviya

D) Arvindo ghosh

Answer: C

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