MYUPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020 Mock Test – 5

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upsc ias prelims exam 2020 test series, Civil Services Preliminary Examination Free solved Test.

Practice Mock Test – 5

Q1. Which of the following adaptations is/are found in the mangrove plants?

1. Absence of stomata.

2. Turn their leaves to reduce exposure to the sunlight.

3. Pneumatophores

4. Salt glands

Select the correct code:

a) 1, 2, 3

b) 1, 3, 4

c) 2, 3, 4

d) 1, 2, 3, 4

Answer: c

Q2. Which of the following are responsible for land degradation?

1. Overgrazing

2. Salination

3. Water-logging

4. Landslides

5. Practice of Jhum cultivation

Select the correct code:

a) 1, 2, 3

b) 1, 2, 3, 4

c) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

d) 1, 2, 4, 5

Answer: c

Q3. Consider the following pairs.

Disease                       Pollutant

1. Itai-itai disease                  Cadmium

2. Minamata disease                         Mercury

3. Blue Baby Syndrome                    Arsenic

Which of the above pairs is/are correctly matched?

a) 1, 3

b) 2, 3

c) 1, 2

d) 1, 2, 3

Answer: c

Q4. Which of the following pyramids can be both upright and inverted?

1. Pyramid of Biomass

2. Pyramid of Numbers

3. Pyramid of Productivity

Select the correct code:

a) 1, 2

b) 2, 3

c) 1, 3

d) 1, 2, 3

Answer: a

Q5. The increasing amount of carbon dioxide in the air is slowly raising the temperature of the atmosphere, because it absorbs

a) The water vapours of the air and retains its heat

b) Infrared part of solar radiation

c) The ultraviolet part of the solar radiation

d) All the solar radiations

Answer: b

Q6. Which of the following Ramsar site is manmade?

a) Deepor Beel

b) Wular Lake

c) Bhoj Wetland

d) Loktak Lake

Answer: c

Q7. Consider the following statements about South Asian Nitrogen Hub.

1. The Indian government has announced a research project, South Asian Nitrogen Hub.

2. The project aims to study the impact of different forms of nitrogen pollution, particularly looking at nitrogen in agriculture in eight countries of South Asia.

3. UNEP will partner with different organisations from South Asia.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1, 2

b) 2 only

c) 2, 3

d) 1, 2, 3

Answer: b

Q8. With reference to food chains in ecosystems, consider the following statements:

1. A food chain illustrates the order in which a chain of organisms feed upon each other.

2. Food chains are found within the population of a species.

3. A food chain illustrates the numbers of each organism which are eaten by others.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) 1 only

b) 1 and 2 only

c) 1, 2, 3

d) None

Answer: a

Q9. Consider the following statements about Wildlife Protection Society of India.

1. It is an attached office to the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC).

2. It protects endangered species and their habitats through awareness, support, and training.

3. Collaborate with state governments to monitor the illegal wildlife trade.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1, 2

b) 1, 3

c) 2, 3

d) 1, 2, 3

Answer: c

Q10. Consider the following statements about “ECOMARK” scheme.

1. It is a Scheme on Labelling of Environment Friendly Products.

2. Provide an incentive for manufacturers and importers to reduce adverse environmental impact of products.

3. Reward initiatives by companies to reduce adverse environmental impact of their products.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1, 2

b) 2, 3

c) 1, 3

d) 1, 2, 3

Answer: d

Q11. The composting process is dependent on which of the following micro-organisms?

1. Bacteria

2. Fungi

3. Virus

4. Actino bacteria

Select the correct code:

a) 1, 2, 3

b) 1, 2

c) 1, 2, 4

d) 1, 2, 3, 4

Answer: c

Q12. The Global Environment Facility (GEF) serves as a financial mechanism for which of the following conventions?

1. Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)

2. Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES)

3. UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)

4. Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer

Select the correct code:

a) 1, 2, 3

b) 1, 3

c) 1, 3, 4

d) 1, 2, 3, 4

Answer: b

Q13. Consider the following statements.

1. Bioleaching is used essentially for the recovery of copper, uranium and gold.

2. Bioaugmentation can be involved in bioremediation.

3. Biosparging can be used to reduce concentrations of petroleum constituents that are dissolved in groundwater.

Which of the above statements is/are incorrect?

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) 3 only

d) None

Answer: d

Q14. Consider the following statements about Mammals of India (MAOI) initiative.

1. It is an online, peer- reviewed, freely-accessible portal exclusively for mammals.

2. It is the initiative of Ministry of Environment & Forests (MoEF).

3. It provides a facility to the citizen to upload photographic observations about mammals.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1 only

b) 2, 3

c) 1, 3

d) 1, 2, 3

Answer: c

Q15. Consider the following statements.

1. It is recognized as an Important Bird Area by BirdLife International.

2. It was declared as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.

3. The forest region is home to world’s largest population of Indian Rhinoceros.

4. It is also a Tiger Reserve.

The above statements are related to which National Park?

a) Manas National Park

b) Nameri National Park

c) Orang National Park

d) Kaziranga National Park

Answer: d

MYUPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020 Mock Test – 4

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upsc ias prelims exam 2020 test series, Civil Services Preliminary Examination Free solved Test.

Practice Mock Test – 4

Q1. Consider the following pairs.

     Governor-General                                  Events in their Rule

1. Cornwallis                                      Introduction of Civil services

2. Wellesley                                        Telegraph and postal reforms

3. William Bentinck                           Introduction of English as official language

4. Dalhousie                                       Introduction of Subsidiary Alliance

Which of the above pairs are correctly matched?

a) 2, 4

b) 1, 3

c) 1, 2, 3

d) 2, 3, 4

Answer: b)

Explaination:

Cornwallis – Europeanisation of administrative machinery and Introduction of Civil services.

Wellesley – Introduction of Subsidiary Alliance, 1798.

William Bentinck – Educational reforms and introduction of English as the official language.

Dalhousie – Telegraph (4000 miles of telegraph lines to connect Calcutta with Bombay, Madras and Peshawar) and postal (Post Office Act, 1854) reforms.

Q2. Consider the following statements.

1. Charter Act of 1813 promoted modern sciences in the country.

2. Macaulay’s Minute led to the promotion of mass education.

3. Hunter Education Commission report is considered as the ‘Magna Carta of English Education in India”.

Which of the above statements is/are incorrect?

a) 1, 2

b) 1, 3

c) 2, 3

d) 1, 2, 3

Answer: c

Q3. Muhammad Ali Jinnah in March 1929 gave fourteen points for safeguarding the rights and interests of the Muslims. Which of the following were included in the fourteen points?

1. Federal Constitution with residual powers to provinces.

2. One-third Muslim representation in the central legislature.

3. Separation of Sindh from Bombay.

4. Not separate electorates, but joint electorates with reserved seats for Muslims.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1, 2, 4

b) 1, 3, 4

c) 1, 2, 3

d) 2, 3, 4

Answer: c

Q4. Which of the following is/are correct about Pathshala under British India?

1. These were institutions working on the principle of decentralized governance with minimum of rules

2. Wood’s Despatch was against the system of Pathshala.

Select the correct answer sing codes below.

a) Only 1

b) Only 2

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: a

Q5. The Lahore Session of the Indian National Congress (1929) is very important in history, because:

1. The Congress passed a resolution demanding complete independence.

2. The rift between the extremists and moderates was resolved in that Session.

3. A resolution was passed rejecting the two-nation theory in that Session

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) 1 only

b) 2, 3

c) 1, 3

d) None

Answer: a

Q6. With reference to medieval kingdoms of North-eastern India what was the position of paiks?

a) They were the patrons of literature and arts.

b) They were mercenaries recruited from other kingdoms.

c) They held large amount of land and gold and donated it for public welfare.

d) They were forced to work for the state.

Answer: d

Q7. Kornish in medieval history refers to:

a) A kind of salutation.

b) A kind of revenue system.

c) A title given to the courtier

d) A kind of crop brought to India by the British.

Answer: a

Explaination:

Kornish was a form of ceremonial salutation in which the courtier placed the palm of his right hand against his forehead and bent his head. It suggested that the subject placed his head – the seat of the senses and the mind – into the hand of humility, presenting it to the royal assembly.

Q8. Which of the following statements is/are correct about Iltutmish, the medieval ruler?

1. He founded the Ilbari dynasty.

2. He introduced the Arabic Coinage into India.

3. He introduced the Persian festival of Nauroz.

Select the correct code:

a) 1, 3

b) 2, 3

c) 1, 2

d) 1, 2, 3

Answer: c

Q9. Which of the following statements is/are correct?

1. Samudragupta was an ardent follower of Vaishnavism.

2. He had very little interest in music.

3. He patronized the great Buddhist scholar Vasubandu.

Select the correct answer using the codes below:

a) 1, 2

b) 2, 3

c) 1, 3

d) 1, 2, 3

Answer: c

Q10. Consider the following dynasties of Medieval India.

1. Rajput

2. Lodi

3. Tughluq

4. Sayyid

The correct chronological order in which they appeared in India is?

a) 3, 1, 2, 4

b) 3, 1, 4, 2

c) 1, 3, 2, 4

d) 1, 3, 4, 2

Answer: d

Q11. Which of the following provisions are related to the Charter Act of 1813?

a) It ended the activities of the East India Company as a commercial body.

b) It introduced for the first time, local representation in the Central Legislative Council.

c) For the first time explicitly defined the constitutional position of the British territories in India.

d) It separated for the first time, the legislative and executive functions of the Governor- General’s council.

Answer: c

Explaination:

Statement a – Charter Act of 1833

Statement b and d – Charter Act of 1853

Q12. Which of the following statement is correct regarding Hunter Education Commission?

a) Government of India must assume responsibility for education of the masses.

b) Indian learning was inferior to European learning.

c) For improving university education, improving secondary education was a necessary.

d) Primary education should be imparted through vernacular.

Answer: d

Q13. By the time Gandhiji arrived in India

1. Indian National Congress (INC) was already established in India

2. He had already forged a technique of non-violent Satyagraha in South Africa

3. The first Swadeshi movement had already been waged

Select the correct code:

a) 1, 2

b) 2, 3

c) 1, 3

d) 1, 2, 3

Answer: d

Q14. The partition of Bengal by Lord Curzon intended to

1. Curb Bengali influence

2. Divide people on the basis of religion

3. Achieve administration convenience

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1 only

b) 1, 2

c) 2, 3

d) 1, 2, 3

Answer: d

Q15. Which of the following Indian activist, thinker and social reformer was famously known as Lokhitwadi?

a) Mahadev Govind Ranade

b) Akshay Kumar Dutt

c) Gopal Hari Deshmukh

d) Jyotiba Phule

Answer: C

Q16. The Sangam texts mention prominently the ports of

1. Musiri

2. Tondi

3. Korkai

4. Podouke (Arikamedu)

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 2, 4

b) 1, 3

c) 1, 2, 3

d) 2, 3, 4

Answer: b

Q17. He was a follower of Jainism in the early part of his career and converted to Saivism later. He is hailed as ‘Vichitra chitta’ who constructed a temple for Brahma, Vishnu and Siva without the use of bricks, timber, metal and mortar. Who is the ruler?

a) Rajaraja Chola 1

b) Kadambas of Banavasi

c) Harihara 1

d) Mahendravarman I

Answer: d

Q18. Why did Buddhism start declining in India in the early medieval times?

1. Vaishnavism, Shaivism and other Hindu traditions became increasingly popular, and

Brahmins developed a new relationship with the state

2. The Kings of Gupta dynasty were strongly opposed to Buddhism.

Select the correct code:

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both

d) None

Answer: a

Q19. Consider the following statements.

1. Most of the Ashoka’s inscriptions were in Pali language.

2. Arikamedu is a coastal settlement known for it being a site for unloading goods from distant lands.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both

d) None

Answer: b

Q20. Consider the following statements about Chalukyas

1. The Chalukya administration was highly decentralized.

2. They developed the Dravidian style in the building of structural temples.

3. Their cave temples are found in Ajanta, Ellora and Nasik.

Which of the above statements is/are incorrect?

a) 1, 2 and 3

b) 3 only

c) 1, 3

d) 2 only

Answer: a

Must Read Books for UPSC Civil Services Examination

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MYUPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020 Mock Test – 2

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upsc ias prelims exam 2020 test series, Civil Services Preliminary Examination Free solved Test.

Practice Mock Test – 2

Q1. Consider the following statements about Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD).

1. The western Indian Ocean becomes alternately warmer and then colder than the eastern part of the ocean.

2. A study has demonstrated a significant correlation between the IOD and drought in the southern half of Australia.

3. IOD can either aggravate or weaken the impact of El Nino on Indian monsoon.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1, 2

b) 2, 3

c) 1, 3

d) 1, 2, 3

Answer: d

Q2. Consider the following statements about anticyclone?

1. It is an area of high pressure.

2. The wind direction is Anticlockwise in the Northern Hemisphere.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both

d) None

Answer: a

Q3. The most prominent feature in the oceans, forming an almost continuous mountain range, is the

a) Seamount

b) Deep ocean trench

c) Abyssal plain

d) Mid-ocean ridge

Answer: d

Q4. Qatar is bordered by which of the following countries.

1. United Arab Emirates

2. Bahrain

3. Saudi Arabia

Select the correct code:

a) 1, 3

b) 2, 3

c) 3 only

d) 1, 2

Answer: c)

Explaination:

Qatar has one land border. The country borders Saudi Arabia to the south.

Q5. The California Ocean current, which flows along the west coast of North America, is a

a) Cold current, flowing north

b) Cold current, flowing south

c) Warm current, flowing south

d) Warm current, flowing north

Answer: b

Explaination:

The California Current is a Pacific Ocean current that moves southward along the western coast of North America, beginning off southern British Columbia and ending off southern Baja California Peninsula. It is considered an Eastern boundary current due to the influence of the North American coastline on its course. It is also one of five major coastal currents affiliated with strong upwelling zones, the others being the Humboldt Current, the Canary Current, the Benguela Current, and the Somali Current. The California Current is part of the North Pacific Gyre, a large swirling current that occupies the northern basin of the Pacific.

Q6. Which of the following port is known as “Queen of Arabian Sea”?

a) Jawaharlal Nehru port

b) Marmagao port

c) Kochi port

d) New Mangalore port

Answer: c

Explaination:

Kochi is a major port city on the south-west coast of India bordering the Laccadive Sea. Called the Queen of the Arabian Sea, Kochi was an important spice trading centre on the west coast of India from the 14th century onward.

Q7. Which of the following factors affect Ocean Salinity?

1. Evaporation

2. Wind

3. Influx of river water

4. Ocean currents

5. Precipitation

Select the correct code:

a) 1, 3, 5

b) 1, 2, 3, 5

c) 1, 3, 4, 5

d) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

Answer: d

Q8. December and January are the coldest months in the northern plain. The reasons for the excessive cold in north India are:

1. far away from the sea.

2. Snowfall in the nearby Himalayan ranges

3. Cold winds coming from Taklamakan Desert and Plateau of Tibet.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1, 2

b) 2, 3

c) 1, 3

d) 1, 2, 3

Answer: a

Explaination:

There are three main reasons for the excessive cold in north India during this season:

(i) States like Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan being far away from the moderating influence of sea experience continental climate.

(ii) The snowfall in the nearby Himalayan ranges creates cold wave situation; and

(iii) Around February, the cold winds coming from the Caspian Sea and Turkmenistan bring cold wave along with frost and fog over the north-western parts of India.

Q9. Consider the following statements about Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ).

1. ITCZ is also known as doldrums

2. ITCZ is an area encircling the Earth near the Equator, where the northeast and southeast trade winds converge

3. ITCZ has no effect on tropical cyclone formation

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1, 2

b) 2, 3

c) 1, 3

d) 1, 2, 3

Answer: a

Q10. Which of the following explains why one side of a mountain usually has more precipitation than the other side?

a) Temperatures are higher on one side of a mountain than on the other

b) The atmosphere gets denser as elevation increases

c) The land on one side is more green and lush than the other

d) Mountains force air to rise, and air cools and releases moisture as it rises

Answer: d

Q11. Consider the following statements about Inflation Indexed Bond (IIB)

1. It is a bond issued by the Government and the corporate sector.

2. There are no special tax concessions for these bonds.

3. They are eligible to be kept as part of Statutory Liquidity Ratio requirements of banks.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1, 2

b) 2, 3

c) 1, 3

d) 1, 2, 3

Answer: b

Q12. Consider the following statements about Peer to peer (P2P) lending.

1. It is a form of crowd funding used to raise unsecured loans which are re-paid with interest.

2. Only individuals can borrow money.

3. RBI enabled P2P entities as Non-Banking Financial Company (NBFC).

4. Minimum net worth requirement for these platforms is kept at Rs. 5 Cr.

Which of the above statements is/are incorrect?

a) 1, 2

b) 1, 2, 3

c) 2, 4

d) 2, 3, 4

Answer: c

Q13. Under Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR) all Scheduled Commercial Banks in India must maintain an amount in which of the following forms?

1. Cash

2. Gold

3. Treasury-Bills of the Government of India

4. Corporate Bonds

5. State Development Loans (SDLs)

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1, 2, 3

b) 1, 2, 3, 5

c) 1, 2, 5

d) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

Answer: b

Q14. Buoyancy of tax refers to?

a) Relationship between the changes in government’s tax revenue growth and the changes in Inflation.

b) Relationship between the changes in government’s tax revenue growth and the changes in GDP.

c) Relationship between the changes in government’s tax revenue growth and the changes in Investment.

d) Relationship between the changes in government’s tax revenue growth and the changes in demand.

Answer: b

Q15. Which of the following developments may not likely reduce the fiscal deficit?

1. Increasing Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)

2. Providing budgetary support to public sector enterprises

3. Waiving off farm loans.

4. Austerity measures should be adopted.

Select the correct code:

a) 1, 4

b) 2, 3

c) 2, 3, 4

d) 1, 2, 3

Answer: b

Q16. Consider the following statements about Reserve Bank of India.

1. The bank was set up based on the recommendations of the Hilton–Young Commission.

2. Performs merchant banking function for the central and the state governments; also acts as their banker.

3. Manages the Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999.

4. Issues and exchanges or destroys currency and coins not fit for circulation.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1, 2, 3

b) 2, 3, 4

c) 1, 2, 4

d) 1, 2, 3, 4

Answer: d

Q17. Consider the following statements about Rural Infrastructure Development Fund (RIDF).

1. Government of India created the RIDF in NABARD.

2. The eligible activities are classified into Agriculture and related sector, Social sector and rural connectivity.

3. Panchayat Raj Institutions, Self Help Groups (SHGs) and NGOs are also eligible to receive funds.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1, 2

b) 2, 3

c) 1, 3

d) 1, 2, 3

Answer: d

Q18. Consider the following statements about ‘Fiat Money’.

1. It is a currency that a government has declared to be legal tender.

2. It is backed by a physical commodity.

3. Its value increases during hyperinflation.

Which of the above statements is/are incorrect?

a) 1 only

b) 2, 3

c) 1, 3

d) 1, 2, 3

Answer: b

Q19. Consider the following statements about fugitive economic offender.

1. It is an individual who has committed some specified offence(s) involving an amount of one hundred crore rupees or more and has absconded from India.

2. He is declared so by a ‘Special Court’ set up under the Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988.

3. The property of a fugitive economic offender, resulting from the proceeds of crime, including benami property, can be confiscated once he is declared so by the Court.

4. Properties abroad are not liable for confiscation.

Which of the above statements is/are incorrect?

a) 1, 3

b) 2, 4

c) 2 only

d) 1, 3, 4

Answer: b

Q20. Consider the following statements about Consumer Food Price Index (CFPI).

1. It is a measure of change in retail prices of food products consumed by a defined population group in a given area

2. It is released by Central Statistics Office (CSO) for three categories -rural, urban and combined.

3. Cereals and products constitute more than 50 percent weight within CFPI.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1, 2

b) 1, 3

c) 2, 3

d) 1, 2, 3

Answer: a

Q21. Which of the following statement about ‘White Label ATMs’ is correct?

a) These ATMs are set up, owned and operated by Non-bank entities.

b) These ATMs are set up, owned and operated by the sponsor bank whose brand is used on the ATM. c) ATMs owned by a service provider, but cash management and connectivity to banking networks is provided by a sponsor bank whose brand is used on the ATM. d) These are ATMs operated abroad to withdraw Indian currency.

Answer: a

Q22. Sunil Mehta Committee is related to

a) To prepare a blueprint for doubling farmers’ income by 2022.

b) Drafting New Direct Tax Legislation.

c) Examine the setting up of an Asset Reconstruction Company (ARC) for faster resolution of stressed assets.

d) Resolving raising fuel prices in India.

Answer: c

Explaination:

Sunil Mehta Committee was constituted to examine the setting up of an Asset Reconstruction Company (ARC) and/or Asset Management Company (AMC) for faster resolution of stressed assets.

Q23. Which of the following factors can lead to Demand-pull inflation?

1. Strong consumer demand

2. Increase in money supply

3. When prices go up

4. Technological innovation

Select the correct code:

a) 1, 2, 3

b) 1, 2, 4

c) 1, 3, 4

d) 1, 2, 3, 4

Answer: b

Q24. A country can reduce its current account deficit by

1. Improving domestic companies’ global competitiveness

2. Decreasing the value of its exports relative to the value of imports

3. Placing restrictions on imports, such as tariffs or quotas

Select the correct code:

a) 1, 2

b) 2, 3

c) 1, 3

d) 1, 2, 3

Answer: c

Q25. Consider the following statements:

1. India’s tax-GDP ratio is very low compared to other developing countries or emerging markets

2. Lower tax-GDP ratio can be addressed by mobilising greater tax revenues

Select the correct code:

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both

d) None

Answer: b

Q26. APMCs are intended to be responsible for:

1. Providing market-led extension services to farmers.

2. Ensuring payment for agricultural produce sold by farmers on the same day.

3. Setup public private partnership in the management of agricultural markets.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1 only

b) 2, 3

c) 1, 3

d) 1, 2, 3

Answer: d

Q27. In India, Alternative Investment Funds (AIFs) include:

1. Mutual funds

2. Venture Capital Fund

3. Private equity funds

4. Infrastructure funds

Select the correct code:

a) 1, 2, 3

b) 2, 3, 4

c) 1, 3, 4

d) 1, 2, 3, 4

Answer: b

Q28. Which of the following statements about Monetary Policy Framework Agreement is correct?

a) It is an agreement between Government and Reserve Bank of India (RBI) on the maximum tolerable inflation rate that RBI should target to achieve price stability.

b) It is an agreement between Government and Reserve Bank of India (RBI) on the minimum inflation rate that RBI should target to achieve growth.

c) It is an agreement between Banks and Reserve Bank of India (RBI) to ensure that the changes in the Interest rates are passed on to the customers.

d) Both b and c

Answer: a

Q29. With reference to the Financial Stability and Development Council (FSDC), consider the following statements:

1. It is headed by the Governor of RBI

2. It will monitor macro prudential supervision of the economy, including the functioning of large financial conglomerates.

3. It will focus on financial literacy and financial inclusion.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1, 2

b) 1, 3

c) 2, 3

d) 1, 2, 3

Answer: c

Q30. Consider the following statements about National Anti-profiteering Authority (NAA).

1. It is headed by the Finance Minister.

2. The Authority’s core function is to ensure that the benefits of the reduction in GST rates are passed on to the ultimate consumers.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both

d) None

Answer: b

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APPSC Andhra Pradesh Current Affairs Yearbook 2019-20
Haryana Current Affairs Yearbook 2019-20 Updated
2000 MCQ: IAS Preliminary exam 2020
Indian Geography-NCERT MCQ Compilation Class 6-12th
UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020 Test -10
Geography & Environment Current issues yearbook 2019
Indian Polity and Governance Yearbook 2019-20
Indian Polity and Governance Yearbook 2019-20
UPSC IAS Prelims Previous Year Solved Paper 2010-19
UPSC IAS Prelims 2020 Practice Test 9
UPSC IAS Main Exam GS Paper-4 Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude
UPSC IAS Main Exam GS Paper-3 Complete Study Notes
UPSC IAS Main Exam GS Paper-2 Complete Study Notes
UPSC IAS Main exam GS Paper-1 Complete study notes
Art & Culture of India
Indian History Complete Study Notes
Indian Polity for Civil Services Examination
Physical Economic and Human Geography of India
Art Culture & Heritage of Rajasthan
Economy of Rajasthan Complete Study Notes with Practice MCQ
Geography of Rajasthan Complete Study Notes with Practice MCQ
Polity and Administration of Rajasthan Complete Study Notes with MCQ
History of Rajasthan Complete Study Notes with Practice MCQ
Current Affairs Rajasthan Yearbook 2019
राजस्थान सामान्य अध्ययन:नोट्स एवं अभ्यास 1000+प्रश्नोत्तर
Current Affairs Study Notes January – August 2019

 

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ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

Industry 4.0, also known as the intelligent industry, is considered to be the fourth industrial revolution, a term coined by Professor Schwa band seeks to transform a company into an intelligent organization to achieve the best business results. To some, it will seem too soon to talk about the next industrial revolution, i.e., the fourth industrial revolution, but the adoption of Artificial Intelligence has reached a point where we are ready for another radical change, the digital transformation of the industry or what we call industry 4.0. The change is based on the adoption of Artificial Intelligence for the progressive automation of the production process.

Artificial Intelligence (AI)

  • AI is the science of building computers that can solve problems the way humans do. With intelligent machines enabling high­ level cognitive processes like thinking, perceiving, learning, problem solving and decision making, coupled with advances in data collection and aggregation, analytics and computer processing power, AI presents opportunities to complement and supplement human intelligence and enrich the way people live and work.
  • The term was coined in 1956 by John McCarthy at the Dartmouth conference, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
  • It encompasses everything from robotic process automation to actual robotics.
  • Recently it has become widely popular and gained prominence due to its multifaceted application ranging from healthcare to military devices.
  • AI is a constellation of technologies that enable machines to act with higher levels of intelligence and emulate the human capabilities of sense, comprehend and act.
  • The natural language processing and inference engines can enable AI systems to analyse and understand the information collected.
  • An AI system can also take action through technologies such as expert systems and inference engines or undertake actions in the physical world.

 Machine Learning  Deep Learning
 This term was coined by Artur Samuel in 1959, meant “the ability to learn without being explicitly programmed.”  It is a technique for implementing Machine Learning. It was inspired by the structure and function of the brain, specifically the interconnecting of many neurons.
 It involves the use of algorithms to parse data and learn from it, and making a prediction as a result.  Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are algorithms that are based on the biological structure of the brain.
 The machine gets “trained” using large amounts of data and algorithms, and in turn gains the capability to perform specific tasks.  In ANNs, there are ‘neurons’ which have discrete layers and connections to other “neurons”. Each layer picks out a specific feature to learn. It’s this layering that gives deep learning its name.

What is the philosophy and ethics of Artificial Intelligence?

  • The R&D of AI started with the intention of creating intelligence in machines that we find and regard high in humans.

Applications of Artificial Intelligence (AI)

  • Self-driving Cars: Advances in artificial intelligence have brought us very close to making the decades-long dream of autonomous driving a reality. AI algorithms are one of the main components that enable self-driving cars to make sense of their surroundings, taking in feeds from cameras installed around the vehicle and detecting objects such as roads, traffic signs, other cars, and people.
  • Digital assistants and smart speakers: Siri, Alexa, Cortana, and Google Assistant use artificial intelligence to transform spoken words to text and map the text to specific commands. AI helps digital assistants make sense of different nuances in spoken language and synthesize human-like voices.
  • Translation : For many decades, translating text between different languages was a pain point for computers. But deep learning has helped create a revolution in services such as Google Translate. To be clear, AI still has a long way to go before it masters human language, but so far, advances are spectacular.
  • Facial recognition: Facial recognition is one of the most popular applications of artificial intelligence. It has many uses, including unlocking your phone, paying with your face, and detecting intruders in your home. But the increasing availability of facial-recognition technology has also given rise to concerns regarding privacy, security, and civil liberties.
  • Medicine: From detecting skin cancer and analyzing X-rays and MRI scans to providing personalized health tips and managing entire healthcare systems, artificial intelligence is becoming a key enabler in healthcare and medicine. AI won’t replace your doctor, but it could help to bring about better health services, especially in underprivileged areas, where AI-powered health assistants can take some of the load off the shoulders of the few general practitioners who have to serve large populations.
  • Agriculture Sector : AI can be used to predict advisories for sowing, pest control, input control can help in ensuring increased income and providing stability for the agricultural community. Image classification tools combined with remote and local sensed data can bring a revolutionary change in utilisation and efficiency of farm machinery, in areas of weed removal, early disease identification, produce harvesting and grading.
  • Business Sector: To take care of highly repetitive tasks Robotic process automation is applied which perform faster and effortlessly than humans. Further, Machine learning algorithms are being integrated into analytics and CRM platforms to provide better customer service. Chat bots being used into the websites to provide immediate service to customers. Automation of job positions has also become a talking point among academics and IT consultancies such as Gartner and Forrester.
  • Education Sector: AI can make some of the educational processes automated such as grading, rewarding marks etc. therefore giving educators more time. Further, it can assess students and adapt to their needs, helping them work at their own pace. AI may change where and how students learn, perhaps even replacing some teachers.
  • Financial Sector: It can be applied to the personal finance applications and could collect personal data and provide financial advice. In fact, today software trades more than humans on the Wall Street.
  • Legal Sector: Automation can lead to faster resolution of already pending cases by reducing the time taken while analyzing cases thus better use of time and more efficient processes.
  • Manufacturing sector: Robots are being used for manufacturing since a long time now, however, more advanced exponential technologies have emerged such as additive manufacturing (3D Printing) which with the help of AI can revolutionize the entire manufacturing supply chain ecosystem.
  • Intelligent Robots: Robots can perform the tasks given by a human because of sensors to detect physical data from the real world such as light, heat, temperature, movement, sound, bump, and pressure. Moreover, they have efficient processors, multiple sensors and huge memory, to exhibit intelligence. Further, they are capable of learning from their errors and therefore can adapt to the new environment.
  • Gaming : AI has a crucial role in strategic games such as chess, poker, tic-tac-toe, etc., where the machine can think of a large number of possible positions based on heuristic knowledge.
  • Cyber Security: In the 20th conference on e-governance in India it was discussed that AI can provide more teeth to cyber security and must be explored.
  • Smart Cities and Infrastructure: Use of AI to monitor patronage and accordingly control associated systems such as pavement lighting, park maintenance and other operational conditions could lead to cost savings while also improving safety and accessibility.

Global Developments

  • China and U.K. estimate that 26% and 10% of their GDPs respectively in 2030 will be sourced from Air elated activities and businesses.
  • There has been tremendous activity concerning AI policy positions and the development of an AI ecosystem in different countries over the last 18 to 24 months.
  • Infrastructural supply side interventions have been planned by various countries for creating a larger ecosystem of AI development.
  • Not just national governments, but even local city governments have become increasingly aware about the importance and potential of AI and have committed public investments.
  • For building the future workforce for AI, countries are also significantly increasing the allocation of resources for Science, Technology, Engineering and Maths (STEM) talent development through investment in universities, mandating new courses (e.g., AI and law), and offering schemes to retrain people.
  • AI technology development and applications are evolving rapidly with major implications for economies and societies. A study by EY and NASCCOM found that by 2022, around 46% of the workforce will be engaged in entirely new jobs.


                   Advantages of AI                        Disadvantages of AI
No leisure time requiredLower error rate compared to humans. Better precision and accuracy. Eg: Robotic radio surgeryBetter speedNot affected by surrounding environmentReplace humans in repetitive, tedious tasksBetter user experience through predictive technology e.g. Help in predicting what a user will type, ask, search, and do. Can easily act as assistants and recommend actions.Interact with humans for entertainment or a task. E.g. Sophia robotLogical – devoid of emotions. Can make rational decisions with less or no mistakes. The decrease in demand for human labour due to machines and intelligent robots taking over the jobs in the manufacturing and the services sectors. For Example: In China some customs officers are now robots, In Japan robots as housemaid is emerging trend.Existential risks: Stephen Hawkins has once said “The development of full artificial intelligence could spell the end of the human race. Once humans develop artificial intelligence, it will take off on its own and redesign itself at an ever-increasing rate. Humans, who are limited by slow biological evolution, couldn’t compete and would be superseded”.AI technologies falling into terrorist hands may unleash modern terror network including machine and therefore vulnerability of humans may magnify.It may lead to moral degradation in society due to decreased human to human interactions.

Possible areas for AI applications in Indian conditions

  • India has the potential to position itself among leaders on the global AI map – with a unique brand of #AIforAll.
  • It can complement Digital India Mission by helping in the big data analysis which is not possible without using AI.
  • Targeted delivery of services, schemes, and subsidy can be further fine-tuned.
  • Smart border surveillance and monitoring to enhance security infrastructure.
  • Weather forecasting models may become proactive and therefore preplanning for any future mishaps such as floods, droughts and therefore addressing the farming crisis, farmer’s suicide, crop losses etc.
  • By analyzing big data of road safety data and NCRB (National Crime Record Bureau) data for crimes, new policies can be formulated.
  • Disaster management can be faster and more accessible with the help of robots and intelligent machines.
  • In the counterinsurgency and patrolling operations, we often hear the loss of CRPF jawans which can be minimized by using the robotic army and lesser human personnel.
  • AI can be used to automate government processes, therefore, minimizing human interactions and maximizing transparency and accountability.
  • It can be applied to study ancient literature upon medicines and therefore help in modernizing the health care with the juxtaposition of modern machines and ancient techniques.
  • In the remotest areas where the last leg of governance is almost broken, AI can do the job. For Example: in the tribal areas and the hilly areas of the northeast.

Nodal organization of the government for the research work on AI

  • Centre for artificial intelligence and robotics (CAIR), is the primary laboratory of DRDO for research and development in different areas of defense, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and is located in Bangalore. It is involved in the Research & Development of high-quality Secure Communication, Command, and Control, and Intelligent Systems.
  • Projects: NETRA- software to intercept online communication, SECOS- Secure operating system.

Challenges India’s Artificial Intelligence Development is facing

  • Lack of enabling data ecosystems
  • Low intensity of AI research
  • Inadequate availability of AI expertise, manpower and skilling opportunities
  • High resource cost and low awareness for adopting AI in business processes
  • Unclear privacy, security and ethical regulations
  • Unattractive Intellectual Property regime to incentivise research and adoption of AI.

Way Forward

  • Incentivising creation of jobs that could constitute the new service industry
  • Recognition and standardisation of informal training institutions
  • Creation of open platforms for learning and financial incentives for reskilling of employees
  • Lack of qualified faculty that poses a serious problem in the present scenario can be addressed through innovative initiatives like credit­bearing MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses).
  • Acceptability and adoption of these decentralised teaching mechanisms can be ensured through prescribed certification in collaboration with the private sector and educational institutions.
  • Additional investment and collaboration with the private sector and educational institutions in order to meet the market demand.
  • To encourage the development of sustainable AI solutions at an appropriate price point for sectors such as health, education, and agriculture, it is necessary that a level playing field be ensured and a supportive environment be created for all players in the value chain.
  • AI is a highly collaborative domain, and any framework aimed at promoting AI needs to be aligned accordingly. A multi­pronged approach, involving various stakeholders and promoting a collaborative approach is required for promoting development of AI tools as well as adoption of AI in different fields of activity.

UPSC IAS Mains Exam Study Material

General Studies Paper-I

General Studies Paper-2

General Studies Paper-3

General Studies Paper-IV

Interstate water disputes

The Inter-State River Water Disputes are one of the most contentious issues in the Indian federalism today. The recent cases of the Cauvery Water Dispute and the Satluj Yamuna Link Canal are some examples. Various Inter-State Water Disputes Tribunals have been constituted so far, but they had their own problems.

Constitutional Provisions

Entry 17 of State List deals with water i.e. water supply, irrigation, canal, drainage, embankments and water storage and water power.

Entry 56 of Union List empowers the Union Government for the regulation and development of inter-state rivers and river valleys to the extent declared by Parliament to be expedient in the public interest.

According to Article 262, in case of disputes relating to waters:

Parliament may by law provide for the adjudication of any dispute or complaint with respect to the use, distribution or control of the waters of, or in, any inter-State river or river valley.

Parliament may, by law provide that neither the Supreme Court nor any other court shall exercise jurisdiction in respect of any such dispute or complaint as mentioned above.

Major Inter-State River Disputes
River (s) States
Ravi and Beas Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan
Narmada Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan
Krishna Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Telangana
Vamsadhara Andhra Pradesh & Odisha
Cauvery Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Puducherry
Godavari Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha
Mahanadi Chhattisgarh, Odisha
Mahadayi Goa, Maharashtra, Karnataka
Periyar Tamil Nadu, Kerala

Mechanism for Inter-State River Water Disputes Resolution

  • The resolution of water dispute is governed by the Inter-State Water Disputes Act, 1956.
    • According to its provisions, if a State Government makes a request regarding any water dispute and the Central Government is of opinion that the water dispute cannot be settled by negotiations, then a Water Disputes Tribunal is constituted for the adjudication of the water dispute.
  • The act was amended in 2002, to include the major recommendations of the Sarkaria Commission.

    • The amendments mandated a one year time frame to setup the water disputes tribunal and also a 3 year time frame to give a decision.

Active River Water Dispute Tribunals in India

  • Krishna Water Disputes Tribunal II (2004) – Karnataka, Telangana, Andra Pradesh, Maharashtra
  • Mahanadi Water Disputes Tribunal (2018) – Odisha & Chattisgarh
  • Mahadayi Water Disputes Tribunal (2010) – Goa,Karnataka, Maharashtra
  • Ravi & Beas Water Tribunal (1986) – Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan
  • Vansadhara Water Disputes Tribunal (2010) – Andra Pradesh & Odisha.

Issues with Interstate Water Dispute Tribunals

  • Protracted proceedings and extreme delays in dispute resolution.
    • For example, in the case of Godavari water dispute, the request was made in 1962, but the tribunal was constituted in 1968 and the award was given in 1979 which was published in the Gazette in 1980.
    • The Cauvery Water Disputes Tribunal, constituted in 1990, gave its final award in 2007.
  • Opacity in the institutional framework and guidelines that define these proceedings; and ensuring compliance.
  • Though award is final and beyond the jurisdiction of Courts, either States can approach Supreme Court under Article 136(Special Leave Petition) under Article 32 linking issue with the violation of Article 21 (Right to Life).
  • The composition of the tribunal is not multidisciplinary and it consists of persons only from the judiciary.
  • The absence of authoritative water data that is acceptable to all parties currently makes it difficult to even set up a baseline for adjudication.
  • The shift in tribunals’ approach, from deliberative to adversarial, aids extended litigation and politicisation of water-sharing disputes.
  • The growing nexus between water and politics have transformed the disputes into turfs of vote bank politics. 
    • This politicisation has also led to increasing defiance by states, extended litigations and subversion of resolution mechanisms.
    • For example, the Punjab government played truant in the case of the Ravi-Beas tribunal.
  • Too much discretion at too many stages of the process.
    • Partly because of procedural complexities involving multiple stakeholders across governments and agencies.
    • India’s complicated federal polity and its colonial legacy.

UPSC IAS Mains Exam Study Material

General Studies Paper-I

General Studies Paper-2

General Studies Paper-3

General Studies Paper-IV

BRICS-Brazil-Russia-India-China and South Africa

BRICS is an acronym for the grouping of the world’s leading emerging economies, namely Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa.

The BRICS Leaders’ Summit is convened annually.

Structure

BRICS does not exist in form of organization, but it is an annual summit between the supreme leaders of five nations.

The Chairmanship of the forum is rotated annually among the members, in accordance with the acronym B-R-I-C-S.

BRICS cooperation in the past decade has expanded to include an annual programme of over 100 sectoral meetings.

Salient Features

Together, BRICS accounts for about 40% of the world’s population and about 30% of the GDP (Gross Domestic Product), making it a critical economic engine.

It’s an emerging investment market and global power bloc.

Genesis

The acronym “BRICS” was initially formulated in 2001 by economist Jim O’Neill, of Goldman Sachs, in a report on growth prospects for the economies of Brazil, Russia, India and China – which together represented a significant share of the world’s production and population.

In 2006, the four countries initiated a regular informal diplomatic coordination, with annual meetings of Foreign Ministers at the margins of the General Debate of the UN General Assembly (UNGA).

This successful interaction led to the decision that the dialogue was to be carried out at the level of Heads of State and Government in annual Summits.

The first BRIC Summit took place in 2009 in the Russian Federation and focused on issues such as reform of the global financial architecture.

South Africa was invited to join BRIC in December 2010, after which the group adopted the acronym BRICS. South Africa subsequently attended the Third BRICS Summit in Sanya, China, in March 2011.

Objectives

The BRICS seeks to deepen, broaden and intensify cooperation within the grouping and among the individual countries for more sustainable, equitable and mutually beneficial development.

BRICS takes into consideration each member’s growth, development and poverty objectives to ensure relations are built on the respective country’s economic strengths and to avoid competition where possible.

BRICS is emerging as a new and promising political-diplomatic entity with diverse objectives, far beyond the original objective of reforming global financial institutions.

Areas of Cooperation

1. Economic Cooperation

There are rapidly growing trade and investment flows between BRICS countries as well as economic cooperation activities across a range of sectors.

Agreements have been concluded in the areas of Economic and Trade Cooperation; Innovation Cooperation, Customs Cooperation; strategic cooperation between the BRICS Business Council , Contingent Reserve Agreement and the New Development Bank.

These agreements contribute to realisation of the shared objectives of deepening economic cooperation and fostering integrated trade and investment markets.

2. People-to-People exchange

BRICS members have recognised the need for strengthening People-to-People exchanges and to foster closer cooperation in the areas of culture, sport, education, film and youth.

People-to-People exchanges seek to forge new friendships; deepen relations and mutual understanding between BRICS peoples in the spirit of openness, inclusiveness, diversity and mutual learning.

Such People to people exchanges include the Young Diplomats Forum, Parliamentarian Forum, Trade Union Forum, Civil BRICS as well as the Media Forum.

3. Political and Security Cooperation

BRICS member political and security cooperation is aimed at achieving peace, security, development and cooperation for a more equitable and fair world.

BRICS provides opportunities for sharing policy advice and exchanges of best practices in terms of domestic and regional challenges as well as advancing the restructuring of the global political architecture so that it is more balanced, resting on the pillar of multilateralism.

BRICS is utilised as a driver for South Africa’s foreign policy priorities including the pursuit of the African Agenda and South-South Cooperation.

4. Cooperation Mechanism

Cooperation among members is achieved through:

Track I: Formal diplomatic engagement between the national governments.

Track II: Engagement through government-affiliated institutions, e.g. state-owned enterprises and business councils.

Track III: Civil society and People-to-People engagement.

Impacts of BRICS on global institutional reforms

The main reason for co-operation to start among the BRICs nation was the financial crises of 2008. The crises raised doubts over sustainability of the dollar-dominated monetary system.

The BRICs called for the “the reform of multilateral institutions in order that they reflect the structural changes in the world economy and the increasingly central role that emerging markets now play”.

BRICs managed to push for institutional reform which led to International Monetary Fund (IMF) quota reform in 2010. Thus the financial crises had momentarily reduced western legitimacy and briefly let the BRICs countries become “agenda setters” in multilateral institutions.

New Development Bank

  • NDB is headquartered in Shanghai.
  • At the Fourth BRICS Summit in New Delhi (2012) the possibility of setting up a new Development Bank was considered to mobilize resources for infrastructure and sustainable development projects in BRICS and other emerging economies, as well as in developing countries.
  • During the Sixth BRICS Summit in Fortaleza (2014) the leaders signed the Agreement establishing the New Development Bank (NDB).
  • Fortaleza Declaration stressed that the NDB will strengthen cooperation among BRICS and will supplement the efforts of multilateral and regional financial institutions for global development thus contributing to sustainable and balanced growth.
  • NDB’s key areas of operation are clean energy, transport infrastructure, irrigation, sustainable urban development and economic cooperation among the member countries.
  • The NDB functions on a consultative mechanism among the BRICS members with all the member countries possessing equal rights.

Contingent Reserve Arrangement

Considering the increasing instances of global financial crisis, BRICS nations signed BRICS Contingent Reserve Arrangement (CRA) in 2014 as part of Fortaleza Declaration at Sixth BRICS summit.

The BRICS CRA aims to provide short-term liquidity support to the members through currency swaps to help mitigating BOP crisis situation and further strengthen financial stability.

The initial total committed resources of the CRA shall be one hundred billion dollars of the United States of America (USD 100 billion).

It would also contribute to strengthening the global financial safety net and complement existing international arrangements (IMF).

Challenges

The marked dominance of big three Russia-China-India is challenge for the BRICS as it moves ahead. To become a true representative of large emerging markets across the world, BRICS must become pan-continental. Its membership must include more countries from other regions and continents.

The BRICS will need to expand its agenda for increasing its relevance in the global order. As of now, climate change and development finance, aimed at building infrastructure dominate agenda.

As BRICS moves forward foundational principles of BRICS i.e. respect for sovereign equality and pluralism in global governance are liable to be tested as the five member countries pursue their own national agendas.

The military standoff between India and China on the Doklam plateau, which has effectively brought to an end the naive notion that a comfortable political relationship is always possible amongst the BRICS members

China’s efforts to co-opt nation states, which are integral to its Belt and Road Initiative, into a broader political arrangement has potential to cause conflict among BRICS members especially China and India.

Importance for India

India can benefit from collective strength of BRICS by way of consultation and cooperation on economic issues of mutual interests, as well as topical global issues, such as, international terrorism, climate change, food and energy security, reforms of global governance institutions, etc.

India remains engaged with the other BRICS countries on its NSG membership.

The NDB will help India to raise and avail resources for their infrastructure and sustainable development projects. The NDB has approved its first set of loans, which included a loan of US$ 250 million in respect of India for Multitranche Financing Facility for Renewable Energy Financing Scheme’.

UPSC IAS Mains Exam Study Material

General Studies Paper-I

General Studies Paper-2

General Studies Paper-3

General Studies Paper-IV

Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO)

What is SCO?

  • SCO is a permanent intergovernmental international organisation.
  • It’s a Eurasian political, economic and military organisation aiming to maintain peace, security and stability in the region.
  • It was created in 2001.
  • The SCO Charter was signed in 2002, and entered into force in 2003.
  • It is a statutory document which outlines the organization’s goals and principles, as well as its structure and core activities.
  • The SCO’s official languages are Russian and Chinese.

Genesis

Prior to the creation of SCO in 2001, Kazakhstan, China, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Tajikistan were members of the Shanghai Five.

Shanghai Five (1996) emerged from a series of border demarcation and demilitarization talks which the four former Soviet republics held with China to ensure stability along the borders.

Following the accession of Uzbekistan to the organisation in 2001, the Shanghai Five was renamed the SCO.

India and Pakistan became members in 2017.

Membership

  1. Kazakhstan
  2. China
  3. Kyrgyzstan
  4. Russia
  5. Tajikistan
  6. Uzbekistan
  7. India
  8. Pakistan

Observer states

  1. Afghanistan
  2. Belarus
  3. Iran
  4. Mongolia
  5. Dialogue Partner
  6. Azerbaijan
  7. Armenia
  8. Cambodia
  9. Nepal
  10. Turkey
  11. Sri Lanka

Objectives

  • Strengthening mutual trust and neighbourliness among the member states.
  • Promoting effective cooperation in -politics, trade & economy, research & technology and culture.
  • Enhancing ties in education, energy, transport, tourism, environmental protection, etc.
  • Maintain and ensure peace, security and stability in the region.
  • Establishment of a democratic, fair and rational new international political & economic order.

Guiding Principle – Based on Shanghai Spirit

  • Internal policy based on the principles of mutual trust, mutual benefit, equality, mutual consultations, respect for cultural diversity, and a desire for common development.
  • External policy in accordance with the principles of non-alignment, non-targeting any third country, and openness.

Structure of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation:

Heads of State Council – The supreme SCO body which decides its internal functioning and its interaction with other States & international organisations, and considers international issues.

Heads of Government Council – Approves the budget, considers and decides upon issues related economic spheres of interaction within SCO.

Council of Ministers of Foreign Affairs – Considers issues related to day-to-day activities.

Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure (RATS) – Established to combat terrorism, separatism and extremism

SCO Secretariat – Based in Beijing to provide informational, analytical & organisational support.

Operations

Initially, the SCO focused on mutual intraregional efforts to curb terrorism, separatism and extremism in Central Asia.

In 2006, SCO’s agenda widened to include combatting international drug trafficking as a source of financing global.

In 2008, SCO actively participated in bringing back stability in Afghanistan.

At the same time, the SCO took up a variety of economic activities:

In 2003, SCO member states signed a 20-year Programme of Multilateral Trade and Economic Cooperation for the establishment of a free trade zone within the territory under the SCO member states.

Strengths of SCO

The SCO covers 40%of the global population, nearly 20% of the global GDP and 22% of the world’s land mass.

The SCO has a strategically important role in Asia due to its geographical significance – this enables it to control the Central Asia and limit the American influence in region.

SCO is seen as counterweight to the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation.

UPSC IAS Mains Exam Study Material

General Studies Paper-I

General Studies Paper-2

General Studies Paper-3

General Studies Paper-IV

BANGLADESH-BHUTAN-INDIA-NEPAL (BBIN) INITIATIVE

The Bhutan government has decided to send the bill for ratification of the Bangladesh-Bhutan-India-Nepal (BBIN) initiative for road and rail connectivity to its upper senate.

Background:

Bangladesh, Bhutan, India and Nepal (BBIN) had signed a framework MVA in June 2015 to enable movement of passenger and cargo vehicles across borders among the four countries. Bhutan has not yet ratified the pact for its entry to come into force. However, Bhutan had given its consent for the BBIN MVA to enter into force amongst the other 3 countries i.e. Bangladesh, India and Nepal, who have already ratified it.

About BBIN MVA:

What is it? The landmark MVA was signed by Transport Ministers of the BBIN countries in Thimphu, Bhutan on 15 June 2015. As per the agreement, member countries would allow vehicles registered in the other countries to enter their territory under certain terms and conditions. Customs and tariffs will be decided by the respective countries and these would be finalised at bilateral and trilateral forums.

Objective: The main objective of the agreement is to provide seamless people-to-people contact and enhance economic interaction by facilitating cross border movement of people and goods.

Benefits: It would permit unhindered movement of passenger and cargo vehicles among the four countries. Cargo vehicles do not have to be changed at the border, a practice that has prevailed until now. The BBIN agreement will promote safe, economical efficient and environmentally sound road transport in the sub-region and will further help each country in creating an institutional mechanism for regional integration.

Assistance from ADB: The Asian Development Bank (ADB) has been providing technical, advisory, and financial support to the BBIN MVA initiative as part of its assistance to the South Asia Sub regional Economic Cooperation (SASEC) program, a projects-based economic cooperation initiative that brings together the BBIN countries, Maldives, Sri Lanka and more recently, Myanmar. ADB is the secretariat of SASEC.

UPSC IAS Mains Exam Study Material

General Studies Paper-I

General Studies Paper-2

General Studies Paper-3

General Studies Paper-IV

ASEAN:The Association of Southeast Asian Nations

What is ASEAN?

The Association of Southeast Asian Nations is a regional organization which was established to promote political and social stability amid rising tensions among the Asia-Pacific’s post-colonial states.

  • The motto of ASEAN is “One Vision, One Identity, One Community”.
  • 8th August is observed as ASEAN Day.
  • ASEAN Secretariat – Indonesia, Jakarta.

Member Nations

  1. Indonesia
  2. Malaysia
  3. Philippines
  4. Singapore
  5. Thailand
  6. Brunei
  7. Vietnam
  8. Laos
  9. Myanmar
  10. Cambodia

Genesis of ASEAN

1967 – ASEAN was established with the signing of the ASEAN Declaration (Bangkok Declaration) by its founding fathers.

– Founding Fathers of ASEAN are: Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand.

1990s – Membership doubled after the changing conditions in the region following the end of the Vietnam War in 1975 and the Cold War in 1991.

–          Addition of Brunei (1984), Vietnam (1995), Laos and Myanmar (1997), and Cambodia (1999).

1995 – Members signed a deal to create a nuclear-free zone in Southeast Asia.

1997 – Adoption of ASEAN Vision 2020.

2003 – Bali Concord II for the establishment of an ASEAN Community.

2007 – Cebu Declaration, to accelerate the establishment of ASEAN Community by 2015.

2008 – ASEAN Charter comes into force and becomes a legally binding agreement.

2015 – Launch of ASEAN Community.

ASEAN Community is comprised of three pillars:

  1. ASEAN Political-Security Community
  2. ASEAN Economic Community
  3. ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community

Objectives

– To accelerate economic growth, social progress and cultural development for a prosperous and peaceful community of Southeast Asian Nations.

– To promote regional peace and stability through abiding respect for justice and the rule of law and adherence to the principles of the United Nations Charter.

– To promote active collaboration and mutual assistance on matters of common interest in the economic, social, cultural, technical, scientific and administrative fields.

– To collaborate more effectively for the greater utilisation of agriculture and industries, the expansion of their trade, the improvement of transportation and communications facilities and the raising of the living standards of peoples.

– To promote Southeast Asian studies.

– To maintain close and beneficial cooperation with existing international and regional organisations.

UPSC IAS Mains Exam Study Material

General Studies Paper-I

General Studies Paper-2

General Studies Paper-3

General Studies Paper-IV

India-Afghanistan: Challenges; Geo-Political Developments

India-Afghanistan Relations: Gaining Strategic Bonding

Reflecting on the history of Afghanistan-India relations spanning over thousands of years, the enduring bond of the two nations is an effort and determination of the people of both the countries for an ever flourishing comprehensive strategic partnership. Focusing on India’s cooperation with Afghanistan reaffirms the shared understanding that is indeed playing key role and making significant contributions to development, peace and stability thus bringing about brighter future for the two nations.

Through trilateral partnership cooperation between US, India and Afghanistan reflects how the two countries support changes the landscape of the war-torn country and building human capacity for sustenance. The real progress will only show the marked improvement and possibilities generated over the course of time for the welfare of the Afghan people. US imply on increase cooperation in Afghanistan, viewing India’s pioneering engagement creating levers for sustenance of human lives. The recent conversation of President Donald Trump with Prime Minister Narendra Modi for increasing cooperation in Afghanistan spells greater assimilation for inclusive development.

Recognizing the age-old relation of Afghanistan-India’ enduring cultural ties, friendship and the shared vision of both the nations has paved the way for ever flourishing comprehensive strategic partnership. Afghanistan-India relations are at the developed phase and continuous efforts are required for greater achievements to live up to the expectations of the two nations. India’s more than $3 billion assistance to Afghanistan since 2001 is setting forth enduring social foundation for bilateral ties of the two nations. Nonetheless, development cooperation and joint efforts in education, training, culture, and people-to people contact are dynamic in itself. The recent signing of 11 Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) worth $ 9.5 million between India and Afghanistan in reinvigorating infrastructure development like establishing health clinics and government related projects is a witness of continued support of India for inclusive and sustainable growth of the war-torn nation. India’s ambitious target of $ 3 billion support to Afghanistan is creating major scope in creating Afghanistan’s potential at this crucial juncture.

India’s Support to Afghanistan over the Years – an Insight

With the passage of time India’s relation with Afghanistan has grown magnificently. The Strategic Partnership Agreement (SPA) of 2011 is the finest framework of India’s neighbourhood policy that weaves together the deep rooted association with Afghanistan. Over the past 17 years the relationship of the two nations are anchored on mutual trust and goodwill which is set off from humanitarian assistance to capacity building programmes as vital drivers for the benefit of Afghanistan. Reflecting on the insights and recent developments it is observed that the relation between the two nations has realised greater achievements and live up to the expectations of the people of India and Afghanistan.

The development partnership of India-Afghanistan is based on the principles of mutual sharing and solidarity which is branched into five founding modalities of development cooperation that includes capacity building, trade and investment, technology cooperation and others. The prominent one is the development of Chabahar port project connecting India, Iran and Afghanistan with Central Asian countries. The Chabahar port will promote connectivity through sea as well as improve the rail, road route bringing in investment and development in the region especially boosting railway, infrastructure and energy projects. In a recent development Afghanistan will be sending its goods to India every two weeks via Chabahar port starting from February creating opportunities for increased trade removing the obstacle of Afghanistan being landlocked. Among India’s support effort is the Air Freight Corridor programme with Afghanistan in 2017 which has grown exponentially with Kabul- Delhi, Kabul-Mumbai, Kabul-Kolkata, and Kabul-Amritsar cargo flights exchanged every week. There are more than 166 flights exchanged between India and Afghanistan. Last year Spice Jet has signed Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) for connecting Kabul with Indian metro cities. Connectivity via land, sea and air will help seize opportunities with new and emerging markets.

Further the International Solar Alliance (ISA) an intergovernmental organisation to boost solar energy development with its headquarters in India aims to mobilize $ 1 trillion funds to achieve one terra watts of solar energy capacity by 2030. In the first General Assembly of International Solar Alliance (ISA) Afghanistan became the partner country last year will provide ample opportunity for solar rich country to build new ties by focusing on scientific collaborations under the ambit of neighbourliness.

The Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR) has been playing a prominent role in enhancing and building educational capacities of Afghanistan through its various scholarship programmes. The initiatives taken by ICCR spell impressive growth in mobilizing education system and helping the students to contribute in the work force and for the development of Afghanistan. Education and cultural exchange programme has increased and it is believed that having received support from India will help Afghanistan in a big way. At present 1000 scholarship is provided to Afghan students and almost 16000 students are studying in various universities in India. Education has been the greatest single factor catalysing Afghanistan’s transformation. India’s cooperation in education and culture will help to achieve the great potential for development in Afghanistan.

The New Development Partnership of Afghanistan and India under the Strategic Partnership Agreement (SPA) signed in 2017 to the tune of $1 billion, in which India took up hundreds of development projects in Afghanistan in areas including agriculture, water, education, health, etc.

India’s security cooperation with Afghanistan has been strengthened by providing Mi-24 helicopters to Afghanistan which was announced last year. India delivered four Mi-25 (Mi-24D) helicopters and three HAL Cheetah light utility helicopters to the Afghan Air Force (AAF) in December 2016.

India-Afghanistan Foundation promotes cultural and people to people contacts. To harness India’s sports potential, India has built Kandahar International Cricket Stadium.

Women Empowerment is another important aspect in which India is extending tremendous support. India’s Self Employed Women’s Association (SEWA) imparting training on sustainable livelihood generation and to be the part of inclusive growth and to be self-reliant. India-Afghanistan relations are aimed at a comprehensive development strategy that will foster and establish bilateral and multilateral relations which is better equipped to deal tough situations and bring peace and prosperity in the country and across the region.

UPSC IAS Mains Exam Study Material

General Studies Paper-I

General Studies Paper-2

General Studies Paper-3

General Studies Paper-IV

Source

Lokpal and Lokayukta

What are Lokpal and Lokayukta?

The Lokpal and Lokayukta Act, 2013 provided for the establishment of Lokpal for the Union and Lokayukta for States

These institutions are statutory bodies without any constitutional status.

They perform the function of an “ombudsman” and inquire into allegations of corruption against certain public functionaries and for related matters.

Why do we need such institutions?

Maladministration is like a termite which slowly erodes the foundation of a nation and hinders administration from completing its task. Corruption is the root cause of this problem.

Most of the anti-corruption agencies are hardly independent. Even Supreme Court has been termed CBI as a “caged parrot” and “its master’s voice”.

Many of these agencies are advisory bodies without any effective powers and their advice is rarely followed.

There is also the problem of internal transparency and accountability. Moreover, there is not any separate and effective mechanism to put checks on these agencies.

In this context, an independent institution of Lokpal has been a landmark move in the history of Indian polity which offered a solution to the never-ending menace of corruption.

Background

In 1809, the institution of ombudsman was inaugurated officially in Sweden.

In the 20th century, Ombudsman as an institution developed and grew most significantly after the Second World War.

New Zealand and Norway adopted this system in the year 1962 and it proved to be of great significance in spreading the concept of the ombudsman.

In 1967, on the recommendations of the Wyatt Report of 1961, Great Britain adopted the institution of the ombudsman and became the first large nation in the democratic world to have such a system.

In 1966, Guyana became the first developing nation to adopt the concept of the ombudsman. Subsequently, it was further adopted by Mauritius, Singapore, Malaysia, and India as well.

In India, the concept of constitutional ombudsman was first proposed by the then law minister Ashok Kumar Sen in parliament in the early 1960s.

The term Lokpal and Lokayukta were coined by Dr. L. M. Singhvi.

In 1966, the First Administrative Reforms Commission recommended the setting up of two independent authorities- at the central and state level, to look into complaints against public functionaries, including MPs.

In 1968, Lokpal bill was passed in Lok Sabha but lapsed with the dissolution of Lok Sabha and since then it has lapsed in the Lok Sabha many times.

Till 2011 eight attempts were made to pass the Bill, but all met with failure.

In 2002, the Commission to Review the Working of the Constitution headed by M.N. Venkatachalliah recommended the appointment of the Lokpal and Lokayuktas; also recommended that the PM be kept out of the ambit of the authority.

In 2005, the Second Administrative Reforms Commission chaired by Veerappa Moily recommended that the office of Lokpal should be established without delay.

In 2011, the government formed a Group of Ministers, chaired by Pranab Mukherjee to suggest measures to tackle corruption and examine the proposal of a Lokpal Bill.

“India Against Corruption movement” led by Anna Hazare put pressure on the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) government at the Centre and resulted in the passing of the Lokpal and Lokayuktas Bill, 2013, in both the Houses of Parliament.

It received assent from President on 1 January 2014 and came into force on 16 January 2014.

The Lokpal and Lokayuktas (Amendment) Bill, 2016

This Bill was passed by Parliament in July 2016 and amended the Lokpal and Lokayukta Act, 2013.

It enables the leader of the single largest opposition party in the Lok Sabha to be a member of the selection committee in the absence of a recognized Leader of Opposition.

It also amended section 44 of the 2013 Act that deals with the provision of furnishing of details of assets and liabilities of public servants within 30 days of joining the government service.

The Bill replaces the time limit of 30 days, now the public servants will make a declaration of their assets and liabilities in the form and manner as prescribed by the government.

It also gives an extension of the time given to trustees and board members to declare their assets and those of their spouses in case of these are receiving government funds of more than Rs. 1 crore or foreign funding of more than Rs. 10 lakh.

Structure of Lokpal

Lokpal is a multi-member body that consists of one chairperson and a maximum of 8 members.

Chairperson of the Lokpal should be either the former Chief Justice of India or the former Judge of Supreme Court or an eminent person with impeccable integrity and outstanding ability, having special knowledge and expertise of minimum 25 years in the matters relating to anti-corruption policy, public administration, vigilance, finance including insurance and banking, law and management.

Out of the maximum eight members, half will be judicial members and minimum 50% of the Members will be from SC/ ST/ OBC/ Minorities and women.

The judicial member of the Lokpal either a former Judge of the Supreme Court or a former Chief Justice of a High Court

The non-judicial member should be an eminent person with impeccable integrity and outstanding ability, having special knowledge and expertise of minimum 25 years in the matters relating to anti-corruption policy, public administration, vigilance, finance including insurance and banking, law and management.

The term of office for Lokpal Chairman and Members is 5 years or till the age of 70 years.

The members are appointed by the president on the recommendation of a Selection Committee.

The selection committee is composed of the Prime Minister who is the Chairperson; Speaker of Lok Sabha, Leader of Opposition in Lok Sabha,  Chief Justice of India or a Judge nominated by him/her and One eminent jurist.

For selecting the chairperson and the members, the selection committee constitutes a search panel of at least eight persons.

Lokpal Search Committee

Under the Lokpal Act of 2013, the DoPT is supposed to put together a list of candidates interested to be the chairperson or members of the Lokpal.

This list would then go to the proposed eight-member search committee, which would shortlist names and place them before the selection panel headed by the Prime Minister.

The selection panel may or may not pick names suggested by the search committee.

In September 2018, the government had constituted a search committee headed by former Supreme Court judge Justice Ranjana Prakash Desai.

The 2013 Act also provides that all states should set up the office of the Lokayukta within one year from the commencement of the Act.

Lokpal Jurisdiction and Powers

Jurisdiction of Lokpal includes Prime Minister, Ministers, members of Parliament, Groups A, B, C and D officers and officials of Central Government.

Jurisdiction of the Lokpal included the Prime Minister except on allegations of corruption relating to international relations, security, the public order, atomic energy and space.

The Lokpal does not have jurisdiction over Ministers and MPs in the matter of anything said in Parliament or a vote given there.

Its jurisdiction also includes any person who is or has been in charge (director/ manager/ secretary) of anybody/ society set up by central act or any other body financed/ controlled by central government and any other person involved in act of abetting, bribe giving or bribe taking.

The Lokpal Act mandates that all public officials should furnish the assets and liabilities of themselves as well as their respective dependents.

It has the powers to superintendence over, and to give direction to CBI.

If Lokpal has referred a case to CBI, the investigating officer in such case cannot be transferred without the approval of Lokpal.

The Inquiry Wing of the Lokpal has been vested with the powers of a civil court.

Lokpal has powers of confiscation of assets, proceeds, receipts and benefits arisen or procured by means of corruption in special circumstances.

Lokpal has the power to recommend transfer or suspension of public servant connected with allegation of corruption.

Lokpal has the power to give directions to prevent the destruction of records during the preliminary inquiry.

Limitations

The institution of Lokpal has tried to bring a much needed change in the battle against corruption in the administrative structure of India but at the same time, there are loopholes and lacunae which need to be corrected.

Five years have passed since the Lokpal and Lokayuktas Act 2013 was passed by parliament, but not a single Lokpal has been appointed till date indicating the lack of political will.

The Lokpal act also called upon states to appoint a Lokayukta within a year of its coming to force. But only 16 states have established the Lokayukta.

Lokpal is not free from political influence as the appointing committee itself consists of members from political parties.

The appointment of Lokpal can be manipulated in a way as there is no criterion to decide who is an ‘eminent jurist’ or ‘a person of integrity.’

The 2013 act did not provide concrete immunity to the whistle blowers. The provision for initiation of inquiry against the complainant if the accused is found innocent will only discourage people from complaining.

The biggest lacuna is the exclusion of judiciary from the ambit of the Lokpal.

The Lokpal is not given any constitutional backing and there is no adequate provision for appeal against the Lokpal.

The specific details in relation to the appointment of Lokayukta have been left completely on the States.

To some extent, the need for functional independence of the CBI has been catered to by a change brought forth in the selection process of its Director, by this Act.

The complaint against corruption cannot be registered after a period of seven years from the date on which the offence mentioned in such complaint is alleged to have been committed.

In order to tackle the problem of corruption, the institution of the ombudsman should be strengthened both in terms of functional autonomy and availability of manpower.

Greater transparency, more right to information and empowerment of citizens and citizen groups is required along with a good leadership that is willing to subject itself to public scrutiny.

Appointment of Lokpal in itself is not enough. The government should address the issues based on which people are demanding a Lokpal. Merely adding to the strength of investigative agencies will increase the size of the government but not necessarily improve governance. The slogan adopted by the government of “less government and more governance”, should be followed in letter and spirit.

Moreover, Lokpal and Lokayukta must be financially, administratively and legally independent of those whom they are called upon to investigate and prosecute.

Lokpal and Lokayukta appointments must be done transparently so as to minimize the chances of the wrong sorts of people getting in.

There is a need for a multiplicity of decentralized institutions with appropriate accountability mechanisms, to avoid the concentration of too much power, in any one institution or authority.

UPSC IAS Mains Exam Study Material

General Studies Paper-I

General Studies Paper-2

General Studies Paper-3

General Studies Paper-IV

Wuhan sprit

Informal summit held between Indian PM Narendra Modi and Chinese president Xi in April 2018 at Wuhan. It has following outcomes which are said to be Wuhan spirit.

  • Prime Minister of India, H.E. Shri Narendra Modi and President of People’s Republic of China, H.E. Mr. Xi Jinping held their first Informal Summit in Wuhan on April 27-28, 2018, to exchange views on overarching issues of bilateral and global importance, and to elaborate their respective visions and priorities for national development in the context of the current and future international situation.
  • They believe that the simultaneous emergence of India and China as two large economies and major powers with strategic and decisional autonomy has implications of regional and global significance. They shared the view that peaceful, stable and balanced relations between India and China will be a positive factor for stability amidst current global uncertainties. They also agreed that proper management of the bilateral relationship will be conducive for the development and prosperity of the region, and will create the conditions for the Asian Century. To this end, they decided to strengthen the Closer Development Partnership in a mutually beneficial and sustainable manner, in pursuit of national modernization and greater prosperity for their peoples.
  • Prime Minister Modi and President Xi reviewed developments in India-China relations from the strategic and long-term perspective. They agreed to significantly enhance efforts to build on the convergences through the established mechanisms in order to create the broadest possible platform for the future relationship. They also agreed that both sides have the maturity and wisdom to handle the differences through peaceful discussion within the context of the overall relationship, bearing in mind the importance of respecting each other’s sensitivities, concerns and aspirations.
  • The two leaders expressed their support for the work of the Special Representatives on the India China Boundary Question and urged them to intensify their efforts to seek a fair, reasonable and mutually acceptable settlement. The two leaders underscored the importance of maintaining peace and tranquility in all areas of the India-China border region in the larger interest of the overall development of bilateral relations. To this end, they issued strategic guidance to their respective militaries to strengthen communication in order to build trust and mutual understanding and enhance predictability and effectiveness in the management of border affairs. The two leaders further directed their militaries to earnestly implement various confidence building measures agreed upon between the two sides, including the principle of mutual and equal security, and strengthen existing institutional arrangements and information sharing mechanisms to prevent incidents in border regions.
  • The two leaders agreed to push forward bilateral trade and investment in a balanced and sustainable manner by taking advantage of complementarities between their two economies. They also discussed ways to promote greater cultural and people-to-people exchanges and agreed to explore establishing new mechanisms in this direction.
  • Prime Minister Modi and President Xi underlined that as two major countries India and China have wider and overlapping regional and global interests. They agreed on their need to strengthen strategic communication through greater consultation on all matters of common interest. They believe that such strategic communication will have a positive influence on enhancing mutual understanding and will contribute to regional and global stability.
  • The two leaders agreed that India and China have separately made major contributions to global peace and prosperity through their respective growth and economic development, and would continue to act as engines for global growth in the future. They reiterated the importance of building an open, multipolar, pluralist and participatory global economic order which will enable all countries to pursue their development and contribute to the elimination of poverty and inequality in all regions of the world. They spoke of their respective efforts to contribute to the regional and global economic development.
  • The two leaders also shared views on their respective foreign policy visions of achieving global prosperity and security. They agreed to jointly contribute in a positive and constructive way in facilitating sustainable solutions for global challenges including climate change, sustainable development, food security etc. They underscored the importance of reform of multilateral financial and political institutions to make them representative and responsive to the needs of developing countries.
  • The two leaders agreed that as two major countries and emerging economies, India and China, given their vast developmental experiences and national capacities, should join hands to take lead in offering innovative and sustainable solutions to challenges faced by humankind in the 21st century. These include combating diseases, coordinating action for disaster risk reduction and mitigation, addressing climate change and ushering digital empowerment. They agreed to pool together their expertise and resources in these areas and create a global network dedicated to these challenges for the larger benefit of humanity.
  • Prime Minister Modi and President Xi recognized the common threat posed by terrorism, and reiterated their strong condemnation of and resolute opposition to terrorism in all its forms and manifestations. They committed themselves to cooperate on counter-terrorism.
  • The two leaders highly assessed the opportunity for direct, free and candid exchange of views offered by the Informal Summit and agreed on the utility of holding more such dialogues in the future. The forward-looking dialogue raised the level of strategic communication about the perspective, priorities and vision that guide their respective policy choices domestically, regionally and globally. It also helped them in forging a common understanding of the future direction of India-China relations built upon mutual respect for each other’s developmental aspirations and prudent management of differences with mutual sensitivity.

UPSC IAS Mains Exam Study Material

General Studies Paper-I

General Studies Paper-2

General Studies Paper-3

General Studies Paper-IV

Puppetry, , Musical Instrument and Theatre Forms

The performing arts range from vocal and instrumental music, dance and theatre to pantomime, sung verse and beyond. They include numerous cultural expressions that reflect human creativity and that are also found, to some extent, in many other intangible cultural heritage domains.

Music is perhaps the most universal of the performing arts and is found in every society, most often as an integral part of other performing art forms and other domains of intangible cultural heritage including rituals, festive events or oral traditions. It can be found in the most diverse contexts: sacred or profane, classical or popular, closely connected to work or entertainment. There may also be a political or economic dimension to music: it can recount a community’s history, sing the praises of a powerful person and play a key role in economic transactions. The occasions on which music is performed are just as varied: marriages, funerals, rituals and initiations, festivities, all kinds of entertainment as well as many other social functions.

Dance, though very complex, may be described simply as ordered bodily movements, usually performed to music. Apart form its physical aspect, the rhythmic movements, steps and gestures of dance often express a sentiment or mood or illustrate a specific event or daily act, such as religious dances and those representing hunting, warfare or sexual activity.

Traditional theatre performances usually combine acting, singing, dance and music, dialogue, narration or recitation but may also include puppetry or pantomime. These arts, however, are more than simply ‘performances’ for an audience; they may also play crucial roles in culture and society such as songs sung while carrying out agricultural work or music that is part of a ritual. In a more intimate setting, lullabies are often sung to help a baby sleep.

The instruments, objects, artefacts and spaces associated with cultural expressions and practices are all included in the Convention’s definition of intangible cultural heritage. In the performing arts this includes musical instruments, masks, costumes and other body decorations used in dance, and the scenery and props of theatre. Performing arts are often performed in specific places; when these spaces are closely linked to the performance, they are considered cultural spaces by the Convention.

Many forms of performing arts are under threat today. As cultural practices become standardized, many traditional practices are abandoned. Even in cases where they become more popular, only certain expressions may benefit while others suffer.

Music is perhaps one of the best examples of this, with the recent explosion in the popularity of ‘World Music’. Though it performs an important role in cultural exchange and encourages creativity that enriches the international art scene, the phenomenon can also cause problems. Many diverse forms of music may be homogenized with the goal of delivering a consistent product. In these situations, there is little place for certain musical practices that are vital to the process of performance and tradition in certain communities.

Music, dance and theatre are often key features of cultural promotion intended to attract tourists and regularly feature in the itineraries of tour operators. Although this may bring more visitors and increased revenue to a country or community and offer a window onto its culture, it may also result in the emergence of new ways of presenting the performing arts, which have been altered for the tourist market. While tourism can contribute to reviving traditional performing arts and give a ‘market value’ to intangible cultural heritage, it can also have a distorting effect, as the performances are often reduced to show adapted highlights in order to meet tourist demands. Often, traditional art forms are turned into commodities in the name of entertainment, with the loss of important forms of community expression. In other cases, wider social or environmental factors may have a serious impact on performing art traditions. Deforestation, for example, can deprive a community of wood to make traditional instruments used to perform music.

Many music traditions have been adapted to fit western forms of notation so they may be recorded, or for the purpose of education, but this process can be destructive. Many forms of music use scales with tones and intervals that do not correspond to standard western forms and tonal subtleties may be lost in the process of transcription. As well as music being homogenized, changes to traditional instruments to make them more familiar or easier to play for students, such as the addition of frets to stringed instruments, fundamentally alter the instruments themselves.

Safeguarding measures for traditional performing arts should focus mainly on transmission of knowledge and techniques, of playing and making instruments and strengthening the bond between master and apprentice. The subtleties of a song, the movements of a dance and theatrical interpretations should all be reinforced.

Performances may also be researched, recorded, documented, inventoried and archived. There are countless sound recordings in archives all around the world with many dating back over a century. These older recordings are threatened by deterioration and may be permanently lost unless digitized. The process of digitisation allows documents to be properly identified and inventoried.

Cultural media, institutions and industries can also play a crucial role in ensuring the viability of traditional forms of performing arts by developing audiences and raising awareness amongst the general public. Audiences can be informed about the various aspects of a form of expression, allowing it to gain a new and broader popularity, while also promoting connoisseurship which, in turn, encourages interest in local variations of an art form and may result in active participation in the performance itself.

Safeguarding may also involve improvements in training and infrastructure to properly prepare staff and institutions for preserving the full range of performing arts. In Georgia, students are trained in anthropological fieldwork methods as well as how to record polyphonies, allowing them to create the foundations of a national inventory by creating a database.

UPSC IAS Mains Exam Study Material

General Studies Paper-I

General Studies Paper-2

General Studies Paper-3

General Studies Paper-IV

Globalisation and Impact on India

Greater Number of Jobs: The advent of foreign companies and growth in economy has led to job creation. However, these jobs are concentrated more in the services sector and this has led to rapid growth of service sector creating problems for individuals with low level of education. The last decade came to be known for its jobless growth as job creation was not proportionate to the level of economic growth.

More choice to consumers: Globalisation has led to a boom in consumer products market. We have a range of choice in selecting goods unlike the times where there were just a couple of manufacturers.

Higher Disposable Incomes: People in cities working in high paying jobs have greater income to spend on lifestyle goods. There has been an increase in the demand of products like meat, egg, pulses, organic food as a result. It has also led to protein inflation.

Protein food inflation contributes a large part to the food inflation in India. It is evident from the rising prices of pulses and animal proteins in the form of eggs, milk and meat.

With an improvement in standard of living and rising income level, the food habits of people change. People tend toward taking more protein intensive foods. This shift in dietary pattern, along with rising population results in an overwhelming demand for protein rich food, which the supply side could not meet. Thus resulting in a demand supply mismatch thereby, causing inflation.

In India, the Green Revolution and other technological advancements have primarily focused on enhancing cereals productivity and pulses and oilseeds have traditionally been neglected.

Shrinking Agricultural Sector: Agriculture now contributes only about 15% to GDP. The international norms imposed by WTO and other multilateral organizations have reduced government support to agriculture. Greater integration of global commodities markets leads to constant fluctuation in prices.

This has increased the vulnerability of Indian farmers. Farmers are also increasingly dependent on seeds and fertilizers sold by the MNCs.

Globalization does not have any positive impact on agriculture. On the contrary, it has few detrimental effects as government is always willing to import food grains, sugar etc. Whenever there is a price increase of these commodities.

Government never thinks to pay more to farmers so that they produce more food grains but resorts to imports. On the other hand, subsidies are declining so cost of production is increasing. Even farms producing fertilizers have to suffer due to imports. There are also threats like introduction of GM crops, herbicide resistant crops etc.

Increasing Health-Care costs: Greater interconnections of the world have also led to the increasing susceptibility to diseases. Whether it is the bird-flu virus or Ebola, the diseases have taken a global turn, spreading far and wide. This results in greater investment in healthcare system to fight such diseases.

Child Labour: Despite prohibition of child labor by the Indian constitution, over 60 to a 115 million children in India work. While most rural child workers are agricultural laborers, urban children work in manufacturing, processing, servicing and repairs. Globalization most directly exploits an estimated 300,000 Indian children who work in India’s hand-knotted carpet industry, which exports over $300 million worth of goods a year.

Socio-Cultural Impact on Indian Society

Nuclear families are emerging. Divorce rates are rising day by day. Men and women are gaining equal right to education, to earn, and to speak. ‘Hi’, ‘Hello’ is used to greet people in spite of Namaskar and Namaste. American festivals like Valentines’ day, Friendship day etc. are spreading across India.

Access to education: On one hand globalisation has aided in the explosion of information on the web that has helped in greater awareness among people. It has also led to greater need for specialisation and promotion of higher education in the country.

On the flip side the advent of private education, coaching classes and paid study material has created a gap between the haves and have-nots. It has become increasingly difficult for an individual to obtain higher education.

Growth of cities: It has been estimated that by 2050 more than 50% of India’s population will live in cities. The boom of services sector and city centric job creation has led to increasing rural to urban migration.

Indian cuisine: is one of the most popular cuisines across the globe. Historically, Indian spices and herbs were one of the most sought after trade commodities. Pizzas, burgers, Chinese foods and other Western foods have become quite popular.

Clothing: Traditional Indian clothes for women are the saris, suits, etc. and for men, traditional clothes are the dhoti, kurta. Hindu married women also adorned the red bindi and sindhur, but now, it is no more a compulsion. Rather, Indo-western clothing, the fusion of Western and Sub continental fashion is in trend. Wearing jeans, t-shirts, mini skirts have become common among Indian girls.

Indian Performing Arts: The music of India includes multiples varieties of religious, folk, popular, pop, and classical music. India’s classical music includes two distinct styles: Carnatic and Hindustani music. It remains instrumental to the religious inspiration, cultural expression and pure entertainment. Indian dance too has diverse folk and classical forms.

Bharatanatyam, Kathak, Kathakali, Mohiniattam, Kuchipudi, Odissi are popular dance forms in India. Kalarippayattu or Kalari for short is considered one of the world’s oldest martial art. There have been many great practitioners of Indian Martial Arts including Bodhidharma who supposedly brought Indian martial arts to China.

The Indian Classical music has gained worldwide recognition but recently, western music is too becoming very popular in our country. Fusing Indian music along with western music is encouraged among musicians. More Indian dance shows are held globally. The number of foreigners who are eager to learn Bharatanatyam is rising. Western dance forms such as Jazz, Hip hop, Salsa, Ballet have become common among Indian youngsters.

Nuclear Families: The increasing migration coupled with financial independence has led to the breaking of joint families into nuclear ones. The western influence of individualism has led to an aspirational generation of youth. Concepts of national identity, family, job and tradition are changing rapidly and significantly.

Old Age Vulnerability: The rise of nuclear families has reduced the social security that the joint family provided. This has led to greater economic, health and emotional vulnerability of old age individuals.

Pervasive Media: There is greater access to news, music, movies, videos from around the world. Foreign media houses have increased their presence in India. India is part of the global launch of Hollywood movies which is very well received here. It has a psychological, social and cultural influence on our society.

McDonaldization: A term denoting the increasing rationalization of the routine tasks of everyday life. It becomes manifested when a culture adopts the characteristics of a fast-food restaurant. McDonaldization is a reconceptualization of rationalization, or moving from traditional to rational modes of thought, and scientific management.

Walmartization: A term referring to profound transformations in regional and global economies through the sheer size, influence, and power of the big-box department store Walmart. It can be seen with the rise of big businesses which have nearly killed the small traditional businesses in our society.

Psychological Impact on Indian Society

Development of Bicultural Identity: The first is the development of a bicultural identity or perhaps a hybrid identity, which means that part of one’s identity is rooted in the local culture while another part stems from an awareness of one’s relation to the global world.

The development of global identities is no longer just a part of immigrants and ethnic minorities. People today especially the young develop an identity that gives them a sense of belonging to a worldwide culture, which includes an awareness of events, practices, styles and information that are a part of the global culture. Media such as television and especially the Internet, which allows for instant communication with any place in the world, play an important part in developing a global identity.

A good example of bicultural identity is among the educated youth in India who despite being integrated into the global fast paced technological world, may continue to have deep rooted traditional Indian values with respect to their personal lives and choices such as preference for an arranged marriage, caring for parents in their old age.

Growth of Self-Selected Culture: means people choose to form groups with like-minded persons who wish to have an identity that is untainted by the global culture and its values. The values of the global culture, which are based on individualism, free market economics, and democracy and include freedom, of choice, individual rights, openness to change, and tolerance of differences are part of western values. For most people worldwide, what the global culture has to offer is appealing. One of the most vehement criticisms of globalization is that it threatens to create one homogeneous worldwide culture in which all children grow up wanting to be like the latest pop music star, eat Big Macs, vacation at Disney World, and wear blue jeans, and Nikes.

Emerging Adulthood: The timing of transitions to adult roles such as work, marriage and parenthood are occurring at later stages in most parts of the world as the need for preparing for jobs in an economy that is highly technological and information based is slowly extending from the late teens to the mid-twenties, Additionally, as the traditional hierarchies of authority weaken and break down under the pressure of globalization, the youth are forced to develop control over their own lives including marriage and parenthood. The spread of emerging adulthood is related to issues of identity.

Consumerism: Consumerism has permeated and changed the fabric of contemporary Indian society. Western fashions are coming to India: the traditional Indian dress is increasingly being displaced by western dresses especially in urban areas. Media- movies and serials- set a stage for patterns of behavior, dress codes and jargon. There is a changing need to consume more and more of everything.

Globalisation is an age old phenomenon which has been taking place for centuries now. We can experience it so profoundly these days because of its increased pace. The penetration of technology and new economic structures are leading to an increased interaction between people. As with other things there have been both positive and negative impacts on India due to it.

Conclusion: We cannot say that the impact of globalization has been totally positive or totally negative. It has been both. Each impact mentioned above can be seen as both positive as well as negative. However, it becomes a point of concern when, an overwhelming impact of globalization can be observed on the Indian culture.

Every educated Indian seems to believe that nothing in India, past or present, is to be approved unless recognized and recommended by an appropriate authority in the West. There is an all-pervading presence of a positive, if not worshipful, attitude towards everything in western society and culture, past as well as present in the name of progress, reason and science. Nothing from the West is to be rejected unless it has first been weighed and found wanting by a Western evaluation. This should be checked, to preserve the rich culture and diversity of India.

UPSC IAS Mains Exam Study Material

General Studies Paper-I

General Studies Paper-2

General Studies Paper-3

General Studies Paper-IV

Regionalism in India

Regionalism is the expression of a common sense of identity and purpose by people within a specific geographical region, united by its unique language, culture, language, etc.

In a positive sense, it encourages people to develop a sense of brotherhood and oneness which seeks to protect the interests of a particular region and promotes the welfare and development of the state and its people.

In the negative sense, it implies excessive attachment to one’s region which is a great threat to the unity and integrity of the country. In the Indian context generally, the term ‘regionalism’ has been used in the negative sense.

History of Regional Movements in India

  • The roots of regional consciousness in India can be found in the colonial policies.
  • Differential attitudes and treatment by the British towards princely states and those of the presidencies developed regionalist tendencies among them.
  • British exploitative economic policies completely neglected some regions, giving way to economic disparities and regional imbalances.
  • On the other side, the Indian national movement furthered a pluralistic idea of India.
  • The history of regional movements in India can be traced back to the 1940s Dravida Movement or the Non-Brahmin movement that started in the present day Tamil Nadu.
  • Later, the movement was resulted into the demand of a separate and independent Tamil state.
  • This, in turn, led to several other parties like the Telugu Desam Party (TDP) springing up in the Andhra region, with the demands of separate statehood.
  • The decades of 1950s and 1960s witnessed intense mass mobilisation, often taking on a violent character for the demands of statehood.
  • In 1954, the revolt for the separate state of Andhra for Telugu – speaking people spearheaded by Potti Sri Ramulu and his eventual death triggered the wave of political regionalism in India with many princely states and other states making a demand for a separate state.
  • This resulted in formation of the States Reorganisation Committee (headed by Faisal Ali) which recommended re-organisation of Indian states on linguistic lines, thus reinforcing the regionalist tendencies.
  • With the enactment of the States Reorganisation Act, 1956, linguistic states became a reality.
  • During 1970s and 1980s, owing to the intensification of tribal insurgency for separation and statehood, the Union government passed the North-eastern States Reorganisation Act, 1971.
  • It upgraded the Union Territories of Manipur and Tripura, and the Sub-State of Meghalaya to full statehood, and Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh (then Tribal Districts) to Union Territories which became states in 1986.
  • The decade of 2000s, witnessed vigorous movements for the creation of separate states due to a rising sense of regional deprivation.
  • It resulted in the formation of the three new states – Chhattisgarh out of Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand out of Bihar and Uttarakhand out of Uttar Pradesh.
  • The latest addition to this is the state of Telangana created by the division of Andhra Pradesh in 2014.

Types of Regional Movements

Secessionism is a form of regionalism that involves militant and fundamentalist groups advocating a separation from India on the basis of ethnicity or any other factor.

Isac Muivah’s National Socialist Council of Nagaland, the Islamic fundamentalist groups in J&K, ULFA in Assam are examples of such an extreme dimension of regionalism.

Separatism is a demand for separate statehood within the Indian Union. Many times, linguistic or ethnic minorities within the states come together and unite against the majority community in that state.

This kind of sub-regionalism was validated by the State Reorganisation Act of 1956. The most recent examples include the formation of Uttarakhand, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, and Telangana.

Meanwhile, there have been many demands including the creation of Bodoland for the Bodo-speakers in Assam; Gorkhaland for ethnic Gorkha (Nepali) people in West Bengal; a Bundelkhand state (covering part of Madhya Pradesh and part of Uttar Pradesh) for promoting the development of the region.

Demand for Full Statehood, the union territories have been forwarding such demands like the NCT of Delhi.

  • Most of such demands have already been accepted. In 1971, Himachal Pradesh got the status of a full state and thereafter Manipur, Tripura, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh (former NEFA) and Sikkim got full statehoods

The Demand for Autonomy, since 1960’s, with the emergence of regional parties, the demand for state autonomy has been gaining more and more strength due to the central political interferences.

  • In Tamil Nadu the DMK, in Punjab the Akali Dal, in Andhra Pradesh the Telgu Desham, in Assam the Assam Gana Parishad, the National conference in J&K and in West Bengal the Forward Bloc have been continuously demanding a larger share of powers for the states.

Demand for Regional Autonomy within a State, in some of the states, people belonging to various regions have been demanding recognition of their regional identities.

  • The genesis of such demands lies in the regional imbalances resulting from inefficient planning for instance in J & K, the Ladakhis are demanding a regional status.

Reasons behind Growth of Regionalism in India

  • Historical and geographical isolation
  • Lop-sided development
  • Continuous neglect of a region
  • Insider-outsider complex that nurturers nativism and son-of-the-soil ideology
  • Internal colonialism, i.e., despite being rich in natural resources some regions remain economically underdeveloped.
  • The reasons being either ill-conceived top-down approach or survival of one region at the cost of the other region. Chhota Nagpur plateau is an example of this type of underdevelopment.
  • Political vested interests can accentuate and exploit regional loyalties.
  • Reaction to an imposed ideology that can make its appearance as a reaction against the perceived imposition of a particular ideology, language or cultural pattern on all people and groups.
  • Linguistic aspirations that have remained a formidable basis of regionalism.
  • Expression of ethnicity.

Impact of Regionalism on Indian Polity

  • Rise of regional parties.
  • Re-focus on regional issues.
  • Regionalist tendencies often stir inter-state hostility as its spillover effect.
  • Regional movements often result in violent agitations, disturbs not only the law and order situation but also have negative implications on the economy of the state as well as the nation.
  • Regionalism sometimes undercuts the national interest by being a hurdle in international diplomacy.
  • For instance- the opposition of regional/state parties of Tamil against the stand of the central government had a direct implication on the relation of India with Sri Lanka.
  • The disagreement of political leadership in West Bengal with the central government over the Land Boundary Agreement and Teesta River Water sharing treaty with Bangladesh resulted in increased tensions between the two nations.
  • Regionalism can become a shield for militancy, extremism to create an internal security threat. Kashmir militancy is an example of this type of regionalism.

UPSC IAS Mains Exam Study Material

General Studies Paper-I

General Studies Paper-2

General Studies Paper-3

General Studies Paper-IV

Social empowerment

Social empowerment is understood as the process of developing a sense of autonomy and self-confidence, and acting individually and collectively to change social relationships and the institutions and discourses that exclude poor people and keep them in poverty. Poor people’s empowerment, and their ability to hold others to account, is strongly influenced by their individual assets (such as land, housing, livestock, savings) and capabilities of all types: human (such as good health and education), social (such as social belonging, a sense of identity, leadership relations) and psychological (self-esteem, self-confidence, the ability to imagine and aspire to a better future). Also important are people’s collective assets and capabilities, such as voice, organisation, representation and identity.

Poor people’s involvement in local associations and inter-community cooperation mechanisms can contribute to social empowerment by improving their skills, knowledge and self-perception. Local associations also act as self-help mechanisms through which poor people organise their economic activities, such as farming cooperatives, or microfinance groups.

The study examines the multiple dimensions of accountability and surveys the experiments that have sought to implement a new, expanded accountability agenda. The new agenda seeks a more direct role for ordinary people and their associations in demanding accountability across a more diverse set of jurisdictions. It uses a broader repertoire of methods, and is based on a more exacting standard of social justice. However, this agenda must be actively shaped if it is to have a positive impact on human development.

Vulnerable groups, such as the very poor, women and marginalised communities can often lack the skills and confidence to engage in community decision-making. It may therefore be important to support mechanisms designed to specifically target marginalised groups in order to ensure that they can participate. It is argued that participation in local associations can empower poor people to engage in public politics and collective action. However, research shows that building individual and collective capacities to engage is a long-term process.

UPSC IAS Mains Exam Study Material

General Studies Paper-I

General Studies Paper-2

General Studies Paper-3

General Studies Paper-IV

Indian Polity for Civil Services Examination

Polity & Constitution of India: Complete Study Notes

This Indian Polity for Civil Services Examination of India book would be highly useful for aspirants of civil services and other competitive examination and especially for those who do not have a background in Polity & Constitution.
Indian Polity is a key subject for UPSC & State Public Services Commission Competitive Examinations. So, considering the importance of the subject we have created a Comprehensive Study material on Indian Polity with major sections like Preamble, Fundamental Rights, DPSP, Parliament, Supreme Court, Bodies etc.

      Topic Covered:

Indian Constitution: An overview

List of Presidents in India

List - Prime Minister of India

The making of the Constitution of India

Schedules in the Constitution of India

List of Important Articles of the Indian Constitution

The Acts passed before constitution

The Acts passed before the Formation of Indian Constitution

Preamble of the Constitution

Features of the Indian Constitution

Indian Constitution: Important Amendments at a Glance

Constitution of India: features taken from other countries

Parliamentary System in India

Citizenship

Fundamental Rights & Fundamental Duties

Directive Principles of State Policy

Elections in India

Special Status to the Other Indian States

Scheduled and Tribal Areas in India

Emergency Provisions in Indian Constitution

Electoral Reforms in India

Panchayati Raj Systems in India

Parliament & Indian Judiciary

Union & State Executive

PMO and Cabinet Secretary

Cabinet Committees

Union-State Relations / Centre-State Relations

Union Territories

Constitutional & Non-Constitutional Bodies

Election Commission of India

Union Public Service Commission

State Public Service Commission

National Finance Commission

State Finance Commission

National Commission for Scheduled Castes

National Commission for Scheduled Tribes

Special Officer for Linguistic Minorities

Comptroller and Auditor General of India

Attorney General of India

Advocate General of the State

National Institution for Transforming India (NITI) Aayog

Planning Commission and NITI Aayog

National Human Rights Commission

State Human Rights Commission

Central Information Commission

State Information Commission

Central Vigilance Commission

Central Bureau of Investigation

Lokpal and Lokayukta in Indian Constitution

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UPSC IAS Mains: Political philosophies like communism capitalism and socialism

Test Series: UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020

(GS Paper- 1 Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and Society)

Political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc. – their forms and effect on the society

Political Philosophy is a broad foreword to the major intellectuals and themes in political philosophy. It discovers the philosophical beliefs which have formed and continue to inform political judgements of people. Dudley Knowles introduces the ideas of major political thinkers such as Hobbes, Locke, Marx and Mill and dominant modern philosophers such as Berlin, Rawls and Nozick. Basically, Political philosophy is concerned with the concepts and arguments involved in political opinion.

Communism

Communism is considered as vital framework in political philosophy. It is a socio-economic scaffold that assists in supporting the establishment of a classless, stateless society based on common ownership of the means of production. It boosts the formation of a democratic state in order to overcome the class structures and alienation of labour that characterize capitalistic societies and their inheritance of imperialism and nationalism. According to the principle of communism, main process of resolving problems of classless and other favoritism in society for the working class is to replace the prosperous ruling class, through radical action, in order to establish a diplomatic, free society, without classes or government. Communism, basically, is the idea of a free society with no division or estrangement, where humankind is free from oppression and insufficiency, and where there is no need for governments or countries and no class divisions. It imagines a world in which each person gives according to their abilities, and receives according to their needs. It is usually deliberated as a division of extensive Socialist movement. The main forms of Communism, such as Leninism, Trotskyism and Luxemburgish, are based on Marxism, but non-Marxist versions of Communism (such as Christian Communism and Anarchist Communism).

In the era of late 19th Century, major philosophical terms like socialism and communism were often used simultaneously. Communism was considered as an economic-political philosophy which was evolved by famous philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels during this period. Marx and Engels wrote and published “The Communist Manifesto” in 1848. They had a wish to stop thinking a capitalism feeling that it was the social class system which led to the mistreatment of labours. The workers that were treated badly had developed class awareness and it resulted in a fundamental process of class conflict. In this conflict, the public may rise up against the bourgeoisie and establish a communist society. Marx and Engels supposed of the proletariat as the individuals with labour power, and the bourgeoisie as those who own the means of production in a capitalist society. The state would pass through a phase, often thought of as socialism, and ultimately developed a pure communist society. In a communist society, all private ownership would be obliterated, and the ways of production would belong to the whole community. In the communist movement, a popular motto was that everyone contributes according to their competence and received according to their requirements. Therefore, the needs of a society would be put above and beyond the specific needs of an individual. Though, there are numerous arguments for Marxist theory such as communism would not emerge from Capitalism in a fully developed state, but would pass through a first phase (Socialism) in which most productive property was owned in common, but there were some class differences. This would finally develop into a “higher phase” that was termed as Communism in which class differences were abolished, and a state was no longer needed and would wither away. It was argued by many philosophers that radical activity by the working classes was required to bring about these changes.

History of Communism: It was documented in historical records that initially, Communist philosophy was the history of Socialism. In its modern version, Communism evolved of the Socialist movements of 19th Century Europe and the critics of Capitalism during the Industrial Rebellion. Main critics were the German philosopher Karl Marx and his associate Friedrich Engels (1820 – 1895), and their pioneering “Communist Manifesto” of 1848, the defining document of the movement, presented a novel explanation of Communism and promoted the phrase communism. The practice of the terms “communism” and “socialism” changed after the Russian Revolution of 1917, when the admittedly Marxist Bolshevik Party in Russia changed their name to the Communist Party and formed a single party regime that was dedicated to the implementation of socialist policies under Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (1870 – 1924). Lenin created the Third International (or Communist International or Comintern) in 1919 and set the twenty-one conditions (including democratic centralism) for any European socialist parties willing to join. With awareness of the Russian Civil War, the Union of Soviet Socialist was established in 1922.

Other communism movement related to Lenin’s New Economic Policy (NEP) which was lasted until 1928, when Joseph Stalin (1878 – 1953) party leader under the banner of “socialism in one country” and proceeded down the way of isolationism and Totalitarianism with the first of many Five Year Plans. Remarkably Leon Trotsky (1879 – 1940) Marxist critics of the Soviet Union, referred to the Soviet system as a “degenerated” or “deformed” workers’ state, argued that it fell far short of Marx’s communist model, and claimed that the working class was politically expelled. Post World War II, the Warsaw Pact saw Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Poland, Hungary and Romania joined the Soviet Union in an economic and military coalition under firm Soviet Control. However, relations were very tough, and the Soviet Union was forced into military interventions to supress popular rebellions in Hungary (1956) and Czechoslovakia (1968), and Albania withdrew from the Pact in 1968 due to philosophical dissimilarities.

In the decade of 1070s, although never officially unified as a single political entity, almost one-third of the world’s populace lived in Communist states, including the People’s Republic of China, the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact countries of Eastern Europe, as well Cuba, North Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Angola, and Mozambique. However, the Warsaw Pact countries had all abandoned Communist rule by 1990, and in 1991 the Soviet Union itself dissolved, leaving China, Cuba and some isolated states in Asia and Africa as the remaining bastions of Communism. In most cases significantly dampened down and changed from its original philosophy.

Types of Communism: Marxism is the main theoretical-practical structure on which dogmas of Socialism and Communism are based.
Marxism: Marxism is a perspective that involves a number of differing “sub-perspectives” that is, whilst there tends to be a general agreement about the need to construct a critique of Capitalist society, there are major differences between theorists working within this viewpoint. Main Marxist ideas can be explained in the following terms:

  1. Marxism stresses the notion that social life is based upon “conflicts of interest”. Most significant and basic conflict is that between the Bourgeoisie, those who own and control the means of production in society and the Proletariat, those who simply sell their labour power in the market place of Capitalism.
  2. Dissimilar of the Functionalist version of Structuralist sociology, the idea of social class is more than an evocative category, social class is used to clarify how and why societies change. Class conflict signifies a process whereby change comes about through the opposition of social classes as they follow what they see to be their (different and opposed) collective interests in society.
  3. Marxism is a political philosophy whose main concern is to expose the political and economic contradictions in-built in Capitalism such as the fact that while people co-operate to produce goods, a Capitalist class appropriates these goods for its private profit and to point the way towards the establishment of a future Communist society.

Marxism-Leninism is the Communist philosophical field that emerged as the conventional tendency amongst Communist parties in the 1920’s as it was accepted as the conceptual foundation of the Communist International during the era of Joseph Stalin (1878 – 1953), with whom it is mainly associated. The term “Marxism-Leninism” is mostly used by those who consider that Lenin’s legacy was effectively carried forward by Stalin; although it is arguable to what extent it actually follows the principles of either Marx or Lenin.

Philosophy of Leninism was built upon and extended the ideas of Marxism, and served as the theoretical foundation for the ideology of Soviet Communism after the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the establishment of the Soviet Union. Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (1870 – 1924) argued in his leaflet “What is to be Done?” of 1902 that the proletariat can only realise a successful radical consciousness through the efforts of a “vanguard party” composed of full-time professional revolutionaries and through a form of controlled organization generally called “democratic centralism” (whereby decisions are made with internal democracy but then all party members must externally support and actively promote that decision). It maintains that Capitalism can only be conquered by innovatory ways and any attempts to improve Capitalism from within are destined to fail. The objective of a Leninist party is to coordinate the overthrow of the existing government by force and grab power on behalf of the proletariat, and then implement a autocracy of the proletariat, a kind of direct equality in which workers hold political power through local councils known as soviets.

Stalinism is a more judgmental phrase for Joseph Stalin’s vision of Communism. Supporters of this ideology argue that it includes widespread use of publicity to establish a personality cult around an absolute ruler, as well as extensive use of a secret police to maintain social proposal and silence political opposition, all of which are trappings of Totalitarianism.

Trotskyism is the philosophical model of Marxism that was supported by Leon Trotsky (1879 – 1940), who considered himself a conformist Marxist and Bolshevik-Leninist, and squabbled for the establishment of a frontline party. His politics differed sharply from the Marxism-Leninism of Joseph Stalin, with respect to declare the need for an international proletarian revolution and firm support for a true dictatorship of the proletariat based on direct autonomous ideologies. Most dominant characteristics of Trotskyism is the theory of permanent uprising to explain how socialist revolutions could happen in societies that had not yet attained advanced Capitalism. Marx explained it as a prerequisite for socialist revolution.

Luxemburgish is a particular innovative theoretical model under the category of Communism, which is based on the texts of Rosa Luxemburg (1870 – 1919). Her politics deviated from those of Lenin and Trotsky mainly in her discrepancy with their concept of “democratic centralism”, which she visualized as unsatisfactorily democratic. Luxemburgish looks like Anarchism in its averting of an authoritarian society by relying on the people themselves as opposed to their leaders. However, it also sees the significance of a revolutionary party and the centrality of the working class in the radical struggle. It resembles Trotskyism in its resistance to the Totalitarianism of Stalin and to the crusader politics of modern social classlessness, but differs in arguing that Lenin and Trotsky also made inequitable mistakes.

Thoughts of Maoism are different of Communism derived from the teachings of the Chinese leader Mao Zedong (or Mao Tse-tung) (1893 – 1976), and practised in the People’s Republic of China after the Chinese Revolution of 1949. Maoism evolved from the Marxism-Leninism of Stalin, but introduced new ideas such as Social-Imperialism (Mao accused the Soviet Union of dominating and exploiting the smaller countries in its scope to the point of organising their economies around Soviet, not domestic, needs), the Mass Line (a method of leadership that seeks to learn from the masses and immerse the political headship in the concerns and conditions of the masses – “from the masses, to the masses”), people’s war and new democracy.

Left Communism is a range of Communist perspectives held by the Communist Left, which asserts to be more truly Marxist and proletarian than the views of Leninism and its successors. Left Communists advocated the Russian Revolution, but did not agree to the methods of the Bolsheviks. The Russian, Dutch-German and the Italian traditions of Left Communism all share an opposition to nationalism, all kinds of national liberation movements, frontism parliamentary systems.

Council Communism is a far-reaching left movement that emanated in Germany and the Netherlands in the decade of 1920s, and continues today as a theoretic and activist position within both left-wing Marxism and Libertarian Socialism. It visualized workers’ councils, arising in factories and municipalities, as the natural form of working class organization and governmental power. This philosophical viewpoint opposes the notion of a “revolutionary party” on the basis that a revolution led by a party unavoidably produces a party despotism.

Anarchist Communism promotes the complete elimination of the state and Capitalism in favour of a horizontal network of voluntary associations, workers’ councils and/or commons through which everyone is free to satisfy their needs. The movement was led by the Russians Mikhail Bakunin (1814 – 1876) and Peter Kropotkin (1842 – 1921).

Euro communism was flourished in the decades of1970’s and 1980’s within various Western European Communist parties to develop a philosophy and practice of social change that was more applicable in a Western European egalitarianism and less allied to the party line of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

Religious Communism is a type of Communism that focus centred on religious attitudes, such as Christian, Taoist, Jain, Hindu or Buddhist. It usually denotes to a number of classless and utopian religious societies practicing the voluntary dissolution of private property, so that society’s benefits are distributed according to a person’s needs, and every person performs labour according to their abilities.

Benefit of communism: Communism philosophy upkeeps extensive universal social welfare, such as enhancements in public health and education. Its theoretical dogmas are beneficial to build equality and strong social communities. Communist ideology promotes universal education with a focus on developing the proletariat with knowledge, class realisation, and historical understanding. Communism also supports the liberation of women and to end their exploitation. Communist philosophy emphasizes the development of a “New Man”a class-conscious, knowledgeable, daring, democratic person dedicated to work and social consistency in contrast to the antithetic “bourgeois individualist” related with cultural backwardness and social atomization.

Criticisms of Communism: There are numerous criticisms of Communism.

Many philosophers have argued that Communism offers an idea of unattainable perfect future, and keeps its subjects in thrall to it by devaluing the past and the present. It asserts to represent a universal truth which explains everything and can cure every ill and any apparent deviations or under-performance are explained away by casuistry and emotional appeals.

Philosophy of communism is incomplete. Marx and Engels never devoted much work to show how exactly a Communist economy would function in practice, leaving Socialism a “negative ideology”. The supposition that human nature is totally determined by the environment; Some Communists, such as Trotsky, believed that all the social, political and intellectual life processes in general are conditioned by the socio-economic base and the mode of production of material life, which rather devalues humanity and the importance of the lives and rights of human beings.

Many Anarchists and Libertarian Socialists throwaway the need for a transitory state phase and often disapprove Marxism and Communism for being too authoritarian. Some Anarcho-Primitivists reject left wing politics in general, seeing it as unethical and claiming that civilization is unreformable.

Some opponents have argued that Marx’s concept of freedom is really just a defence of dictatorship and oppression, and not an expansion of liberties as he claimed.

Some critics have construed many of Marx’s pronouncements on Jews as being anti-Semitic, claiming that he saw Jews as the embodiment of Capitalism and the creators of all its evils. Others, however, hotly dispute this interpretation.

Many Socialist reformists take issue with the Marxist requirement for a fierce proletarian revolution and argued that Capitalism can be reformed by steady democratic changes. Some theorists criticized communism philosophy on the ground that the concept of Historical Materialism which underlies much of Marxist theory is faulty, or that such a method can be twisted into trying to force the course of history in a particular direction, or that in practice it leads to Nihilism. In short, Historical Materialism is the notion that for human beings to survive, they need to produce and reproduce the material requirements of life, and this production is carried out through a division of labour based on very definite production relations between people. These relations form the financial base of society, and are themselves determined by the mode of production which is in force such as tribal society, ancient society, feudalism, capitalism, socialism and societies, and their cultural and institutional superstructures, naturally move from stage to stage as the foremost class is displaced by a new developing class in a social and political turmoil.

Other critics disapproved the ideology of Marxist class and argued that class is not the most important inequality in history, and that thorough analysis of many historical periods fails to find support for class or social development as used by Marxists. Some critics have argued that the growing spread of liberal democracy around the world, and the apparent lack of major revolutionary movements developing in them, suggest that Capitalism or social democracy is likely to be the effective form of human government instead of Marxism, which claims to be an “end of history” philosophy. According to Pope Pius XI, “Communism is intrinsically evil, and no one who would save Christian civilization may collaborate with it in any undertaking whatsoever”.

Effect of communism on society: 
The main objective of Communism is to develop society without rulers, a society where the people oversee themselves. But until this is accomplished, a superior government has absolute power. The people do not have any private belongings and all assets belong to the government.

Therefore it has some disastrous effect on society. It can be illustrated from one of communism’s effects was in 1933. Cruel ruler, Hitler was a communist dictator. Under his instructions, the holocaust began. Reports indicated that approximately, six million Jewish people died. Communists consider their goal, their party, and the state more vital than the rights and autonomy of individual. In communist nations, there are usually huge gaps between official claims of freedom and conditions in which they actually exist.

To summarize, Communism is an economic system where the government owns most of the factors of production and decides the allocation of resources and what products and services will be provided. The most significant theorists who evolved the ideologies of communism were Karl Marx and Frederick Engels. They wanted to end the exploitation of the masses by the few. The capitalist system at that time required workers to work under harsh and dangerous conditions for little pay. According to economic scholars, communism is concept, in that ownership of land, capital and industry cannot be owned or controlled by the individual. However, under Communism the control of these things is not by a local community but by the State Government. Under this system, the government has total control of everything produced and control what is made, and who will receive the goods and services produced. The end goal of communism was to eradicate class distinctions among people, where everyone shared equally in the proceeds of society, when government would no longer be needed. In basic form, Communism is an ideology and a political and economic system to manage economies and countries. The core dogmas of communism are that all capital or means of production are owned and operated by the society or the government rather than by individuals as their private property. It is documented in theories that Communism is one of the most far-reaching political concepts but became popular throughout the world. It provided answer to the problems of capitalist and to establish a classless stateless society on a rational basis, where there is no exploitation and all live in peace, comfort and harmony getting full opportunity to develop their personality.

Capitalism

Capitalism is a type of social system that follows the belief of individual rights. From political perspective, capitalism is the system of laissez-faire (freedom). Lawfully, it is a system of objective laws that is rule of law in contrast to rule of man. In financial terms, when such freedom is applied to the domain of production its result is the free-market. Earlier, this notion was not clearly explained. Several economists and theorists assumed that capitalism has existed for most of human history. In the Oxford English Dictionary, the phrase Capitalism was first used by novelist William Makepeace Thackeray, in 1854 in his novel ‘The Newcomes’, where he described capitalism as “having ownership of capital and not as a system of production”. During 19th century, capitalism was described by numerous theorists as “an economic system characterized by private or corporation ownership of capital goods, by investments that are determined by private decision rather than by state control, and by prices, production and the distribution of goods that are determined mainly in free market” Capitalism is commonly elucidated as an economic system where private actors are permitted to own and control the use of property according to their own interests, and where the invisible hand of the pricing mechanism coordinates supply and demand in markets in a way that is automatically in the best interests of civilisation. In this system, Government is responsible for peace, justice, and tolerable taxes.

Basically, Capitalism is a private ownership based on the ways of production and distribution of goods categorised by a free competitive market and incentive by profit. It can be said that it is an economics system based on survival of the fittest.

Historical review of Capitalism: In theoretical review, it has been described by numerous theorists that there are three periods of Capitalism such as early, middle and late periods, while others academicians consider capitalism to be a social characteristic that cannot be confined by historical period, but rather by the recognition of unending elements of the human condition. Earlier, capitalism was originated in the fourteenth century emergency, a conflict that developed between the land-owning aristocracy (the lords) and the agricultural producers (the serfs). Feudalism subdued the development of capitalism in numerous ways. The serfs were forced to produce sufficient food for the lords as a result of this the lords had no interest in the advancement of technology, but rather expanded their power and wealth through military means. There was no competitive pressure for them to revolutionize because they were not producing to sell on the market. The changeover from feudalism to capitalism was mainly driven by the mechanic of war and not by the politics of prosperity and production methods. Conversely, in current period, modern capitalism ascended in the early middle ages, between the 16th and 18th century, when mercantilism was established. Mercantilism is described as a distribution of goods that are bought at a certain price and sold at a higher price in order to generate profits. It provided the basic principles of capitalism in that it was the “large-scale realization of a profit by acquiring goods for lower prices than to the sell them”. During the period of 18th century, mercantilism weakened when a group of economic theorists led by Adam Smith challenged mercantilist principles. They supposed that a state could only escalate its wealth at the expense of another state’s wealth while the amount of the world’s wealth remained constant. After the decline in mercantilism, Industrial capitalism emerged in the mid-18th century due to the huge accretion of capital under the period of merchant capitalism and its investment in machinery. Industrial capitalism marked development of manufacturing factory system and led to the global supremacy of capitalist mode of production. In the 19th century, capitalism allowed great increase in efficiency. It generated great social changes, which remained in place during the twentieth century where it was established as the world’s most predominant financial model after the failure of the USSR. In the twenty-first century, capitalism had become an extensively universal economic system at global scale.

It is commonly visualized that capitalism broadly corresponds to that developed by the classical economists and by Marx. In this view, capitalism is an economic system in which control of production and the allocation of real and financial resources are based on private ownership of the means of production. It is a theory expounded through observation of the economic system prevailing in Great Britain in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Capitalism is an indirect system of governance based on a multifarious and continually evolving political bargain in which private actors are endowed by a political authority to own and control the use of property for private gain under definite laws and regulations. Workforces are free to work for incomes, capital is free to earn a return, and both labour and capital are allowed to enter and exit from various business. Capitalism depends upon the pricing mechanism to balance supply and demand in market. It relies on the profit motivation to assign opportunities and resources among contending suppliers and it relies upon a political authority to establish the rules and regulations so that they include all applicable societal costs and benefits. Government and its representatives are responsible to deliver physical security for persons and property as well as the laws and regulations. Capitalist development is built from investment in advanced technologies that enable to enhance productivity, where various initiatives are selected through a Darwinian process that favours productive uses of those resources, and from the periodic modernization of the legal and regulatory framework as specified by altering market conditions and societal urgencies.

To develop capitalism, government must have to perform many roles such as administrative role, in which providing and maintaining the institutions that support capitalism. Capitalism contrasts with previous economic systems characterized by forced labour, self-sufficiency, barter, and/or reciprocal relationships based upon family, tribe, or locally known relationships. It is also dissimilar with modern systems where governments have acted directly through ownership and/or central planning to control of the use of resources. Government’s approach of intervention in a capitalist system is mainly indirectly. It creates, legitimates, administers and intermittently updates the various market frameworks that elucidate the conditions in which the economic factors may obtain and employ capital and labour to produce, distribute, and sell goods and services. Consequently, economic players receive the right to use their power in competition with others, subject to predominant laws and regulations.

The market structures can have quite dissimilar policy priorities, from protecting the status quo to the advancement of growth and development, from protecting consumers to protecting producers, and from protecting labour to protecting capital. Governments identify the responsibilities of the various participants in these transactions such as for the safety and serviceability of the products, as well as the conditions under which they are produced and distributed. Therefore, this indirect system of governance certainly exemplifies a strategy, though this strategy is often largely implicit rather than overt and created progressively over time instead of huge plan. While positive capitalism depends upon the granting of power to private companies to enter, compete in, and exit from markets, it also depends upon the state’s power to confine the private actors so that they do not abuse these powers. To be authentic as well as productive, private economic actors must be bound by the rule of law, and this rule of law must be backed by the coercive powers of the state. The powers of the state are engaged to confine the private players from breaking the rules and, if need be, to settle clashes. Efficacious capitalism is reliant upon a state control of forced powers. Capitalist systems typically rely on the state to make direct provision of certain public goods, such as highways, schools and law enforcement, as well as to refrain from the temptation to own, operate, or directly control the economic actors. If the state does become a direct economic player, it becomes a player as well as a referee. This puts state agents in roles that conflict for example, as a regulator and as player that need not be subject to the discipline of the markets.

Capitalism as a three level system: Capitalism has three level systems. On the first level, the markets, firms compete to secure their labour and capital as well as to serve their customers. In second level, there is basic institutional foundations, including physical and social infrastructure; physical infrastructure includes, among other things, transportation and communications, and social infrastructure includes the educational, public health, and legal systems. Additionally, the second level consists of the agents of the state who enforce the rules and regulations, including specialized regulators who oversee behaviour in certain industries, such as those that deal with food and drugs or transportation, and those who protect societal resources such as the physical environment or safety in the workplace. The third level comprises of a political authority typically one with specialized functions such as executive, legislative, and judicial branches. In turn, a set of political institutions connect the political authority to the political markets and ultimately to civil society, to which such an authority is finally responsible.

Level of capitalism

Capitalism is planned to uphold the industrious use of public resources in order fulfil consumer needs in the short period and to enhance living style of people through time. As a result, its supervisory frameworks give priority to promoting productivity instead of equalizing competitive resources on a given day or during a given season. Same time, it is established that capitalism is controlled after the fact, and not in real time the way organized sports are. The regulators do not stop the play to assess a foul, nor halt the competition to scrutinize a controversial event via “instant replay.” The economy moves on and disputes are settled after the fact, in court if need be.

Types of capitalism: 
There are many alternatives of capitalism that differ according to country and region. They vary in their institutional character and by their economic policies. The common features among all the dissimilar forms of capitalism is that they are based on the production of merchandises and services for profit, predominately market-based allocation of resources, and they are structured upon the accretion of capital. The major types of capitalism are mentioned below.

Mercantilism: Mercantilism is a nationalist system of initial capitalism that was practiced in the later phase of 16th century. It is characterized by the interweaving of national business interests to state-interest and imperialism, and subsequently, the state apparatus is utilized to improve national business interests abroad. Mercantilism was determined by the conviction that the prosperity of a nation is increased through a positive balance of trade with other nations. It relates to the phase of capitalist development and sometimes called the Primitive accumulation of capital. Mercantilist arguments for protectionist policies and their central concept of profit upon alienation, obtained in circulation, often tied to unstable transitory and immature character of capitalist economy of their age (Makoto Ito, 1988). Mercantilist capitalism involves more cooperation and coordination between government and economic entities including large cooperation and sometimes whole sectors of economy.

Free-market economy: Free-market economy is described as a capitalist economic system where prices for goods and services are set freely by the forces of supply and demand and are allowed to reach their point of equilibrium without interference by government plan. It characteristically involves in support for highly competitive markets, private ownership of productive enterprises. Laissez-faire is a more extensive form of free-market economy where the role of the state is limited to protecting property rights.

Social market and Nordic model: A social-market economy is a supposedly free-market system where government involvement in price formation is kept to a minimum but the state provides substantial services in the area of social security, unemployment benefits and recognition of labour rights through national collective bargaining arrangements. The social market economy forms an essential part of free and open society, which is also characterised by solidarity. It has proven itself as an economic system that allows for prosperity and full employment whilst also providing welfare and promoting a strong social system. This model is conspicuous in Western and Northern European countries, and Japan, although in slightly different configurations. The huge majority of enterprises are privately owned in this economic model.

Rhine capitalism: It is described as the modern model of capitalism and adaptation of the social market model that exists in continental Western Europe today. State capitalism: State capitalism includes state ownership of the means of production within a state, and the organization of state enterprises as commercial, profit-seeking businesses. The argument between proponents of private versus state capitalism is focused on issues of managerial efficacy, productive efficiency, and fair distribution of wealth.

Aldo Musacchio, leading expert stated that state capitalism is a system in which governments, whether democratic or autocratic, exercise an extensive influence on the economy, through either direct ownership or various subsidies. Musacchio also said that there is a significant difference between today’s state capitalism and its predecessors. In his views, earlier, governments appointed bureaucrats to run companies but in present situation, the world’s largest state-owned enterprises are now traded on the public markets and kept in good health by large institutional investors.

Corporate capitalism: Corporate capitalism refers to a free or mixed-market economy categorised by the supremacy of hierarchical, bureaucratic corporations.

Mixed economy: Mixed economy is a mainly market-based economy consisting of both private and public ownership of the means of production and economic interventionism through macroeconomic policies intended to correct market failures, reduce unemployment and keep inflation low. The degree of involvement in markets differs among different countries. Some mixed economies, such as France under dirigisme, also featured a degree of indirect economic planning over a largely capitalist-based economy. Contemporary capitalist economies are described as “mixed economies”.

Characteristics of Capitalism: 
Capitalism, generally referred to a free enterprise economy, is considered as an economic system distinguished by some traits, whose development is condition by still other elements. The main characteristics of capitalism are mentioned below.

  1. Private Ownership: Private individuals are the owners of the means of production, which is, land, labour, capital, entrepreneurship (as opposed to state ownership and communist ownership). These owners decide what to produce, in what quantities, how it is going to be produced, and the rewards of labour. It is demand and supply that determines the price of the finished good (s).
  2. Decentralized Decision Making: In a capitalist economy, the process of decision making takes the structure of devious decentralization. Individuals, make the decision with their self-interest. However, the government controls these decisions by manipulating its respective environment that is, affecting prices, taxes, subsides.
  3. Freedom of Choice: Capitalism also referred to as a market economy, which highlights on the freedom of the individual, both as a consumer and as an owner of the factors of production. Principally, an individual can work wherever he or she wants, while entrepreneurs are also free to set up enterprises of their own choice. Within a market economy, decisions or choices are mainly determined by material encouragements.

It is found in vast literature that Capitalism is an economic system in which each individual in his capacity as a consumer, producer and resource owner is engaged in economic activity with a great degree of economic freedom. The factors of production are privately owned and managed by individuals. The main purpose of the capitalist system is the profit motive. The entrepreneurs initiate production with a view to maximize profits. Income is received in financial form through the sale of services of the factors of production and from profits of private enterprise. Capitalist economy is not planned, controlled or regulated by the government. In this system, economic decisions and activities are guided by price mechanism which operates automatically without any direction and control by the central authorities. In capitalist economy, competition is the most important element. It means the existence of large number of buyers and sellers in the market who are motivated by their self-interest but cannot influence market decisions by their individual actions.

Benefits of Capitalism: Capitalist economic system has many benefits.

This is an economic growth through open competitive market that provides individuals with far better opportunities of raising their own income. Capitalism results in a decentralized economic system which is major advantages of capitalism where individuals are exposed to various options which can lead to competition hence leading to firms producing only the best, and a capitalist economy is believed to encourage innovations in technology and industry. The advantages of capitalism entail;

Consumer choice where Individuals choose what to consume, and this choice leads to more competition and better products and services.
Efficiency of economics in which Goods and services produced based on demand creates incentives to cut costs and avoid waste.

General Drawbacks of Capitalism: Besides numerous advantages, capitalistic economy has several disadvantages.

  1. Inequality: There tends to be a rise in disparity as benefits of capitalism are not fairly distributed. As wealth tends to redound to a small percentage of the population, the demand for luxury goods is often limited to a small percentage of the workforce, one of the main capitalism disadvantages.
  2. Irrational Behaviour: People tend to get caught up in hypothetical suds but disregard economic fundamentals, leading to illogical behaviour.
  3. Monopoly Behaviour: Other major drawback of capitalism is that companies gain monopoly over power in a free market allows and exploit customers by charging higher prices. They often pay lower salaries to labours.
  4. Immobility: Main issue of capitalism is that a free market is supposed to be able to easily move factors of from an unprofitable sector to a new profitable industry. However, this is much more difficult practically.

Other drawbacks are that there is extravagant competition which does not confer any corresponding social benefit.

Effect of capitalism on society: Capitalism has some good consequences on habitants.
High Standard of Living: Capitalism is the artefact of industrialization. Industrialization has amplified production. 
Economic Progress: Capitalism encourages society to utilize the natural resources more and more. The people exert themselves maximum for earning money. This had led to many inventions in the field of industry, agriculture and business which have contributed to economic growth.
Exchange of Culture: Capitalism intends to encourage all people to partake in activities that appear beneficial to them. Capitalism facilitates international trade and exchange of know-how. People of different countries have come close to each other. The development of the means of transport and communication has facilitated contacts among the peoples of the world thus leading to exchange of ideas and culture.
Progress of Civilization: Capitalism is tool to explore new machines and increasing the production of material goods. Man is today more civilized than his ancestors.

Decreasing of Racial Differences: Capitalism has also led to diminish the differences based on race, doctrine, caste and nationality. 
Major effect of capitalism includes, profit for owners of production/business, industrial vs agricultural economies, market competition, increased supply of “things”/goods and focus on personal responsibility.

To summarize, the capitalist system is reflection of the aspirations of human nature. Actually, capitalism can be described as a system that identifies and protects private property, free enterprise, freedom of choice for the human person, the authority of consumers over the objectives of production through free markets of the products chosen or ordered by the consumers, guide the programs of production. Capitalism makes economy money oriented. Businesses look at the economy with a materialistic point of view. Huge business companies take over smaller companies. Employment rights are compensated with the aim of higher productivity and some believe that because of fierce competition in capitalist economies it can give rise to unfair competition.

There are different views about capitalism. Some experts believe in its strengths, while others criticise about the unfair distribution of wealth it may lead to. The opposition of capitalism is Marxian Economics, named after Karl Marx. He believes that capitalism brings about class segregation i.e. there are two classes the capitalist class and the working class. Under capitalism, economic personal property, such as commodities or the means of production may be withheld from others by its owners. This is done so as to yield higher profit margins. Reviewing major facts about capitalism, it is found that in Capitalism economy, individuals own and control land, capital, and production of industry. Individuals are free to purchase and own their own homes, cars, furniture, and other goods People have liberty to live where they want and what type of job field they want to pursue.

Socialism: Socialism is political philosophy considered by public ownership and centralized planning of all major industries which include manufacturing, services, and energy, banks and insurance companies, agribusiness, transportation, the media, and medical facilities. In capitalism, these huge enterprises control the economy but are privately owned and operated to create wealth for their owners by extracting it from working people who are paid only a small fraction of what their labour produces. Socialism turns this around so that the class that produces the wealth can jointly decide how it will be used for the benefit of all. Real socialism is characterized as democratic. It is economic as well as political democracy. Many capitalist countries claim of their democratic institutions, but this is a deception because all the political power is in control of officers who hold the wealth. Socialism prioritizes human needs and eliminates the profit motive that drives war, ecological destruction, and inequalities based on gender, race, nationality and sexuality. Simply, socialism is social ownership of means of production, impartiality of income and opportunities for all members. Under social and political system, Socialism depends altogether upon the history of mankind for a record of its growth in the past, and bases its future upon knowledge of that history in so far as it can be accurately traced up to the present time. The basis of the whole theory is that since ancient period of their existence, human beings have been channelled by the power they possessed over the forces of nature to supply the wants arising as individual members of any society. Thus, Socialism depends upon political economy in its broadest sense. It is dependent upon the manner in which wealth is produced and distributed by those who form part of society at a given time.

Socialism initiated in the late 18th-century from an knowledgeable and working class political movement that disapproved the effects of industrialization and private ownership on civilisation

Theoretical framework of socialism: Vast literature is available to describe nature of socialism as a political philosophy. Theorist D. Dickinson stated that “Socialism is an economic organisation of society in which the material means of production are owned by the whole community and operated by organs representative of and responsible to the community according to a general economic plan, all members of the community being entitled to benefit from the results of such socialized planned production on the basis of equal rights.” According to Loucks, “Socialism refers to that movement which aims to vest in society as a whole, rather than in individuals, the ownership and management of all nature-made and man-made producers goods used in large-scale production, to the end that an increased national income may be more equally distributed without materially destroying the individuals economic motivation or his freedom of occupation.”

Other experts like Pious explained the term socialism as “A socialized industry is one in which the material instruments of production are owned by a public authority or voluntary association, and operated not with a view to profit by sale to other people, but for the direct service of those whom the authority or association represents. A socialized system is one the main part of whose resources are engaged in socialized industries,” Paul M. Sweeny asserted that “In its primary meaning is a complete social system which differs from capitalism not only in the absence of private ownership of the means of production but also in its basic structure and mode of functioning.” Shuffle also elaborated principles of socialism and stated that, “The Alfa and omega of socialism is the transformation of private competing capital into a united collective capital.” G.D.H. Cole perceived that “Socialism means four closely connected things of a human fellowship which denies and expels distinction of class, a social system in which no one is so much richer or poorer than his neighbours as to be unable to mix with them on equal term, the common ownership and use of all the vital instruments of production and an obligation on all citizens to serve one another according to their capacities in promoting the common wellbeing.”

Similar to capitalism, socialism must be worldwide so that global resources can be shared. To attain the objectives of socialism, it is necessary to any country being able to determine its own intention.

Features of Socialism: The main features of this system are described as under.

  1. Public Ownership: First prominent characteristic is socialist economy which is determined by public ownership of the means of production and distribution. There is shared ownership whereby all mines, farms, factories, financial institutions, distributing agencies, means of transport and communications, are owned, controlled, and regulated by government departments and state corporations. A small private sector also exists as small business units which are carried on in the villages by local artistes for local consumption.
  2. Central Planning: Second feature of socialism is centrally planned which functions under the direction of a central planning authority. It develops various objectives and targets to be realized during the plan period. Central economic planning means the making of major economic decisions what and how much is to be produced, how, when and where it is to be produced, and to whom it is to be allocated by the mindful decision of a determinate authority, on the basis of a comprehensive survey of the economic system as a whole. The central planning authority organises and operates the financial resources by deliberate direction and control of the economy in order to accomplish certain objectives and targets laid down in the plan during a specified period of time.
  3. Definite Objectives: Another characteristic of socialism is that a socialist economy operates within definite socio-economic objectives. These objectives may concern aggregate demand, full employment, and satisfaction of communal demand, allocation of factors of production, distribution of the national income, the amount of capital accumulation, economic development and so forth.
  4. Freedom of Consumption: In socialism system, consumer’s dominance infers that production in state owned industries is generally governed by the likings of consumers, and the available merchandises are distributed to the customers at fixed prices through the state-run department stores. Consumer’s dominion under socialism is limited to the choice of socially beneficial commodities.
  5. Equality of Income Distribution: In a socialist system, there is great impartiality of income distribution in comparison a free market economy. The removal of private ownership in the means of production, private capital accumulation, and profit motive under socialism avert the accrual of large wealth in the hands of a few wealthy persons. The unearned incomes in the form of rent, interest and profit go to the state which utilises them in providing free education, public health facilities, and social security to the masses.
  6. Planning and the Pricing Process: Other feature of socialism is that the pricing process under socialism does not operate spontaneously but works under the control and regulation of the central planning authority. There are administered prices which are fixed by the central planning authority. There are also the market prices at which consumer goods are sold. There are also the accountings prices on the basis of which the managers decide about the production of consumer goods and investment goods, and also about the choice of production methods. Theoretical studies have documented that socialism aims at establishing a classless society, free from exploitation. It presupposes public ownership of means of production (Lay bourn, 1988). Majority of socialists recognise their philosophy of socialism as Marxists in acknowledgement of Karl Marx, who revealed the economic laws of capitalism. Marx and his co-worker Frederick Engels evolved the foundation of Marxist economics, the philosophical thought of dialectical materialism, and the method of social analysis known as historical materialism. Leninism signifies the concepts of a disciplined, radical party and the principled, intransigent vision of Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, key leader of the 1917 Russian Revolution. Lenin’s contribution on imperialism, the nature of the state, and the rights of national minorities are vital components of the socialist practice. Another form of socialism, Socialist feminism was developed in the decades of late 1960s and early 1970s by originators of the Freedom Socialist Party and Radical Women. It is a Marxist, Leninist, and Trotskyism tendency. These philosophers recognised that the most oppressed sector of the current working class is composed of women, particularly women of colour, whose life experience of exploitation gives them the strength and determination to carry through a revolution against all forms of oppression. Socialist feminists identified the activist leadership of working-class women, people of colour, and queers, and others multiply plagued by capitalism. Socialist feminists orient to common, rank-and-file women and men instead of the predominantly white male aristocrats of labour who make up the union bureaucracy.

Types of Socialism: There are many types of socialism.
Democratic Socialism promotes the principles of Socialism as an economic principle which signifies that the means of production should be in the hands of ordinary working people and equality as a governing principle. It attempts to bring about Socialism through nonviolent democratic means as opposed to violent insurgence, and represents the improver practice of Socialism. Democratic Socialism infers a philosophy that is more left-wing and supportive of a fully socialist system, established either by progressively reforming Capitalism from within, or by some form of revolutionary transformation.

Marxian socialism: In theoretical framework of Marxism, socialism denotes to a particular historical phase of financial development and its corresponding set of social relations that ultimately overtake capitalism in the plan of historical materialism. From this perspective, socialism is described as a mode of production where the principle for production is use-value, where production for use is coordinated through conscious economic planning and the law of value no longer directs economic activity. The Marxian idea of socialism was against other early forms of socialism, most remarkably early forms of market socialism based on classical economics including Mutualism and Ricardian socialism, which is dissimilar to the Marxian conception, retained commodity exchange and markets for labour and the means of production. The Marxian conception also contradicted Utopian socialism.

Another type of socialism is revolutionary Socialism which supports the need for essential social change through revolution or revolution instead of gradual reform as a strategy to attain a socialist society. Trotskyism is the continuance of the Marxist and Leninist. When the Stalinist bureaucracy rose to power in the Soviet Union in the late 1920s, Trotsky rallied an international Left Opposition against the unfaithfulness of the revolution’s goals. Trotskyism means Permanent Revolution, internationalism, and the strategy of the united front against fascism. . Luxemburgish is another Revolutionary Socialist custom, based on the works of Rosa Luxemburg (1970 – 1919). It is analogous to Trotskyism in its opposition to the Totalitarianism of Stalin, while simultaneously avoiding the reformist politics of modern Social Egalitarianism.

Utopian Socialism describes the first streams of modern socialist thought in the first quarter of the 19th Century. Usually, it was used by later socialist thinkers to define early socialist, or quasi-socialist, intellectuals who created hypothetical visions of perfect egalitarian and communalist societies without actually concerning themselves with the manner in which these societies could be created or sustained. They disallowed all political and especially all revolutionary action, and wished to achieve their ends by nonviolent means and small experiments, which was observed by famous socialist, Karl Marx as necessarily doomed to failure.

The objective of Libertarian Socialism is to develop a society without political, economic or social hierarchies, in which every person would have free, equal access to tools of information and production. This would be accomplished through the eradication of authoritarian institutions and private property, so that direct control of the means of production and resources is gained by the working class and society as a whole. Most Libertarian Socialists supports abolishing the state altogether, in much the same way as Utopian Socialists and Anarchism.

Market Socialism is a type of an economic system in which there is a market economy directed and guided by socialist developers, and where prices would be set through trial and error rather than relying on a free price tool.

Eco-Socialism is philosophies combine aspects of Marxism, Socialism, Green politics, ecology and the anti-globalization movement. They promote the non-violent dismantling of Capitalism and the State, focusing on collective ownership of the means of production, in order to alleviate the social barring, poverty and environmental deprivation brought about by the capitalist system, globalization and colonialism.

Christian socialism: It is a form of religious socialism which is based on the traditions of Jesus of Nazareth. Many Christian socialists consider capitalism to be idolatrous and rooted in greed, which some Christian denominations consider a worldly evil. Christian socialists recognise the cause of unfairness to be associated with the greed that they associate with capitalism.

Guild Socialism: This type of socialism was basically an English movement that fascinated a modest during the first two decades of the 20th century. An association of craftsmen motivated by the medieval guild, determined their own working conditions and activities. Theorists, Samuel G. Hobson and G.D.H. Cole supported the public ownership of industries and their organization into guilds, each of which would be under the autonomous control of its trade union. The role of the state was less clear. Some guild socialists envisioned it as a coordinator of the guilds’ activities, while other theorists held that its functions should be restricted to protection or policing. In general, however, the guild socialists were less inclined to invest power in the state than were their Fabian compatriots.

Fabian socialism: In this form of socialism, the Society adopted the name Fabian as a representation of a plan formulated to infiltrate civic and social units and to find means to spread contemporary social ideas, concentrating on concrete objectives rather than on principles. The Fabians did not constitute themselves as a political party as such but developed the technique of “socialistic ‘permeation’ of existing political institutions” (Fabian Society,” Columbia Encyclopedia, 2nd Ed.). According to theorists, The Fabians were more realistic as compared to the Marxian socialists. They understood that it is much easier to overthrow sons, daughters and wives of the prominent and well-to-do than it is to impress the labouring classes. They also understood, that socialist movement’s spring from the middle and upper classes and not from the proletariat (Sidney Webb, 1989). A major belief of Fabianism is to collect a Brain Trust as an elite class to plan and direct all of society. Shaw designated briefly that “The Fabian Society succeeded because it addressed itself to its own class in order that it might set about doing the necessary brain work of planning socialist organization for all classes, meanwhile accepting, instead of trying to supersede, the existing political organizations which it intended to permeate with the Socialist conception of human society”.

Merits of Socialism: Socialism has many benefits for society. Prof. Schumpeter was supported of this thought and gave four arguments to promote socialism that include greater economic efficiency, welfare due to less inequality, absence of monopolistic practices and absence of business fluctuations.

  1. Greater Economic Efficiency: It has been established through theoretical studies that Economic competence under socialism system is better as compared to capitalism system. The means of production are controlled and regulated by the central planning authority towards chosen ends. The central planning authority makes comprehensive survey of resources and utilises them in the most efficient manner. Increased productivity is secured by avoiding the wastes of competition and by undertaking expensive research and production processes in a coordinated manner. Economic efficiency is also realized by utilising resources in producing socially useful goods and services which satisfy the basic wants of the people such as cheap food, cloth, and housing.
  2. Greater Welfare due to Less Inequality of Income: In a socialist economy, it is observed that there is less disparity of income as compared with a capitalist economy because of the absence of private ownership of the means of production, private capital accumulation, and private profit. All inhabitants work for the wellbeing of the state and each is compensated his payment according to his capability, education and training. All rents, interests and profits from various sources go to the state which spends them for public welfare in providing free education, cheap and congenial housing, free public health amenities, and social security to the people.
  3. Absence of Monopolistic Practices: Main benefit of socialism is that it is free from monopolistic practices which are to be found in a capitalist society. Since under socialism, all means of production are owned by the state, both competition and monopoly are eradicated. The misuse by the monopolistic is absent. Instead of private monopoly, there is the state monopoly of the productive system but this is operated for the welfare of the people. In the state-owned factories, socially useful commodities are produced which are of high quality and are also reasonably priced.
  4. Absence of Business Fluctuations: A socialist system is free from business variations. There is economic constancy because production and consumption of goods and services are controlled by the central planning authority according to the objectives, targets and priorities of the plan. Thus there is neither overproduction nor joblessness.

Demerits of Socialism: A socialist economy has several drawbacks:

  1. Loss of Consumers’ Dominance: Researchers have observed that there is loss of consumer’s dominion in a socialist approach. Consumers do not have the liberty to buy whatever commodities they want. They can consume only those commodities which are available in department stores. Often the quantities which they can buy are fixed by the state.
  2. No Freedom of Occupation: It is also found that people do not have liberty of occupation in such a society. Every person is provided job by the state. But he cannot leave or change it. Even the place of work is allotted by the state. All occupational movements are sanctioned by the state.
  3. Malallocation of Resources: In socialist, there is random allocation of resources. The central planning authority often commits mistakes in resource allocation because the entire work is done on trial and error basis.
  4. Bureaucratic: A socialist economy is considered as rigid economy. It is operated like a machine. Therefore, it does not provide the necessary initiative to the people to work hard. People work due to the fear of higher authorities and not for any personal gain or self-interest.

In current circumstances, socialism has become the most popular, economic philosophy. During the decades succeeding the Second World War, the worldwide progression of socialism has been quite theatrical and unparalleled. Socialism is a standard of expediency which accommodates politicians of all hues. It incorporates all types of political system, detector ships, democracies, republics and monarchies. It holds such dissimilar systems as an Islamic socialism practiced by Libya and Algeria, democratic socialism of Norway or Sweden, the Bathes Socialism of Syria and Iraq, the ‘Ujamaa’ socialism of Tanzania. It is observed that various nations around the world have adopted socialist philosophy in the light of their peculiar conditions. Sometimes even within a country, different political parties interpreted the socialist philosophies to fit into their own political viewpoint. Socialist ideas have considerably influenced the formulation of the means and objectives of Indian economic policies. This has happened in different ways such as through the impact of external, socialist ideologies on the economic and political notions held by Blite groups influencing policy-making in India.

To summarize, Socialism is a thought that individuals should not have ownership of land, capital, or industry, but rather the whole community jointly owns and controls property, goods, and production. Preferably, in this system all share correspondingly in work and the results of their labour. After thorough appraisal of principles of socialism, it is established that Socialism is a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the workforce, either directly through popular collectives or indirectly exercised on behalf of the people by the state, and in which Classlessness is an important objective.

IAS Mains GS Paper-I Complete Notes Click Here – Download

UPSC IAS Mains: Urbanization Their Problems and Their Remedies

Test Series: UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020

(GS Paper- 1 Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and Society)

Urbanization is pervasive and recent phenomenon. In present global atmosphere, all nations undergo with the challenges of environment, social, transportation, economy in their respective cities. These issues are commonly occurred in developing countries due to the difference of development in cities and villages. Most of countries focus on development of cities instead of rural areas. Consequently, the urban areas are equipped with infrastructure, public facilities as well as provide employment opportunities compared to the rural areas. Therefore inhabitants are more attracted to migrate in cities to avail hi tech facilities, enhance their lifestyles and ultimately these activities raise numerous urbanization issues. Cities have major role to enhance economic growth and prosperity. The sustainable development of cities largely depends upon their physical, social and institutional infrastructure. An urban area is spatial concentration of people who are working in non-agricultural activities. The essential characteristic is that urban means non-agricultural. Urban can also be explained as a fairly multifaceted concept. Criteria used to define urban can include population size, space, density, and economic organization. Typically, urban is simply defined by some base line size, like 20 000 people.

Concept of urbanization: The term Urbanization is well explained by Nsiah-Gyabaah as the change from a rural to an urban society which involves an augment in the number of people in urban regions during a particular year. Likewise, Gooden argued urbanization as the immigration of people in huge numbers from rural to urban areas and this process happen due to the concentration of resources and facilities in towns and cities. Other theorists like, Reynolds (1989) characterized urbanization as the development of the population and cities, so that higher proportion of population lives in urban areas. Normally, urbanization is directly associated with innovation, industrialization, and the sociological process of good reason. Urbanization process had been started during the industrial revolution, when workforce moved towards manufacturing hubs in cities to get jobs in factories as agricultural jobs became less common. Theoretical studies have demonstrated that Urbanization is the result of social, economic and political developments that lead to urban concentration and expansion of big cities, changes in land use and revolution from rural to urban pattern of organization and governance. Urbanization is a process in which an increased proportion of society lives in cities and the suburbs of the cities. Historically, it has been strongly related with industrialization. Industrialization is processes that widely utilize inanimate sources of energy to improve human productivity.

Global urban population is growing at rapid rate from 17% in 1951 to 20% in 2001 and expected to increase 41% in 2020. It is observed that developing countries urbanize faster than industrialized nations because they have more issues of urbanizations. It has been documented in studies that Cities and towns operate as mechanisms for growth, often driving much of people’s cultural, intellectual, educational and technological accomplishment and modernization. Though, in contemporary living style of people of new, low-density approaches to urban development results in better consumption of energy, resources, transport and land, in this manner raising greenhouse gas emissions and air and noise pollution to levels that often surpass the legal or suggested human protection limits. Overall consumption, energy use, water use and waste generation go along with an increasing number of urban families.

Urban environmental management, is also the big business of local governments, play major role to offer services; civil society, and promotes citizens health and its rights to provide hygienic, liveable environment. The private sector can increase the efficiency and effectiveness of service delivery. Currently, cities are taking on roles that expand far beyond the conventional provision of infrastructure and services. A theoretical move may be perceived (European Environment Agency, 1996). The most remarkable immediate change accompanying urbanization is the fast change in the existing character of local livelihoods as agriculture or more traditional local services and small-scale industry give way to contemporary industry and urban and related commerce, with the city drawing on the resources of an ever-widening area for its own nourishment and goods to be traded or processed into manufactures.

When referring to the pre-industrial city, Wheatley (Wheatley, 1971) described urbanism as “that particular set of functionally integrated institutions which were first devised some 5,000 years ago to mediate the transformation of relatively egalitarian, inscriptive, kin-structured groups into socially stratified politically organized, territorially based societies”. The stress on institutional change relates the growth of cities to a major socio-political reorganization of society, which he considers as a main constituent in the development of society. Correspondingly, Childe offers a listing of ten characteristics of an urban civilization. These may be separated into five primary characteristics referring to primary changes in the organization of society and five secondary features indicative of the presence of the primary factors (Childe, 1951).

Major causes of urbanization: Following are the main causes of urbanization:

  1. Industrial revolution: Industrial employment catches the attention of people from rural to urban areas. In the urban areas, people work in modern sector in the occupations that assist national economic development. This represents that the old agricultural economics is changing to a new non-agricultural economy. This is the trend, which will build a new modern society (Gugler 1997).
  2. Emergence of large manufacturing centres.
  3. Job opportunities: There are ample job opportunities in mega cities therefore village people or individuals from town frequently migrate to these areas.
  4. Availability of transportation: Due to easy transport, people prefer to stay in big cities.
  5. Migration: Migration is main cause for rapid growth of mega-cities. Migration has been going on over centuries and it is normal phenomenon. When considering urbanization rural-urban and urban-rural and rural-rural migrations are very important. Urban-urban migration means that people move from one city to another. People may move to the city because they are forced by poverty from rural community or they may be pulled by the magnetism of city lives. Combination of these push and pull factors can force people to migrate to cities.
  6. . Infrastructure facilities in the urban areas: Infrastructure has vital role in the process of urbanization in the development of countries. As agriculture becomes more fruitful, cities grow by absorbing workforce from rural areas. Industry and services increase and generate higher value-added jobs, and this led to economic growth. The geographic concentration of productive activities in cities creates agglomeration economies, which further raises productivity and growth. The augments income and demand for agricultural products in cities.
  7. Growth of private sector.

Factors lead to urbanization: There are several aspects that lead to urbanization. According to Gooden, the factors can be categorized into three categories that include, economic opportunities, proper infrastructure and utilities and availability of public facilities.

Economic opportunities: It is general perception that living standard of urban area is superior as compared to village areas. People consider that more job opportunities and more jobs are offered in the city instead of rural area. Besides, the income also will be higher.

Proper infrastructure and utilities: In today’s economy driven society, majority of nations in the world are focusing on the development of major cities as the centre of government and business. As such, the cities will be certainly equipped with a better infrastructure and utilities such as roads and transportation, water, electricity and others. Apart from that, the communication and internet coverage also are good in the cities which are believed as one of the pulling factors of migration.

Availability of public facilities: To make smart city, metropolitan cities also offered better public facilities which are not there in rural areas. Since a variety of public facilities such as health and education are provided in the cities, people have more choices either to use public or private. Additionally, the provision of leisure area, postal services as well as police station and others are also provided to meet the needs of the urban community. In urban area, a greater variety of entertainment such as restaurants, movie theatres and theme parks attract more people to live in cities.

Global perspective: The urbanization progression and nature of the problems in more developed and less developed ones are very dissimilar. While in the framework of more developed countries, urbanization and city growth were necessary conditions for industrialization and modernization, it has become a risk to better living in the less developed countries because of the unpredictable growth of the cities, mainly of a few super cities. The speedy population growth in urban areas is due to migration of people from rural to urban and small cities to large ones are creating problems such as urban overcrowding, poor housing, and crowded transportation, lack of basic services, ill health, low educational status and high rate of joblessness. Such problems in the less developed countries may become heightened. It is necessary that studies should be undertaken on the patterns of urbanization observe the process so as to lessen its unfavourable consequences. India, the second most crowded country in the world has reached a state where urban problems have assumed to be serious.

Urbanization Issues and Problem: Some scholars think that the process of urbanization will bring numerous benefits for monetary growth, expansion of business activities, social and cultural incorporation, resourceful services, as well as resources of utilization. Though, there are some issues occur due to the urbanization. These include:

Rapid rate of urbanization: It is observed that fast rate of urbanization which is increasing every year has needed more growth of new areas for housing, social amenities, commercial and other urban land uses. Though, the lack of clear urban limits has led to the formation of urban slump encroaching upon environmentally sensitive areas, major agricultural areas and areas which are not appropriate for development (TCPD, 2006). In addition, the high demand of land use at strategic areas also has led to land use variances. These situations led to various urbanization issues such as environmental pollution, traffic congestion, depletion of green areas and degradation in the quality of urban living.

Problems due to rapid rate of urbanization

Degradation of environmental quality: Due to urbanization, there is environmental degradation especially in the quality of water, air and noise. With the influx of more people in cities, there is great demand of facilities such as housing. Some unlawful factories and even houses which have a poor infrastructure, the waste from buildings are directly channelled to the nearest river or water resources which directly pollute the water. The domestic waste, industrial effluents and other wastes that were dumped directly to the river, degrade the water quality. Another after effects of rapid urbanization is the air pollution which has also increased due to emanation from motor vehicles, industrial development and use of non-environmental friendly fuel sources. The noise pollution is produced from the various human actions which also degrade the environment and ultimately affect the human health. The growth of population has generated a very high quantity of solid waste and there is pressure to provide a waste disposal place in the urban areas.

Inefficient transportation system: Urbanization created severe problem of transpiration. Due to movement of people into metropolitan cities, the number of vehicles on the road is increasing every year. Although various types of public transportation are provided in the cities but people in cities still prefer to drive private vehicles. This is due to the ineffective public transportation. The public transportation facilities are provided without referring to the need to integrate the different modes of transportation. Consequently it is difficult for the user to change the modes of transportation. Since the public transportation is not trustworthy, people usually travel from private vehicles which led to the severe problem of blockage in the cities. If any traffic jam happens, public transportation, especially bus and taxi and private vehicles are trapped together and cannot move. It creates lot of problem for people.

Decline in quality of living for urban dwellers: Urbanization is major concern for management researchers because it decline in quality of living for urban inhabitants. As the metropolis becomes a developed city, the land value will also increase. The housing provision will focus more to fulfil the needs of the high income group. As such, there will be a problem in the provision of housing, especially for the middle and low class people. The supply of housing for the urban poor is still inadequate as the cost of these houses is very high to which low and middle income group cannot afford. The lack of housing provision for the low income group has led to the continuation of unlawful resident settlements in the city. These unlawful tenant settlements will certainly lack in proper infrastructure that will bring about many hindrances to the urban environment and create social problems such as child education, crime, drugs, delinquency and others. Besides housing problem for low income group, the process of urbanization has also increased the demand on infrastructure and utility which cannot be fulfilled from the existing facilities. The maintenance of drains and debris collection is incompetent which can raise other serious problems such as flash floods and poor public health. The reappearance of flash floods is due to the drainage system being unable to contain surface water run-off that has greatly increased with the higher intensity of urban activities.

Unsuccessful urban governance: The urban authority undergoes with multifaceted challenges to manage a city. The fast speed of urbanization is major challenges which need every party to be more focused in undertaking each and every responsibility in urban development. However, the involvement of several agencies and departments in urban management made it complicated to synchronize many actions and resultant, it affects the efficiency of those actions. Besides this, the local authority also deals with the different goals and interests of community groups which they need to fulfil. The local authority also needs to find solution for different social issues.

Cities are developed on two percent of the land’s surface. Their inhabitant uses over three-quarters of the world’s resources and release similar amounts of wastes. Urban wastes have local impacts but these are issues at global scale. The impacts of the cities are usually seen both locally and globally such as air pollution, city populations, as the major users of energy, cause both regional and worldwide pollution. These factors have adverse impact on health of the people, air quality and biosphere.

City consumption:

Urbanization issues in Indian context: India is known for its rural population in the world with about 73 percent of its population living in rural villages. The growth of urban population as well as the speed of urbanization has been usually slow as compared to most of the other Asian countries. When evaluating urbanizing process in Indian perspective, it is observed that major problems of urbanisation in this nation are Urban Sprawl, Overcrowding, Housing, Unemployment, Slums and Squatter Settlements, Transport, Water, Sewerage Problems, Trash Disposal, Urban Crimes, and Problem of Urban Pollution. While urbanisation has been a mechanism of economic, social and political progress, it can pose serious socio-economic problems. The absolute magnitude of the urban population, random and unplanned growth of urban areas, and lack of infrastructure are major issues in India due to urbanization. The fast growth of urban population both natural and through migration, has put immense pressure on public utilities like housing, sanitation, transport, water, electricity, health, and education.

Poverty, joblessness and under employment among the rural immigrant, beggary, thefts, dacoities, burglary and other social sins go wild. Urban slump is encroaching the valuable agricultural land. According to the statistical reports in 2001, the urban inhabitants of India were more than 285 million. It is estimated that by 2030, more than 50 per cent of India’s population is expected to live in urban areas. Numerous problems need to be emphasized.

Urban sprawl or real development of the cities, both in population and geographical area, of rapidly increasing cities is the major cause of urban troubles. In most cities, the financial support is unable to deal with the problems created by their expansion. Huge immigration from rural areas as well as from small towns into large cities has occurred almost consistently and as a result the size of the city is increased. Historical records signify that initial large flow of migration from rural to urban areas was during the “depression” of late 1930s when people moved for searching employment. Afterwards during the decade 1941-51, another a million persons migrated to urban areas in response to period of war industrialisation and division of the country in 1947. During 1991-2001, more than 20 million people migrated to urban areas. It is commonly observed that such big cities attracted to majority of people to get employment opportunities and live in modern style. Such hyper urbanisation leads to increased cities sizes which challenge imagination. Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore are examples of urban slump due to huge migration of people from the nearby places.

Migration consequences:

Overcrowding is a situation in which large number of people lives in too little space. Overcrowding is a consistent result of over-population in urban areas. It is obviously expected that cities are increasing their size due to massive movement of people from undeveloped areas but it squeezed in a small space due to overcrowding.

Housing: It is another intense problem due to urbanization in India. Overcrowding leads to a constant problem of scarcity of houses in urban areas. This problem is particularly more severe in those urban areas where there is large invasion of jobless or underemployed immigrants who could not find place to live when they come in cities and towns from the nearby areas. The major factors for housing problems are lack of building materials and financial resources, insufficient expansion of public utilities into sub-urban areas, poverty and unemployment of urban immigrants, strong caste and family ties and lack of enough transportation to sub-urban areas where most of the available land for new construction is to be found.

Unemployment: The problem of joblessness is also serious as the problem of housing. Urban unemployment in India is estimated at 15 to 25 per cent of the labour force. This percentage is even higher among the educated people. It is approximate that about half of all knowledgeable urban unemployed youth are living in four metropolitan cities such as in Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, and Chennai. Additionally, although urban incomes are higher than the rural incomes, they are awfully low because of high cost of living in urban areas. Major causes of urban unemployment are the huge relocation of people from rural to urban areas.

Slums and Squatter Settlements: The natural development of unchecked, unexpected and random growth of urban areas is the growth and spread of slums and unlawful resident settlements which present a prominent feature in the environmental structure of Indian cities, particularly of urban centres. The fast urbanisation in combination with industrialisation has resulted in the enlargement of slums. The explosion of slums occurs due to many factors, such as, the lack of developed land for housing, the high prices of land beyond the reach of urban poor, a large influx of rural migrants to the cities in search of jobs.

Transport: Urbanization poses major challenge to transport system. With traffic blockage, almost all cities and towns of India are suffering from severe form of transport problem. Transport problem increases and becomes more complex as the town grows in dimension. With its growth, the town performs varied and complex functions and more people move to work or shop.

Water: Water is one of the most essential elements of nature to maintain life and right from the beginning of urban civilisation. However, supply of water started falling short of demand as the cities grew in size and number.

Sewerage Problems: Urban centres in India are almost consistently beset with inadequate sewage facilities. Resource crisis faced by the municipalities and illicit growth of the cities are two major causes of this pitiable state of affairs. Most cities do not have proper arrangements for treating the sewerage waste and it is drained into a nearly river or in sea as in Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai and these activities pollute the water bodies.

Trash Disposal: Urbanization pushed Indian cities to grow in number and size and as a result people have to face the problem of trash disposal which is in alarming stage. Enormous quantities of garbage produced by Indian cities cause a serious health problem. Most cites do not have proper arrangements for garbage disposal and the existing landfills are full to the edge. These landfills are breeding grounds of disease and countless poisons leaking into their environs. Wastes putrefy in the open inviting disease carrying flies and rats and a filthy, poisonous liquid, called Leachate, which leaks out from below and contaminates ground water. People who live near the decomposing garbage and raw sewage get victims to several diseases such as dysentery, malaria, plague, jaundice, diarrhoea, and typhoid.

Health problem due to urbanization: Factors affecting health in slums are Economic conditions, Social conditions, Living environment, Access and use of public health care services, Hidden/Unlisted slums and Rapid mobility. Environmental problems can cause many other problems such as Poor air quality that can produce asthma and allergies or contribute to physical inactivity, an impure water supply can cause the spread of infectious diseases through the water supply or through food such as waterborne and food borne diseases, climates changes can cause deaths from severe heat or cold , noise can cause sleep disturbances, and hence poor performance at work and in school, Lead poisoning leading to developmental and behaviour problems, Second-hand smoke and exposure to carcinogens can cause cancer. In general, poor environmental quality contributes to 25–33% of global ill health. Physical, mental, and social health is affected by living conditions. There are numerous examples that impact on human living such as lead exposure, noise, asbestos, mould growth, crowding, respiratory disease, and spread of infectious diseases, accidents, and mental illness. Health impacts of inadequate housing conditions are an intricate issue involving variety of exposures (physical, chemical, biological, building, and social factors) and various health outcomes such as asthma and allergies, respiratory diseases, cardiovascular effects, injuries, poisoning, mental illnesses. Issues of overcrowding, lack of resources, poverty, unemployment, and lack of education and social services can lead to numerous many social problems for example crime, violence, drug use, high school drop-out rates, and mental health problems.

Urban Crimes: In developed cities of India, people get connected with different types of individuals who do not have similarity with one another. The problem of crimes increases with the increase in urbanisation. In fact the increasing trend in urban crimes tends to upset peace and tranquility of the cities and make them insecure to live in mainly for the women. The problem of urban crime is becoming more complicated in current situation because criminals often get shelter from politicians, bureaucrats and leaders of the urban society. Dutt and Venugopal (1983) stated that violent urban crimes such as rape, murder, kidnapping, dacoity, robbery are more prominent in the northern-central parts of the nation. Even the economic crimes such as theft, cheating, breach of trust are concentrated in the north- central region. Poverty related crimes are prevalent in the cities of Patna, Darbhanga, Gaya and Munger. This may be due to poverty existing in this area.

Problem of Urban Pollution: Rising urbanisation in present situation led to develop industries and transport systems out of proportion. These developments are mainly responsible for contamination of environment, particularly the urban surroundings. Urban pollution is mainly the collection of impurities created by cities which would certainly shock city dwellers. It includes Air, water, ground the entire environment. Air pollution has dangerous consequences which emerge due to urbanization. Cities are the source of several dangerous gases, particularly vehicles like passenger cars, Lorries, buses which generate carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrous oxides (NOx), benzene, ozone in addition to fine particles released by diesel motors which create a serious threat to human health. Heating installations use fossil fuels which also contaminate the air of urban centres. However, in numerous urban agglomerations, the main source of the worsening of air quality is from industrial facilities which emit veritable poisons into the air, which is then inhaled by riverside dwellers. Water is also source of pollution in urban areas. Since earlier times, cities are attracting millions of rural residents to their recognizable shores. Each of these individuals has required water to live, and consume for other basic needs. Cities under continuous development must increase their water resources and their water treatment capacities. In many countries, this has created nearly insoluble problems and millions of human beings are not assured daily access to potable water. As regards wastewater, the lack of effective collection and treatment facilities means that wastewater is often quite simply dumped back into Nature, often into the ocean, which creates severe and long lasting pollution problems.

Remedy to fix issues of urbanization in India

India has rapidly increasing population. According to the estimates of New McKinsey Global Institute research, cities of India could produce 70 percent of net new jobs by 2030, may generate around 70 percent of Indian GDP, and drive a near fourfold increase in per capita incomes across the country. If India upgrades its urban operating model, it has the capacity to reap a demographic dividend from the increase of around 250 million expected in the next decade in the working-age inhabitants.

India’s current Prime Minister Mr. Narendra Modi also came forward to resolve the issues related to urbanization. To manage city system and fulfil the great demands of inhabitants due to the rapid urbanization, specialists have stated that government must focus on two critical factors which is solid waste management and waste water treatment. But the Gujarat government on its part has taken up 50 towns in the state and took initiatives like ‘Clean city, Green city’ in partnership to execute solid waste management and waste water treatment. In order to decrease discrimination, Mr. Modi stated that there is a need to concentrate on comprehensive growth and must recognize the most backward areas in cities and towns and provide basic amenities in place. There is an urgent need to develop social mechanisms which will assist to reduce inequality and make sure the basics like health, sanitation, education to reach those who have been underprivileged of the same. Mr. Modi has realized that most of the urban actions are technical but the employees who do these jobs are often clerical level therefore there must be focus on opening universities on urban planning, urban infrastructure, urban development for the assistance of young people to learn how to meet the demands of urbanization. To lessen urban crime, Mr Modi stresses that police staff in urban areas need a specific training to maintain demands of the law and order situation.

Possible remedy for the urbanization issues and problems at global level:

The most effectual way to resolve issues of urbanization is to make the economy of village and small scale fully viable. Economies must be revitalized if government undertakes huge rural development program. It is suggested that surplus manpower must be absorbed in village in order to migrate to urban areas. It is needed to control traffic congestion in urban region and people must be encouraged to use public transport. India must improve the traffic control system to avoid accidents. It is necessary to implement resilient clean-up campaign. Government must make polices to construct low cast multi-storeyed flats in order to accommodate the slum dwellers. Government should provide funds to encourage entrepreneurship and also find solution for pollution in the nation. Reports of WHO stated that the health cities proposal aimed to develop the physical, mental, environmental, and social welfare of people who live and work in urban centres. People from different backgrounds, including community members to government representatives, from cities were organized and encouraged to come together and work together in order to deal with the problems that emerge in urban environments. This association of people shared strategies, success stories, and resources to tackle the concerns of the local society. WHO reports indicated that, “A healthy city is one that is continually creating and improving the physical and social environments and expanding the community resources that enable people to mutually support each other in performing all the functions of life and in developing to their maximum potential.”

To summarize, Urbanization is the substantial expansion of urban areas due to rural migration and it is strongly related to modernization, industrialization, and the sociological process of rationalization. Urbanization commonly occurred in developing countries because government has keenness to accomplish a developed city status. As a result, almost all area in the city has been developed and in the worst case scenario, even the green areas are also turned into industrial or business area. It illustrates that speedy urbanization has many unconstructive implications especially towards social and environmental aspects. While the process of urbanization occurs at global scale, it is more visible in developing countries. This growth has led to concerns about the sustainability of these urban centres. Explosive growth in the world population and migration of people to in urban centres is causing major concern about the quality of life in these urban centres and the life-supporting capacity of the planet ecologically and communally.

The government should not be keen to develop a city without considering the impacts towards the social and environmental aspect. Instead, the government should modify the urban development process in order to accomplish a developed city and make efforts to lessen the possibility of problems that might arise. In order to triumph over urbanization issues and problems, Khosh-Chashm (1995) recommended that the society should work together closely with the authorities to assist in modernizing life in urban area. The changeover from a rural to urban wealth is very rapid in historical terms for most economic systems. The task to fulfil all the demands for jobs, shelter, water, roads, transport and other urban infrastructure is overwhelming. Presently, India already has numerous mega cities. Many researchers believe that urbanization is good for the financial growth of country but careful planning is required to develop cities and offer basic amenities for healthy living.

IAS Mains GS Paper-I Complete Notes Click Here – Download

UPSC IAS Mains: earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone

Test Series: UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020

(GS Paper- 1 Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and Society)

Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone

Geophysics is associated with thorough study of the physics of the Earth and its environment in space. It also deals with the Earth using quantitative physical methods. The notion of geophysics ascribes to the geological applications such as Earth’s shape, its gravitational and magnetic fields, its internal structure and composition; its dynamics and their surface expression in plate tectonics, the generation of magmas, volcanism and rock formation. Contemporary geophysics organizations describe the geophysics as the hydrological cycle including snow and ice; fluid dynamics of the oceans and the atmosphere; electricity and magnetism in the ionosphere and magnetosphere and solar-terrestrial relations; and analogous problems associated with the Moon and other planets. Geophysical phenomena and society interact in both directions. It has been observed that strong and sudden Geophysical forces greatly affect society. Basically, Geophysical phenomena include earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone, geographical features and their location, changes in critical geographical features (including water bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes. Societies sometimes do not manage well its proximity and relation to geophysical risk. At the same time, there is a poor and declining monitoring and forecasting capabilities and inadequate warning systems.

In broadly unified world, any single geophysical danger can have appalling consequences far beyond the range of immediate physical effects. In environment, Global geophysical events are naturally occurring observable facts, but these happen in huge intensity. Except within the circumstances of scale and extent, the processes and mechanisms that support them, and their physical effects and consequences, are no dissimilar from the geophysical events whether windstorm, flood, volcanic outbreak, earthquake or tsunami that causes natural disasters every year. Global geophysical events are low frequency high consequence geophysical phenomena which can have harmful implication for the environment and civilization. Global geophysical events have detrimental consequences for the world’s environment, market and civilization. These events may occur due to a global physical effect, such as an incident of severe terrestrial cooling in response to a volcanic ‘super-eruption’ or large comet or asteroid impact, as a consequence of subsidiary outcome for the global market and social fabric of a catastrophic regional event, such as an Atlantic- or Pacific-wide ‘mega-tsunami’, or a more spatially confined event at a deliberately sensitive location, such as the expected major Tokyo volcanic activity.

In current environmental situation around the globe, Geophysical phenomena cause worldwide problems which may have had comparatively minor consequences in the narrow, detached, subsistence societies for centuries. However, observations, records and accounts, some more reasonable than others, do exist in support of disastrous geophysical events occurring in the last several millennia that have capability to disrupt the societal activates. These provide us with some restraint on return periods of those GGEs that are more recurrent. Such as, serious climate-perturbing volcanic eruptions occurred in both 1783 (Grattan et al. 2003) while comparable events occurred at Baitoushan volcano (North Korea–China border) in AD 1030 and at unknown locations in AD 450 and 1259 (Oppenheimer 2003a,b).

In our natural environment, various forms of disasters occur in severe intensity. All disasters threaten the humans or societies and had their impact from one decade to another.

Disasters can be categorized as

  1. Natural Disasters such as Volcano, Tsunami, Earthquake; landslides
  2. Human Made Disasters
  3. Human Induced Disaster

Natural Disasters

Earthquake

Earthquake is a vicious tremor, rolling or hasty shock on surface of earth’s crust, sending out a sequence of shock waves in all directions from its place of source which is known as epicentre. Earthquake is considered as most dangerous natural disasters causing massive destruction and causality to human life and debilitating impact on societies. Reports signify that an earthquake is caused by the sudden discharge of gradually accumulating strain energy along a fault within the earth’s crust. Areas of surface or underground fracturing that can results in earthquakes are known as earthquake fault zones. Environmental reports indicated that approximately fifteen percent of the world’s earthquakes happen in Latin America, focused in the western cordillera. An earthquake’s power is measured on the Richter scale using an instrument called a ‘seismometer’. A seismometer detects the vibrations caused by an earthquake. It plots these vibrations on a seismograph. The strength, or magnitude, of an earthquake is measured using the Richter scale. The Richter scale is numbered 0-10.

Table: Richter magnitude and its effectsRelationship between earthquake and triggering hazards by earthquake

Causes of Earthquake

There are numerous causes that can result in devastating natural disaster such as earthquake. Earthquakes are mainly due to sudden release of energy in rocks. It is well studied that An Earthquake is a sequence of underground shock waves and movements on the earth’s surface caused by natural processes within the earth’s crust. By appraising the seismograms from many earthquakes, scientists have revealed that three main levels or shells exist within the Earth. Crust is the outmost surface of Earth. The crust is comparatively light and fragile. Most earthquakes occur within the crust. Scientists consider that underneath the lithosphere is a relatively narrow, mobile zone in the mantle called the asthenosphere. Mantle is the area just below the crust.

Core is beneath the mantle in Earth. The Earth’s core consists of a fluid outer core and a solid inner core.

Internal layer of earth

Tectonic plates which are present in the form of rocks move very slowly. It is frequently caused when underground rocks rapidly breaks down or crush and particle against each other along fault line. This lead to the creation of seismic waves or called as earthquake waves, leads to the quivering of earth surface. The points at which earthquake originates called as FOCUS or HYPOCENTRE; point on earth surface above this is called as EPICENTRE.

Plate tectonic theory: Huge theoretical framework describes the causes of earthquake, but the most dominant theory is plate tectonics theory which deals with the factors causing earthquake. The outer surface of earth is composed of tectonic plates which are about hundred km thick and are continually moving like an objects sometime moving towards, away from each other. Earth liberates its inner heat by convective mechanism. Hot asthenosphere mantle increases to the surface and extend laterally, transporting oceans and continents as on slow conveyor belt and speed of this movement is very slow. Earthquake explodes only in outer, fragile portions of these plates, where temperature of rocks is very low. Deep in earth centre convections of rocks caused by temperature differences in earth induces stresses that results in movement of overlying plates. This stress from convection discharge enormous amount of heat which stress can collapse the brittle portions of overlying plates. If accumulating stress surpass the strength of rocks comprising these brittles zones, the rocks can break rapidly releasing the stored stretchy energy in the form of an earthquake.

There are three types of plate boundaries which are called Spreading, Convergent, or Transform, depending on whether the plates move away from, toward, or laterally past one another respectively. Subduction happens when one plates touches toward another, move beneath it and plunges as much as several hundred kilometres into earth interior.

Death associated with major coastal earthquakes

Death associated with major coastal earthquakes

Hazards of Earthquake

It is said that Earth creates direct hazard to human life. Depending on its size and location, an earthquake can cause the physical phenomena of ground shaking, surface fault burst, and ground breakdown. Several research reports have shown that earthquake hurt economic, population and environmental in very different way such as destruction of buildings, lifeline, triggering fires, releasing of toxins, radioactive and genetically active material and cause other natural disasters such as floods, avalanches, Tsunami, landslides. Earthquakes also have dangerous consequences in socio economic and political arena, disruption of vital services such as supply, medical, law enforcement, drop of production, unemployment, economic deceleration.

  1. The major danger of earthquake is consequence of ground shaking. Buildings can be damaged by shaking itself or by ground under them settling to a different level than it was before earthquake.
  2. It may lead to the ground displacement along fault, which can badly damage those buildings. Flooding may happen due to break of dams or levees along river.
  3. Water from river would flood the area, damage the buildings. Surface faulting is the counterbalance or tearing of the ground surface by differential movement along a fault during an earthquake.
  4. This effect is usually related with Richter magnitudes of 5.5 or greater and is limited to particularly earthquake-prone areas. Displacements range from a few millimetres to several meters, and the damage usually increases with growing dislocation.
  5. Considerable devastation is usually restricted to a narrow zone ranging up to 300 meters wide along the fault, although subsidiary ruptures may occur three to four kilometres from the main fault.

Earthquake-Induced Ground Failure: Landslides occur in various forms. Not only can earthquakes trigger landslides, they can also cause the soil to liquefy in certain areas. These forms of ground failure are potentially disastrous.

Earthquake-Induced Landslides: Earthquake-induced landslides happen under different conditions such as in sharply sloping to nearly flat land; in bedrock, unconsolidated sediments, fill, and mine dumps; under dry and very wet conditions. The major criteria to categorise landslides are types of movement and types of material. The types of landslide movement that can occur are falls, slides, spreads, flows, and combinations of these. Materials are grouped as bedrock and engineering soils, with the latter subdivided into debris (mixed particle size) and earth.

Some earthquake-induced landslides can take place only under very wet conditions. Some types of flow failures, grouped as liquefaction phenomena, occur in unconsolidated materials with almost no clay content. Other slide and flow failures are caused by slipping on a wet layer or by interstitial clay serving as a lubricant. In addition to earthquake shaking, generate mechanisms can include volcanic eruptions, heavy rainstorms, quick snowmelt, rising groundwater, undercutting due to erosion or excavation, human-induced vibrations in the earth, overloading due to construction, and certain chemical phenomena in unconsolidated sediments. Rock avalanches, rock falls, mudflows, and rapid earth flows can cause huge deaths due to earthquake-induced landslides. Rock avalanches begin on over-steepened slopes in weak rocks. They are unusual but can be disastrous when they occur. It was reported that The Huascaran, Peru, avalanche which originated as a rock and ice fall caused by the 1970 earthquake was responsible for the death of approximately 20,000 people. Rock falls happen most commonly in closely jointed or weakly cemented materials on slopes steeper than 40 degrees. While individual rock falls cause comparatively few deaths and limited damage but they are considered as a major earthquake-induced hazard because they are so recurrent.

Earthquake Hazard Prediction, Assessment, and Mitigation:

Scientists make great efforts to minimize the natural disaster through prediction. In order to lessen the impact or to avoid the risks from earthquakes, it is necessary to predict their occurrence. While scientists cannot regularly predict earthquakes, but it is appealing area of study and may be major factor in reducing risks in the future. Another way to lessen the impact of disaster is seismic risk assessment, which enables planners to recognize areas at risk of earthquakes and/or their effects. This information is used to tackle the third area of earthquake risk reduction-mitigation measures. Currently scientific studies demonstrate that major earthquakes do not happen again in the same place along faults until sufficient time has elapsed for stress to build up, usually a matter of several decades. In the main seismic regions, these ‘quiet’ zones present the greatest danger of future earthquakes. According to the seismic gap theory, several gaps that had been recognized near the coasts of Alaska, Mexico, and South America affected by huge earthquakes during the past decade. In some regions, earthquakes occur at the same place, but decades apart, and have nearly indistinguishable characteristics. Monitoring this seismic gap is an important constituent to know about earthquakes, predicting them, and preparing for future ones. According to the seismic gap theory, the U.S. Geological Survey has developed maps of the coast of Chile and parts of Peru for the U.S. Agency for International Development’s Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (USAID/OFDA . These maps provide possibility estimates and rank earthquake risk for the time period 1986 to 2006. It can be established that Earthquake prediction involves checking several aspects of the earth, including slight shifts in the ground, changes in water levels, and emission of gases from the earth, among other things. A seismic risk assessment is basically the appraisal of potential economic losses, loss of function, loss of confidence, fatalities, and injuries from earthquake hazards.

Hazard Prediction Probabilistic ground motion maps outline earthquake ground motions that have a common probability of being exceeded in a certain period of time. They are based on historical earthquake locations and geological information on the reappearance rate of fault ruptures, and assume that the historical trends can be projected into the future.

Geomorphology as a guide to fault activity Dip-slip faults (that is normal and thrust faults) are related with vertical motions and create topographic fault scarps. In perfect earth, the most recently active faults would have the highest, steepest fault scarps, allowing prediction of earthquake hazards. Unfortunately, very active, hazardous faults may have no discernible fault scarps if they cut through soft unconsolidated sediments and if they have only recently become active. Strike-slip faults are associated with lateral movement and often have no topographic expression. Instead, lateral offset of rivers or linear geological features can confirm where these faults are. Oblique-slip faults have both lateral offsets and topography. Some major earthquakes are indicated by the occurrence of foreshocks which can be identified by dense local monitoring networks. However, if a small seismic event is recorded, it is very hard to tell whether it is just a single, low-magnitude earthquake or a foreshock to a major, high-magnitude earthquake.

Other indicators: In the periods between earthquakes, strain amasses gradually in the general region surrounding a fault as the deep, spongy parts of the plates slip past each other continuously. This inter-earthquake deformation should cause micro-cracks to form, which should modify physical properties of the rocks. In various seismically active parts of the world, electrical and magnetic properties and changes in seismic speed are continually monitored to better understand the inter-earthquake deformation process. Such monitoring systems cannot yet forecast earthquakes but it is anticipated that it will work in future.

The knowledge of seismic phenomena is very little to modify the hazard by controlling tectonic processes, but there are many ways to control the risk or exposure to seismic hazards. There are four steps involved in conducting a seismic risk assessment. An evaluation of earthquake hazards and prepare hazard zonation maps; an inventory of elements at risk, for example structures and population; and a vulnerability assessment; and determination of levels of acceptable risk.

Evaluating Earthquake Hazards and Hazard Zonation Maps: In an earthquake-prone zone, information will certainly exist on past earthquakes and associated seismic hazards. This can be added with existing geologic and geophysical information and field observation. Depending on geologic circumstances, some combination of ground shaking, surface faulting, landslides, liquefaction, and flooding may be the most severe potential earthquake-related hazards in an area. Maps must be drawn to demonstrate zones of these hazards according to their comparative severity. These maps give the schemer with data on such considerations as the spatial application of building codes and the need for local landslide and flood safeguard.

Assessing Ground Shaking Potential: Albeit ground shaking may cause devastating earthquake, it is one of the most difficult seismic hazards to forecast and quantify. This is due to the intensification of the shaking effects by the unconsolidated material overlying the bedrock at a location and to the differential resistance of structures. Subsequently, best way to communicate ground shaking is in terms of the probable response of particular types of buildings. These are grouped according to whether they are wood frame, single-story masonry, low-rise, moderate-rise, or high-rise.

Different approaches can be used for planning purposes to foresee where ground shaking would be most stern. The groundwork of intensity maps based on devastation from past earthquakes rated according to the tailored Mercalli Index, the use of a design earthquake to compute intensity and in the absence of data for such approaches, the use of information on the causal fault, distance from the fault, and depth of soil overlying bedrock to estimate possible destruction.

Assessing Surface Faulting Potential: This is comparatively easy to perform because surface faulting is linked with fault zones. Three factors are vital to assess appropriate mitigation measures that include probability and extent of movement during a given time period, the type of movement (normal, reverse, or slip faulting), and the distance from the fault trace in which damage is expected to take place.

Assessing Ground Failure Potential: This process is appropriate for earthquake-induced landslides. Liquefaction potential is determined in four steps that include a map of recent sediments is prepared, distinguishing areas that are probable to be subject to liquefaction from those that are unlikely; a map representing depth to groundwater is prepared; these two maps are combined to produce a liquefaction susceptibility map and a “liquefaction opportunity” is prepared by combining the vulnerability map with seismic data to demonstrate the allocation of probability that liquefaction will take place in a given time period.

Safety measures from Earthquake

Natural disaster cannot be controlled but planners can develop indicators to get warning of such disturbing geophysical events. There are numerous of mechanisms that can be used as safety measure to lessen the impact of such hazards such as land-use zoning; engineering approaches such as building codes, support of existing structures, stabilizing unbalanced ground, redevelopment; the establishment of warning systems and the distribution of losses. In earthquake prone areas, buildings can be resistant and builder can make such designs that prevent likelihood of crumple during an earthquake. The inhabitants can be knowledgeable to get ready in event of earthquake and rescue plans can be drawn up in advance to reduce the turmoil when earthquake occur.

Ground Shaking Mitigation Measures: Once the potential severity and effects of ground shaking are established, numerous types of seismic zoning measures can be applied. These include:

  1. Relating general ground shaking potential to allowable density of building habitation.
  2. Relating building design and construction standards to the degree of ground shaking risk.
  3. Implementing rules that require geologic and seismic place examination before development proposals can be accepted.
  4. In developed area, adopting a hazardous building abatement ordinance and an ordinance to require removal of dangerous parapets.

Surface Faulting Mitigation Measures: Since fault zones are somewhat easy to demarcate, they lend themselves to effectual land-use planning. Where evaluation of the consequences of surface rupture indicates an inadequately high possibility of damage, several substitute alleviation measures are available. These are:

  1. Restricting permitted uses to those compatible with the hazard, that is open space and recreation areas, freeways, parking lots, cemeteries, solid-waste disposal sites.
  2. Establishing an easement that requires a hindrance distance from active fault traces.
  3. Prohibiting all uses except utility or transportation facilities in areas of tremendously high hazard, and setting tight design and construction standards for utility systems navigating active fault zones.

Ground Failure Mitigation Measures: Land-use safety procedures to lessen possible destructions due to landslides or liquefaction are analogous to those taken for other geologic hazards. Land uses can be limited. Geologic investigations must be done before development is allowed, and grading and foundation design can be synchronized. Stability categories can be established and land uses proportionate with these categories can be recommended or ordained. Land-use zoning may not be suitable in some areas because of the potential for substantial difference within each mapped unit.

General Land-Use Measures: In developed areas who are prone to earthquake hazards, measures can be accepted to recognize dangerous structures and order their removal, starting with those that imperil the greatest number of lives. Tax incentives can be established for the elimination of hazardous buildings, and urban regeneration policies should restrict reconstruction in unsafe areas after earthquake demolition.

In brief, it can be said that earthquakes are most dangerous and destructive natural phenomenon because every year huge amount of people rendered homeless, displaced, injured or dead. Growing population and global urbanization is increasing the threat to earthquake. Spiral distribution of earthquake shows that some regions are more prone to this natural disaster than others. The Indian sub-continent is very prone to several natural disasters such as earthquakes which is destructive natural hazards with the potentiality of causing huge loss to human lives and assets. Earthquakes pose major threat to India. It is estimated that 59% of its geographical area is vulnerable to seismic disturbance of varying intensities including the capital city of the nation. Almost the entire Northeast region, Northern Bihar, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir and some parts of Kutch are in seismic zone V, while the whole Gangetic plain and some parts of Rajasthan are in seismic zone IV.

Tsunami

Tsunami is devastating natural disaster and immensely affects the economic and living conditions of region where it hits. Tsunami is a Japanese phrase which means tsu means harbour and nami means wave. This geophysical phenomenon is associated with earthquake or volcanic eruption or landslides or adjacent to oceans and results in unexpected movement of water column (Bryant, 2008). The channel of tsunami involves the movement of water from surface to seafloor which indicates it is directly linked to depth of water bodies that is deeper the ocean, higher is the movement of water. Consequently, as wave approaches land and reaches increasingly shallow water, it gets slow down. However, the water column still in deeper water is moving slightly faster and catches upward, resulting into wave gathering up and becoming much higher. Tsunami is a succession of waves and first may not necessarily be biggest. Tsunami is a cruel turbulence deep below the ocean surface that results due to under water earthquake and subduction zones (Irasema Alcántara-Ayal, 2010).

Reports indicated that before 1990, public perceived Tsunami as originating from large distant, underwater earthquakes. The fear of Tsunami was allayed by the knowledge that an early warning system existed to prevent loss of life. In the 1990s, 14 major Tsunami events struck the world’s coastline from which scientists aware that these events are pervasive (Bryant, 2008). Tsunami belongs to the category of long period oceanic waves generated by underwater earthquake, submarine or sub-aerial landslides or volcanic eruption. The Tsunami fact includes three overlapping physical stages. First is the generation of waves by any external force that disturb water column, second is propagation of that wave at high speed in Open Ocean and third is propagation of Tsunami waves through shallow coastal water and inundation of dry land by run up. Moistly Tsunami occurs in pacific regions but there is record of Tsunami disaster in Atlantic and Indian oceans (Tom Beer, 2010). Often Tsunami waves warns of its appearance with roaring and rumbling from ocean but sometime, it is observed that water level rise without any noise. The flowering and crowded sea coast may be transformed into destructive ruins within few minutes. The waves propagate from source with the velocity long gravity water waves according to the below equation:

CG = (g H) 1/2

In this equation, G is acceleration due to gravity; H is depth of the basin

Accounts for Tsunami extend back almost 4000 years in China, 2000 years in Mediterranean where the first Tsunami was described in 479 BC and about 1300 years in Japan. Mediterranean Sea is one of the longest records of Tsunami. The Caribbean is also prone tsunami.

Causes of Tsunami

The major cause of Tsunami is seismic activity. Over the past two millennia, earthquakes have produced approximately, 83% of all Tsunami in pacific oceans (Edward Bryant, 2014). When an oceanic plates strikes the continental plate, these plates press together and build the pressure. Finally the heavier oceanic plate slips under the lighter continental plate and causes earthquake which elevates the level of ocean and drops other parts down, this event on ocean floor is reflected on surface of water above. The gravity acts fast to even out of water surface. The seismic energy generated that giant wave and it does not just disappear. Tsunami extends thousands of feet deep into ocean which carries lot of water and energy so they can travel very far.

Most trans-oceanic tsunamis are produced by major (Mw≥9.0) earthquakes. These happen several times a century and recently happened in countries like 1960 (Chile), 1964 (Alaska) and 2004 (Sumatra). The Chile event generated tsunamis that were 3–4 m high when they struck Japan, while run-up heights of 4 m were also recorded on the East African coast following the December 2004 Sumatra earthquake. ‘Mega-tsunami’, is basically a media-driven descriptor. These waves are in excess of 100 m in height at source, and which remain destructive at oceanic distances. The great (Mw∼9) Cascadia (western North America) earthquake of 1700 generated Pacific-wide tsunamis, but these appear to have been of the order of 3 m high at shore in Japan (Satake et al. 1996).

Tsunamis related with massive collapses at oceanic-island volcanoes can, however, have run-up heights at least an order of magnitude greater. Giant waves caused by ancient collapses in the Hawaiian Islands may have been of Pacific-wide extent. Young & Bryant (1992) stated signs of catastrophic wave erosion up to 15 m above current sea level along the New South Wales coast of Australia, 14 000 km distant, in terms of impact by tsunamis associated with a major collapse in the Hawaiian archipelago around 1.05×105 years BP. These phenomena have been appraised as a tsunami generated by a marine impact. Putative giant-tsunami deposits have been observed at increasing numbers of locations.

A landslide generated Tsunami has local temperament, in case of huge landslide, that involve the bottom sediments of continental shelf or at the fall of marine glacier, the Tsunami source may reach the size of several kilometres. These waves have huge heights and attacks aggressively to coastal populace. Landslide motion process is caused by long-term accumulation of segments at some ocean bottom areas, submarine slants of basins into the river deltas. These accumulation segments are subjected to streams, storms, wind waves, tides, hurricanes, tectonic process and after this, landslide body comes into non-equilibrium. In this situation, any weak perturbation action has vital role for failure of unstable slide body.

When the landslide moves at a speed equal to the velocity of the long gravity wave in the basin, the harmonization happens. This particular conditions cause a resonance for transmission of energy from the landslide to the surface of water wave and height of the wave crest increases accordingly.

Tsunami generated by landslide motion

Destruction of Tsunami results from inundation by salt water, impact dynamism and erosion. Considerable damage is also caused by flooding debris that enhances the destructive force of flooding. Flotation and drag force can destroy frame buildings, overturn railroad cars and move large ship far inland. Average height of Tsunami caused by earthquake with magnitude of 7.5- 8.00 is between 3 and 10 m along 100- 300 Km to the coastline closest to the epicentre (Tom Beer, 2010).

Hazards of tsunami: Tsunami is highly disturbing natural disaster that cause huge amount of the loss of humans and infrastructure. The risk potential of tsunamis is main interest for scientists. The Asian tsunami caused approximately 250 000 deaths, huge economic losses and long-term harm to development programmes in the affected countries, brought home to the world the realities of the hazard. The Asian tsunami was a really global disaster which affected in many countries in the region as well as tourists from the industrial world in Southeast Asia. The probable consequences of severe events consist of global economic crises, many millions of deaths, calamitous and irrecoverable destruction of super cities and possibly whole countries, global disturbance of food supplies, transport and communications, severe climate states and environmental pollution on a global scale. These effects may results in food shortage, disease, political trouble, disintegrate social order, failure of international and national organizations and perhaps the occurrence of wars and fall down of development.

Reducing the threat of Tsunamis

It is important that scientists must explore the ways to reduce the hazards of Tsunami which strike many shorelines. Numerous nations monitor the generation and movement of Tsunamis. The seismic sea wave warning system was established and became operational after the major Tsunami strike in 1946 in Hilo, Hawaii and parts of Japan and other coastline around the pacific. This system generally operate by monitoring seismograms to detect potentially seismogenic earthquake, then monitor tide gauges to determine if a Tsunami has been generated.

Great progress has been made in predicting Tsunami both in long term and short-term following Tsunamogenic earthquake. These progresses reflect recognition of the association of Tsunamis with plate tectonic boundaries, particularly convergent margins. USGS and other civil defence agencies have identified many areas that are prone to Tsunamis. Tsunami warning signals are in place and people are given guidelines to follow if the alarms are sounded.

To summarize, Tsunami natural disaster has 5th ranking among devastating natural events in the world in terms of huge loss of life. Tsunami is a series of long water waves, propagating with high speed from source in the Ocean to coastline. When these waves encounter shallow water, they may form huge breaking waves with walls of water tens of 100 feet tall that slam ashore. Every few years these waves rise suddenly out of the ocean and sweep over coastal communities results in huge causalities and massive destruction. Triggering mechanisms for Tsunamis include earthquake related displacements of sea floor, submarine slumps and landslides that displace sea water, submarine volcanism, explosive release of methane gas from deep ocean sediments and asteroid impacts.

Volcano

A volcano is type of vent or smokestack which transmits molten rocks called as Magma from depth to earth surface. Magma outbreak from volcano recognized as lava, it is a material which builds up the cone. Volcanoes are mountains built by the accumulation of their own eruptive products such as lava, bombs. The explosive nature of volcano eruptions depend on flow of magma and amount gas trapped within magma. Huge amount of water and carbon dioxides are dissolved in magma. As magma quickly rises through earth crust gas bubbles form and expands up to 1000 times of their original size. In the twentieth century, volcanic explosions have dangerous impact on substantial economic and societal arena. Perilous volcanic activity will continue to occur in countries like U.S., and, because of increase in populations, development pressures, and expanding national and international air traffic over volcanic regions, there is a great risk of life and property through exposure to volcano hazards.

In volcano eruption, heat concentrated in the Earth’s upper mantle raises temperatures adequately to melt the rock locally by fusing the materials with the lowest melting temperatures that results in small, isolated blobs of magma. After that, these blobs collect, rise through conduits and fractures, and some ultimately may re-collect in larger pockets or reservoirs a few miles under the Earth’s surface. Increasing pressure within the basin may drive the magma further growing through structurally weak zones to explode as lava at the surface. In a continental environment, magmas are generated in the Earth’s crust as well as at varying depths in the upper mantle. The variety of molten rocks in the crust, plus the possibility of mixing with molten materials from the underlying mantle, leads to the creation of magmas with broadly different chemical compositions.

A volcano in an oceanic environment (left) and in a continental environment

There are different types of volcano:

  1. Shield Volcano
  2. Composite Volcano
  3. Caldera Volcano.

The form of volcano is determined by types and sizes of its explosions which is controlled by characteristics and composition of magma.

Volcanic incidents influence the world’s ambience far more recurrently than asteroid or comet impacts. In particular, major volatile eruptions are capable of altering the Earth’s climate through the discharge of large quantities of sulphur gases capable of mixing with atmospheric water to form stratospheric aerosol clouds. The level of solar radiation reaching the troposphere and the Earth’s surface is considerably reduced by volcanic aerosol clouds. In the last century, two eruptions, at El Chichon (Mexico) in 1982 and Pinatubo (Philippines) in 1991, have had a considerable cooling effect around the globe. Reviewing the historical events, eruptions at Laki (Iceland) in 1783 and Tambora (Indonesia) in 1815 had major, damaging impacts on the regional and global climate. The Tambora outbreak was the biggest identified historic eruption (Oppenheimer 2003a). Though, this may be regarded as a minor volcanic event in comparison with the 7.35×104 years BP ‘super-eruption’ of Toba.

Major volcanic eruption of past 250 years (Source: Robock and Free, 1995)

The Hazard of volcano eruptive events is Pyroclastic explosions, Hot ash releases, Lava flows, Gas emissions, Glowing avalanches (gas and ash releases). Secondary events include melting ice, snow and rain accompanying eruptions are likely to provoke floods and hot mudflows (or lahars) and hot ash releases can start fires.

Classification of geophysical hazards

Tectonic Plates and Volcano

The earth crust is their thinnest layer which is broken down into various pieces termed as plates. These plates are above the hot liquid magma.

  1. Each plate consists of some continental crust and some oceanic crust.
  2. Huge currents of molten rocks move deep in mantle and cause plates to move about very slowly on earth surface.
  3. Many of world volcanos happen along boundaries of boundaries of plates.
  4. Plate boundaries are among most active geologically active place on earth. Here new rocks have been formed and destroyed. In these areas, most important volcanic activity occurs.

Hazards of Volcanic Eruption

Volcanoes have perilous impact on the species of earth. Major hazards includes explosions, lava flows, bombs, mudflows, landslides, earthquakes, ground deformation, tsunami, air shocks, lightning, poisonous gas, glacial outbreak flooding. Each volcanic eruption has dissimilar outcomes.

Volcano Hazards Program (VHP) under the Disaster Relief Act (P.L. 93-288) is to augment public protection and lessen losses from disastrous volcanic events through effectual forecasts and warnings of volcanic hazards based on the best possible scientific information. The Volcano Hazards Program conducts four major science activities to decrease volcanic jeopardy in the Nation that include monitoring volcano unrest and eruption, preparing volcano hazard assessments, conducting research on volcanic processes, and providing reliable forecasts, warnings, and volcano-hazard information.

Measurement of volcano: Volcano event is measured through simple descriptive index called as volcano explosively index which ranges from zero to eight. This index includes volume of material ejected with height of an eruption column and duration of eruptions.

To summarize, Volcanic explosion can flash storms of lightning that are as strong as the biggest super storms. Fundamentally, a volcano is a landform formed by magma from the earth’s interior which penetrates through weaknesses in the Earth’s surface. Most volcanoes are created at plate boundaries. Volcanic eruptions produce hazardous conditions, which sternly affect people and human infrastructure, near the volcano, in downstream valleys, and thousands of miles away.

Cyclones

A Cyclone is described as geophysical phenomenon on the surface of planet and atmospheric system of low barometric pressure accompanied by strong winds that revolve counter-clockwise in northern hemisphere and clockwise direction in southern hemisphere. The phrase “Cyclone” is originated from the Greek, word “Cyclos” which means the coils of a snake. Henri Paddington stated that the tropical storms in the Bay of Bengal and in the Arabian Sea appeared like the coiled serpents of the sea and he named these storms as “Cyclones”. It is also identified as hurricanes in western Atlantic and Eastern Pacific, typhoons in western Pacific, cyclone in Indian Ocean and Southern Pacific Ocean. Wind speed of cyclone can exceed 90m/s, rainfall rate approach 100mm/hr, and ocean waves are churned up to 35m. At land fall death and destruction spread across wide areas without respect for geopolitical boundaries. Coastal buildings are flooded by ocean surge, inland water waves overflow their banks and claim homes and businesses, tornadoes chart narrow but unpredictable path in outer bands and eye wall and both coastal and inland structures are damaged after prolong mauling by wind and wind driven projectiles (Barrett, 2007). It has been documented in environmental studies that Cyclones have considerably affected populations in Southeast Asia, the Western Pacific, and the Americas since last century. In future, susceptibility to cyclones will augment due to population growth, urbanization, increasing coastal settlement, and global warming.

The Meteorological Department of India categorizes the low pressure systems in the Bay of Bengal and in the Arabian Sea:

Causes of Cyclones

Major source of energy for humid cyclones is the warm ocean in tropical regions. To instigate a tropical cyclone the sea surface temperature must be around 26°C or above. However, existing cyclones often persist as they move over cooler water. The expansion of tropical cyclones also realises on positive broad scale regions and can continue for several days with many following quite erratic paths. They lose their source of energy when they move over land surface or colder oceans causing them to disperse. Deteriorating may also occur if cyclone moves into an adverse wind regions which disturb the structure of wind system. Sometimes a decomposing tropical cyclone may interact with weather system in higher latitudes to cause impact far from tropics.

Formation of Cyclone

  1. Cyclone can form only in warm ocean waters near equator.
  2. To form a cyclone, warm, moist air over ocean rises upward from near the surface. As this air moves up and away from ocean surface, it leaves it less air near the surface.
  3. Air from adjacent region with higher air pressure shoves into low pressure area, then this new cool air become warm and moist and increases to give birth to cyclones.
  4. As warmed moist air rises and cool the water in air forms clouds. The whole system of clouds and winds rotates and move, fed by ocean heat and water dispersed from ocean surface.
  5. As storm system spins faster and faster, an eye form in centre, which is cool and clear with very low pressure. Higher pressure air from above flows down into the eye.

Impact of Cyclone

Tropical cyclones can unfavorably affect, and sometimes positively impact on society and environment. The most widespread impact is heavy rainfall and strong winds that can cause flooding. In some parts of world, Australia tornados have been reported during cyclones. Storm flow or coastal flood by sea water, is also seen during cyclones. Cyclones are linked with high-pressure gradients and resulting strong winds. These, consecutively, produce storm surges. A storm flow is an unusual rise of sea level near the coast caused by a severe tropical cyclone; as a result, sea water floods low lying areas of coastal regions drowning human beings and livestock, corroding beaches and banks, destroying plant life and dropping soil fertility. Very strong winds may damage installations, dwellings, communication systems, trees resulting in loss of life and possessions. Heavy and long-lasting rains due to cyclones may cause river floods and submergence of low lying areas by rain causing huge loss of life and assets. Floods and coastal inundation due to storm surges contaminate drinking water sources that results in outburst of diseases.

Major tropical cyclone ranked by number of deaths

Safety Measures for Cyclone

  1. Keep observing weather and listen to radio, TV, newspapers.
  2. Get to know nearest cyclone protection or secured house and safest route to reach their.
  3. Do not believe in rumours.
  4. Check the roof and cover it with net or bamboo.
  5. Thoroughly check the walls, pillars doors and windows to see if they are secure.

In India, the Government has made stronger the Meteorological Department, through offering Cyclone Surveillance Radars at Calcutta, Paradeep, Visakhapatnam, Machilipatnam, Madras and Karaikkal in the east coast and at Cochin, Goa, Bombay and Bhuj in the west coast to cyclone forecast and advance warning. For safety of Indian population, Satellite picture receiving equipment’s at Delhi, Bombay, Pune, Madras, Visakhapatnam, Calcutta and Guwahati are receive satellite pictures of the cyclones from the polar-orbiting Satellites of the U.S.A. and U.S.S.R.

Disaster Prevention and Preparedness for cyclone: At National level, The Government of India recommended in 1969, to the governments of the maritime states to establish “Cyclone Distress Mitigation Committee” in the own states to prevent human loss and reduce damage to properties. CDMC planed the communication systems in the state for fast distribution of Meteorological warnings and prevention measures. Prevention process include development of storm shelters, connecting roads for migration of people, construction of wind breaks, dykes, bunds, flood storage reservoirs, afforestation along the coastal belts and development of drainage facilities. An advance warning will not be successful unless the public is progressive about the critical features and the actions to be taken by them to avoid affliction.

At International level, The World Meteorological Organisation has established in 1972, a Tropical Cyclone Project with the aim to help the member countries to boost their capabilities to identify and predict the approach and landfall of the tropical cyclones, appraise and forecast, the storm surges, forecast the flooding arising from the cyclones and to develop system to organise and implement disaster prevention and preparedness measures. One of the effective plans that are in operation to help the countries adjoining the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea is the panel on the tropical cyclones of World Meteorological Organisation and the Economic and Social Council for Asia and Pacific. The WMO/ESCAP panel has a technical support unit.

In contemporary global environment, there is revolutionary change due to advent of technology. But most geologic events cannot be prohibited or even predict with accuracy. Landslides are an exception. They can often be prevented. Areas prone to such events can be recognized as earthquake fault zones, active volcanoes, and coastal areas susceptible to tsunamis. However, not all earthquake faults have been identified. Estimates of an incidence of a given hazardous event are probabilistic, based on consideration of the magnitude of an event and its occurrence in time and space. Nevertheless, appropriate alleviation measures can extremely reduce the damage caused by geologic cyclone hazards.

To summarize, Geologic hazards like cyclone are accountable for huge human and asset loss of life and annihilation of property. In the twentieth century, more than a million causalities occurred due to natural disaster. ‘Cyclone’ is globally used to cover tropical weather systems in which winds equal or surpass ‘gale force’ (minimum of 34 knot, i.e., 62 kmph). These are strong low pressure areas of the earth atmosphere coupled system and are extreme weather events of the tropics. Enormous studies have shown that Tropical cyclones are characterised by destructive winds, storm surges and heavy rainfall which adversely impact on human and farm animals, and their activities.

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UPSC IAS Mains: Effects of Globalisation on Indian Society

Test Series: UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020

(GS Paper- 1 Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and Society)

Globalization is a significant factor in competitive world that integrate and mobilize cultural values of people at global level. In the age of rapid technical progression, many countries are unified and transformed due to the process of globalization. Globalization has a huge impact on cultural, social, monetary, political, and communal life of countries. Abundant theoretical studies demonstrated that globalization intercedes in a cultural life of populace that raises numerous critical issues (Robertson, 1992). In broad sense, the term ‘globalization’ means combination of economies and societies through cross country flows of information, ideas, technologies, goods, services, capital, finance and people. Globalization is described by theorists as the process through which societies and economies are integrated through cross border flows of ideas, communication, technology, capital, people, finance, goods, services and information.

Aspects of Globalisation in India

Cross country incorporation has several aspects and can be political, cultural, social and/or economic, all which equal globalization. Nevertheless, financial integration is the most common aspects. Economic integration involves developing a nation’s economy into an international economy. After World War I and II the early trends of globalization decreased throughout the world due to many barriers which restricted the movement of goods and services. In fact, cultural and social integration are even more than economic integration. Globalization increases competitiveness at company level and national level, which leads company management and governments to embrace strategies designed to increase labour effectiveness with reference to productivity, quality and innovation.

Generally, globalization involves economies that are opening up to international competition and that do not distinguish against international capital. Consequently, globalization is often accompanied by a liberalization of the markets and the privatization of productive assets. But globalization also leads to unemployment, increasing casual employment and weakening labour movements. Theoretical literature denotes that Globalization has made countries to realize that they can share their cultural values and economic exchanges to promote business and gain competitive advantage. The fervour of globalization has even enforced Governments to be tuned to the merits of a Global economy. Management studies have defined the process of globalization. Fraser (2007) explained that Globalization is a word on every commentator’s lips nowadays, but is very difficult to define satisfactorily, for it arises in so many different contexts like economic, sociological, political, cultural and environmental.

Concept of Globalisation

The concept of globalization means that the world is getting smaller as well as bigger. Akteruzzaman. Md, 2006 described that globalization can contribute to develop pattern of cross border activities of firms, involving international investment, trade and strategic alliances for product development, production, sourcing and marketing, These international activities companies to enter new markets, to exploit their technological and organizational advantages and to reduce business costs and risks. Other theorists stated that globalization is a social phenomenon that defines the geographical boundary in terms of many different issues, According Brinkman, 2002, globalization as a triumphalism light, as the penetration of capitalism into every corner of the world, bringing with it the possibility for all of the world’s population to participate in the fruits of the international division of labour and market economy. ALI, 2015 explained the globalization as a process of rapid economic, cultural, and institutional integration among countries. This association is driven by the liberalization of trade, investment and capital flow, technological advances, and pressures for assimilation towards international standards. Globalization has reduced barriers between countries, thus resulting in strengthening of economic competition among nations, dissemination of advanced management practices and newer forms of work organization, and sharing of internationally accepted labour standards.

Challenges of globalization and its effects

Many theorists asserted that change in environment has both positive and negative aspects. These stimulate driving or resisting forces toward the change of the status quo. This is most obvious relative to both globalization, and the resulting spread of the global organization. There are four factors that accelerate globalization.

The market imperative: Impact on national economies of larger, transnational markets characterized by free, convertible currencies, opens access to banking and contracts enforceable by law.

The resource imperative: Growing interdependence of nations and their activities on one another, fostered by the depletion of natural resources, misdistributions of arable land, mineral resources, and wealth, as well as overpopulation. The undeveloped nations need the capital, technology, and brainpower of the wealthier countries, while the First World economies are progressively dependent on the natural and human resources of the developing nations.

The IT imperative: Modernizations in glob communications, science and technology contribute toward universalization or planarization.

The ecological imperative: Globalization does have great effect on the ecologies and environments of nations which need to safeguards that lessen the negative effects rather than exploiting without regard to such concerns.

India was main mover of globalization. The government of India made major modifications in its economic policy in 1991 by which it allowed direct foreign investments in the country. As a result of this, globalization of the Indian Industry occurred at large scale. In India, economic expansion was observed in nineteenth century due to major crisis led by foreign exchange. The liberalization of the domestic economy and enhanced incorporation of India with the global economy helped to step up gross domestic product (GDP) growth rates which made good position in global scale. Effects of globalization in Indian Industry are observed as this process brought in large amounts of foreign investments into the industry especially in the BPO, pharmaceutical, petroleum, and manufacturing industries. As a result, they boosted the Indian economy quite significantly. The benefits of the effects of globalization in the Indian Industry are that many foreign companies set up industries in India, especially in the pharmaceutical, BPO, petroleum, manufacturing, and chemical sectors and this helped to offer great opportunities for employment to Indian people. Also this helped to reduce the level of unemployment and poverty in the country. It is observed that the major forces of globalization in India has been in the development of outsourced IT and business process outsourcing services. Since last many years, there is an increase of skilled professionals in India employed by both local and foreign companies to service customers in the US and Europe,  These countries take advantage of India’s lower cost but highly talented and English-speaking work force, and utilizes global communications technologies such as voice-over IP (VOIP), email and the internet, international enterprises have been able to lower their cost base by establishing outsourced knowledge-worker operations in India. The foreign companies brought in highly advanced technology with them and this made the Indian Industry more technologically advanced. Globalization in India has been beneficial for companies that have ventured in the Indian market. It is recommended by researchers that India has to focus on five important areas to enhance its economic status. The areas include technological entrepreneurship, new business openings for small and medium enterprises, the importance of quality management, new prospects in rural areas and privatization of financial institutions.

In terms of export and import activities, Many Indian companies have expanded their business and became famous at global level such as fast food, beverages, and sportswear and garment industries. Records indicated that Agriculture exports account for about 13 to 18% of total annual export of the country. In 2000-01, agricultural products valued at more than US$6 million were exported from the country of which 23% was contributed to the marine products alone. Marine products in recent years have emerged as the single largest contributor to the total agricultural export form the country accounting for over one fifth of the total agricultural exports. Cereals (mostly basmati rice and non-basmati rice), oil seeds, tea and coffee are the other prominent products each of which accounts for nearly 5 to 10% of the countries’ total agricultural exports. Globalization speeded export of food items in India in the form of increased consumption of meat, western fast food, sodas and cool drinks, which may result in public health crisis. The rich biodiversity of India has yielded many healthy foods prepared from locally available entities. But the marketing by MNCs with large advertisement campaigns lead the people to resort to their products (Mascarenhas, 2003).

Technological and Cultural impact of globalization in India

With the process of globalization, there is an access to television grew from 20% of the urban population (1991) to 90% of the urban population (2009). Even in the rural areas satellite television has a grown up market. In the cities, Internet facility is everywhere and extension of internet facilities even to rural areas. There is an increase of global food chain /restaurants in the urban areas of India. Excessive Multiplex movie halls, big shopping malls and high rise residential are seen in every city. Entertainment sector in India has a global market. After economic liberalization, Bollywood expanded its area and showed a major presence in the global scale. The industry began to explore new ways to become more global and modern. In India, modernity is observed with the West. Therefore, Western philosophy began to be incorporated into Bollywood films. As these new cultural messages began to reach the Indian population, Indian moviegoers were pushed to re-evaluate their traditional Indian cultural ideology. Bollywood movies are also distributed and accepted at international level. Big international companies (Walt Disney, 20th Century Fox, and Columbia Pictures) are investing on this sector. Famous International brands such as Armani, Gucci, Nike, and Omega are also making investment in the Indian market with the changing of fashion statement of Indians.

Impact of globalization on education in India

There is an immense effect observed in educational sector due to globalization such as literacy rate become high and Foreign Universities are collaborating with different Indian Universities. The Indian educational system faces challenges of globalization through Information technology and it offers opportunities to evolve new paradigms shifts in developmental education. The distinction between formal, non-formal and informal education will vanish when move from industrial society to information society takes place. Globalization promotes new tools and techniques such as E-learning, Flexible learning, Distance Education Programs and Overseas training.

It is observed in current Indian society that through globalization, women have gained certain opportunities for job options and to recognize women’s rights as a part of the human rights. Their empowerment has given considerable opportunities and possibilities of improving employment conditions through global solidarity and co-ordination. It is found that the growth of computer and other technologies enabled women with better waged, flex timings, and capacity to negotiate their role and status in home and at corporate level.

There are some negative impact of globalization such as this process made disparity between rural and urban Indian joblessness, growth of slum capitals and threat of terrorist activities. Globalization increased competition in the Indian market between the foreign companies and domestic companies. With the foreign goods being better than the Indian goods, the consumer preferred to buy the foreign goods. This reduced the amount of profit of the Indian Industry companies. This happened mainly in the pharmaceutical, manufacturing, chemical, and steel industries. The negative Effects of Globalization on Indian Industry are that with the coming of technology the number of labour required are decreased and this resulted increasing unemployment especially in the arena of the pharmaceutical, chemical, manufacturing, and cement industries. Some sections of people in India that are poor do not get benefit of globalization. There is an increased gap between rich and poor that lead to some criminal activities. Ethical responsibility of business has been reduced. Another major negative effect of globalization in India is that youngsters of India are leaving their studies very early and joining Call centres to earn fast money reducing their social life after getting habituated with monotonous work. There is an increase of every daily usable commodity. This has an adverse effect on cultural aspect. The institution of marriage is breaking down at fast rate. There are more people approaching divorce courts instead of maintaining marital life. Globalization has considerable impact on the religious situation of India. Globalization has brought about raising a population who is agnostic and atheist. People visiting places of worship are reducing with time. Globalization has reduced nationalism and patriotism in country.

It can be said that Globalization is motivating factor in current business environment. There are few challenges for companies due to globalization such as Migration, relocation, labour shortages, competition, and changes in skills and technology. Globalization powerfully influences the social partners’ attitudes since traditional labour relations have to cope with completely new and very dynamic situations. In political field, globalization helps to eradicate poverty, malnutrition, illiteracy, ill-health and fighting cross border terrorism and global terrorism. Globalisation in context of status of women implicates the relegation of the stereotypic pattern of duties of the women like rearing and caring the children to the back ground and taking up the various diversified occupation and thus making their living quite vibrant and alive. Globalisation benefits the schedule caste people in promoting cultural homogeneity in the way of loosening of the ideas of pollution and purity and eradication of untouchability and so many socio-cultural and economic disabilities associated with them. Globalisation of goods has developed enthusiasm in India for western brand names. A consumerist mentality has been carefully fostered. This leads to an adversative impact on the tendency to save or the domestic accumulation of capital. Lastly, in Indian scenario, globalization developed a consumer credit society. Today, people can buy goods and services even if they do not have sufficient purchasing power and the prospect of raising a loan has become easy in the age of globalisation. Credit cards have given boost to consumerism and pushed many households into indebtedness. At the same time globalization has unfavourable impact on mass-media in India. Currently, realistic coverage of events and happening doesn’t receive much importance because it doesn’t determine the standing of a newspaper or TV channel. Globalisation has brought violation of journalistic ethics in India.

To summarize, the process of globalization has changed the industrial pattern social life of global people and it has immense impact on Indian trade system. The globalization of the economic, social and cultural structures happened in all ages. Previously, the pace of process was slow. Today with the start of the information technology, new ways of communication have made the world a very small place. With this process, there is a big market place. Globalization has resulted in increase in the production of a range of goods. MNCs have established manufacturing plants all over the world. It has positive effects and India will overcome many obstacles and adopt global policies to expand business at international scale. India is gaining international recognition and strengthening in economic and political areas.

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UPSC IAS Mains: Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism

Test Series: UPSC IAS Prelims Exam 2020

Social empowerment: In societal development, conception of empowerment has vital role. This phrase is linked with gender equality. Modernization of global development will need a reappraisal of the concept and its application to many facets of human life. The notion of empowerment entails numerous things to many people. Concepts of choice, liberty, agency, capacity, contribution, self-sufficiency, and increased resources are common to almost all definitions. Most of the researchers agreed on the idea of empowerment as ways to improve quality of life and expand the basis of human well-being. Briefly, empowerment can serve as a tool for effecting deep and broad-based social revolution.

In social science literature, it is documented that the process of social change can be discovered at the personal and structural levels. At one end, social change is visualized as a consequence of the development of individuals, gained through education, training, access to material resources, and the like. From this perspective, structural change is supposed to be an automatic result of personal alteration. On the other end, the human being is seen as a part of society, and change is considered impossible unless social structures related to political power are changed primarily. Individual and structural transformation are closely associated with the individual’s inner life shapes, social environment, and that environment, in turn, exerts a deep influence on one’s mystical and psychological well-being. The symbol of the body politic, likening all of humanity to a single social organism gives a valuable framework to discover empowerment as means to follow the transformation of individuals and civilization. Empowerment depends on and contributes to a system in which different actors are provided the resources needed for each to make a unique contribution to the whole. From this conception, it can be established that individual and collective empowerment can be considered as the extension of vision, capacity, and choice necessary for people to act as active agents of human well-being and affluence.

The Protagonists of Social Transformation: It suggests that there are three elements critically important such as the individual, the institutions of society, and the community. In this view empowerment is described as the act assisting individuals to manifest constructive capacities in creative and disciplined ways, institutions to exercise authority in a manner that leads to the progress and upliftment of people and communities to provide an environment in which culture is improved and individual wills and capacities combine in collective action. Ideas of “us” and “them” deserve particular consideration. Discourse in development spheres is often entrenched in conceptions of the “empowered” members of society that help the “disadvantaged” or “downgraded group.” Many researchers revealed that the desire to eliminate social inequalities is indisputably moral feeling, but us/them dichotomies only extend and reinforce existing divisions. Careful thought needs must be given in which empowerment can be approached as a universal and shared enterprise. It has been observed that Historical processes have developed inequalities that must be addressed. But the development basis should be one in which every individual and group is presumed to have scope for progression. From this viewpoint, the marginalized are not without capacity, and the privileged are not all strong. All have capacity to develop and all have a responsibility to advance the welfare of the whole. Lastly, though empowerment signifies someone or something being invested with authority, the social dynamics of power seem to have been generally overlooked in debates on development at the United Nations.

Prerequisites for Social Transformation: Scholars stated that participation in the systems and structures of society is important prerequisite for social transformation. It is not sufficient for people to get projects, even if they have a voice in certain decisions. They must actively involved in decision-making processes: identify problems, formulate solutions and approaches, enjoy benefits, and determine criteria for appraisal.

At last, the ability to recognise the root causes of inequality will be decisive to the empowerment of populations to become agents of social transformation. Though population gets benefits of advancement, if it is unable to discriminate the drivers of social injustice and inequity, they cannot eliminate such practices from social structure. If empowerment is to lead to social transformation, it must involve the ability to identify the forces that modernize one’s social reality, to recognise the opportunities and challenges offered by that reality, and to plan initiatives for the improvement of civilization.

Communalism: Communalism is practiced in society since ancient and it is part of human life. When appraising in Indian context, it is great faithfulness to one’s own holy group. Communalism is defined as a mechanism to energize people for or against by raising an appeal on communal lines. It is revealed in literature that Communalism is related with religious fundamentalism and intransigence. Studies have demonstrated that the communalisation was first began in nineteenth century. The British historian (James) categorized ancient period as Hindu period and medieval period as Muslim period and this ordering was further used by both the British and Indian historians. Social literature documented that in medieval period, Muslim people were underprivileged, they were also oppressed as then people of Hindu community and the ruling class included both the Muslims and Hindus. Abdul Ahmed explained that “Communalism is a social phenomenon characterized by the religion of two communities, often leading to acrimony, tension and even rioting between them”. Communalism is also described by few other eminent theorists. According to Prabha Dixit, “Communalism is a political doctrine which makes use of religious and cultural differences to achieve political ends”. It is a dominant force in Indian scenario. Many factors such as casteism, communalism and religious fundamentalism pose challenge in India that are the major threats to Secular state. They deteriorate the working and strength of democratic secular Federal state and influence against the fundamental beliefs of national life and provide means to new individuality. ‘Casteism’ and ‘Communalism’ are destroying the Indian cultural diversity.

In academic literature, Communalism is elucidated as multi-dimensional, complex, social fact. Numerous social, political, economic, cultural and religious factors affect the occurrence of communalism and communal ferocity. Communalism is sometimes aggravated by non-religious forces. A careful inquiry of the demands which have been and are made by communal leaders will reveal the true character and objective of communal politics under the cover of religion, ritual and culture. It has been documented in reports that Previously, British imperialism used communalism as a divide and rule policy. Similar kind of policies is continued by leaders after independence using various factors. The origin of communalism is very deep and diversified. Some of the roots lie in the structure and nature of Indian civilization which has different religions, multi-racial, multi-lingual, multi-castes and multi-regional. A society divided on these grounds helps the development of communal organizations. It may be emphasised that the financial condition of the Hindu and the Muslim and other communities and their different development also contributes to the development of communalism. It is established that the communalism of society is a response of the communalism of another community.

Communalism has three stages. First stage include insight of people believing in a particular religion that have similar interests such as political, financial, social and cultural interests. For political perspective of India, Indian society is group of people from different religion, language and regions but not as a country. For citizen of India, different people have different leaders, who declare themselves as national/regional/religious/caste leaders. The second stage of communalism begins when people consider that the social, monetary, cultural and political interests of people following a particular religion are dissimilar from that of the believers of other religions. This phase of communalism is termed as Liberal Communalism. People who have belief in Liberal Communalism assumed that the interests of the people of India can be amalgamated and India can be integrated as one country. The third stage of communalism is considered when people of one religion are the opponents of the people of other religions. The third phase of communalism is extremist communalism which has a concept of fear and revulsion.

Characteristics of Communalism

  1. Communalism is a philosophical notion.
  2. It is a multifaceted process.
  3. It has a wider base which incorporates social, economic and political aspects for its manifestation.
  4. It causes competition, ferocity and tension among different communities.
  5. Communalism is used by the upper class people and elites as advice for separation and mistreatment of the communal identities of the poorer groups of their co-religionists.
  6. Communalism is simply planned by opportunistic political and economic interest of contending groups and factions within a political party or by political parties.
  7. Communalism assaults at the roots of egalitarianism, secularism and national amalgamation.
  8. The consequences of Communalism are ruinous.

Causes of Communalism

There are numerous of causes for the occurrence of communalism. First is the tendency of the Minorities. The Muslims fail to be intermixed in the national mainstream. Some reports indicated that majority of Muslim people do not partake in the secular nationalistic politics and insist to sustain separate identity. Another cause of communalism is Orthodoxy and Obscurantism. The orthodox members of minority groups feel that they have a distinct entity with their own cultural pattern, personal laws and thought. There are strong elements of conservatism and fundamentalism among the Muslims. Such feeling has prevented them from accepting the concept of secularism and religious tolerance.

Design of the Leaders is also a cause of communalism. It has grown in India because the communalist leaders of different religious communities such as Hindu and Muslim desire to succeed it in the interest of their communities. The demand for separate electorate and the organization of Muslim league were the practical indicators of this belief. The British rule which gave the divide and rule policy, separate electorate on the basis of religion, reinforced the basis of communalism in India. Finally the partition of the country into India and Pakistan provided further an aggressive feeling towards each other.

The cause of communalism is due to weak Economic Status. Most of Muslims in India did not embrace the scientific and technological education and they lagged behind on educational front. Due to poor education, they have not been represented satisfactorily in the public service, industry and trade. This leads the feeling of withdrawal which causes communalism.

There are geographical Causes for communalism. The regional settlement of different religious groups particularly Hindus Muslims and Christians causes more variation in the style of life, social standards and belief system. These patterns are clashing and leads to communal tension.

Communalism also evolves from historical causes. It has been revealed in literature that the Muslims in some of the regions are converted from Hinduism under the compulsions of Muslim rulers. The problems of social separation, illiteracy and poverty that had set apart the low caste people remain unresolved for them, as the foreign elite that polished never shared power with them. Their work ended with the conversion of the Indians and the converts began by replicating the masters in thought, speech and costume. It caused their hostility. Progressively, communalism developed in the Muslim community.

Social Causes of communalism also emerges as there is cultural similarity in fostering harmonious relations between any two social groups. But the social institutions, customs and practices of Hindus and Muslims are so deviating that they think themselves to be two different communities.

Psychological factors have vital role in increasing communal tension. The Hindus group considers that the Muslims are crusaders and fundamentalists. They also have a feeling that Muslims are unpatriotic. On the other hand, the Muslims believe that they are not treated as superior group in India and their religious beliefs and practices are sub-standard. These feelings causes communal tension.

Aggravation of rival Countries is also cause of communalism. Some overseas countries weaken Indian nations by setting one community against the other through their representatives. They encourage and promote communal riots in the nation.

Negative Impact of Mass Media also create communal tension. The messages related to communal tension or riot in any part of the country spread through the mass media. This results in further tension and riots between two rival religious groups.

Communalism has been a severe threat to national unity in India. It harmed numerous elements of modern India, such as, secularism, democracy and world harmony. Communal ideology leads to many cases of communal violence and riots. Gujarat violence of February -March 2002 which terrorized the whole country was consequence of prior spread of communal ideology (Chandra, 2004).

Ways to eradicate Communalism: Communalism can be lessen between different religious groups through taking some measures.

  1. Eradication of Communal Parties: All the political parties which prosper on religious loyalties should be banned or abolished by the government. Even non-political cultural organizations should always be kept under constant watch so that they cannot expound communalism.
  2. Spread of the Past Heritage: Feelings of patriotism should be taught to the people by reminding them about the wonderful moments of history in Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs who were united for the wellbeing of the nation.
  3. Public Opinion: Mass media must play imperative role to generate awareness about harmony between different communities and make efforts to change the attitude of people towards other communities. People must be aware of the dangerous consequences of the communalism.

Both the Government and people should create mindfulness to eradicate communal tension and clash.

Abundant of literature have demonstrated that the practice of communalism leads to communal politics and communal violence. It is supposed that communalism is the bequest of the past because they use the thought of ancient and medieval times. But communalism is a modern thought and political movement. The origin of communalism is linked to the politics of modern times when the people are more inclined towards politics. The economic slowdown of the people of India was primary reason for communalism.

Regionalism: In current global trade system, regionalism is spreading at great pace. The huge spread of regionalism is encouraged by the explosion of regional institutions that give rise to substantial academic interest in both their sources and consequences. In bulk of academic literature, Regions are described as groups of countries situated in the same geographic space but it is not clear where one region ends and the next begins. According to Russet (1967), a region is based on geographic closeness, social and cultural similarity, shared political attitudes and political institutions, and financial interdependence. Deutsch et al. (1957) stated that high levels of interdependence across multiple dimensions that include economic transactions, communications, and political values as determining whether a group of countries constitutes a region. Thompson (1973) debated that regions comprises of states that are geographically close to each other, interact extensively, and share numerous facts, behaviours and culture. Regionalism is an arguable concept among scholars, sociologists and theorists. Regionalism is a national phenomenon and took shape of organized agitations and campaigns. Regionalism has widely spread in Indian politics since the independence of India. It has the major basis of various regional political parties. In Indian scenario, regionalism has increased in close identification with the regions. After independence, it is a great force of conflicts as well as collaboration, which depends on the manner of accommodation. Regionalism is elaborated as situations in which different religious or ethnic groups with idiosyncratic identities exist within the same state borders, often concentrated within a particular region and share strong feelings of shared individuality.

Regionalism is basically an intense feeling of a particular region or an area in preference to the nation or any other region. It often involves ethnic groups whose major objective is to get freedom from a national state and the development of their own political influence. In Indian perspective, regionalism denotes to proclamation of different ethnic, linguistic or economic interests by various groups within the nation. It has been well documented that the roots of regionalism lie in linguistic, ethnic, economic and cultural identities of the people who stay in particular geographical area. Political scholars have elaborated various types of regionalism which include economic regionalism, linguistic regionalism, political regionalism and even sub-regional movements. Various political scientists have contested that regionalism is a political process discernible by cooperation and policy harmonization, whereas regionalization is viewed as an economic process in which trade and investment within the region develop more fast than the region’s trade and investment in other part of world (Haggard 1993). Pempel (2015) described regionalism in different manner. According to him, regionalism involves the process of institution creation and is the deliberate product of interstate collaboration. Regionalism is a topic of debate among theorists. Katzenstein (2006, p. 1) described regionalism as institutionalized practices and regionalization as “a process that engages actors”. According to Fawcett (2004), regionalism is as a policy or a project. Regionalism is basically associated with ideas, identities, and ideologies to a regional project. Munakata (2006) stated that regionalism comprises of institutions established by governments to support regional economic integration but emphasizes the changeable degrees of promise by members. Extensive research has been conducted on regionalism that focused on preferential trading arrangements (PTAs), institutions that offer each member state with better access to the other participants’ markets. Such arrangements involve states in close geographic closeness, for example the European Union or Mercosur.

In Indian context, regionalism is extremely engrossed in its diversity of languages, cultures, tribes, religions, communities. It instigates from the sense of regional awareness, which is often powered by a sense of regional withdrawal. In India, there is huge population of different castes, creeds, customs and cultures and its broad regions are dissimilar from one another. For example, southern India, the home of Dravidian cultures, itself a region of many regions is very different from the north.

Major Characteristics of Regionalism

  1. Regionalism is accustomed by economic, social, political and cultural inequalities.
  2. Regionalism sometimes is a psychic phenomenon.
  3. Regionalism is developed as an expression of group identity as well as devotion to particular region.
  4. Regionalism assumes the concept of development of one’s own region without considering the interest of other regions.
  5. Regionalism proscribes people from other regions to be benefited by a particular region.

Causes of Regionalism

There are many reasons for the eruption of regionalism in Indian setting. First are the efforts of the national government to execute a particular ideology, language or cultural pattern on all people and groups. People are forced to cultivate the regionalism movements. With these policies of regional groups, the states of the South began to fight the imposition of Hindi as an official languages they feared this may make north more powerful. Second major cause for the development of regionalism is constant negligence of an area or region by the ruling parties and focus of administrative and political power has given rise to demand for decentralization of authority and divide of unilingual states. Thirdly, there is a wish of the various units of the Indian federal system to maintain their sub cultural regions and self-government has promoted regionalism and given rise to demand for greater independence. Fourth reason for the rise of regionalism is the desire of regional leaders to gain power. In Southern state, political parties like DMK, AIADMK, Akali Dal, Telugu Desam and Asom Gana Parishad have encouraged regionalism to dominate these regions. Other reason for huge growth of regionalism is the interaction between the forces of modernisation and mass contribution in India. Feeling of regionalism is developed among the people of backward areas as they are being discriminated from other powerful groups. The local political leaders exploited this issue and stimulate people against Central Government for deliberately trying to maintain regional imbalances by neglecting social and economic development of some regions.

Types of Regionalism in India: Regionalism in India is of various types that include demand of the people of certain areas for separate statehood, demand of people of certain Union Territories for full-fledged statehood, demand of certain people for favourable settlement of inter-state disputes, and the demand of the people of certain areas for secession from the Indian Union.

  1. Supra-state regionalism is a manifestation of group identity of numerous states. In this form of regionalism, the group of states unites to make common views on the issue of mutual interest vis-à-vis another group of states or at times against the union. The group identity forged is negative in character and based on specific issue. But it is not permanent unification of state identities in the collective identity. Even at times of inter-group rivalries, tensions and conflicts may tend to continue, concurrently along with their cooperation. North-eastern states in India have the supra-state regionalism.
  2. Inter-state regionalism is coterminous with local territories and involves contrasting of the identities of one or more states against another. This form of regionalism is issue specific. For example disagreements between Karnataka and Tamil Nadu over the distribution of Kaveri water may be interpreted as inter-state regionalism.
  3. Intra-state regionalism is a type of regionalism that signify that wherein a part of the state strives for self-identity and self-development and therefore, it is taken in a positive sense. In negative terms, it affects against the collective interest of the state as well as the nation. For instance there is a feeling of coastal region and western region in Odisha, coastal region and Telangana region in Andhra Pradesh.

Process of combating regionalism: Regionalism is considered as significant facet of Indian political system. Sometimes, it poses threat to the harmony of the nation. Therefore, it is imperative to take immediate steps to curb such feeling among Indian populace. Social scholars have recommended numerous measures to reduce the propensity of regionalism. First major step is to promote uniform development of the hitherto abandoned areas so that people feel a part of the national mainstream. Secondly, the central government must not interfere in the matters of the State unless it is unescapable for national interest. Another remedy for reducing regionalism is to resolve Problems of people in a peaceful and constitutional manner. Politicians must not be allowed to misappropriate the issue of regional demands. The states must be given authority to resolve their issues except the major issues that are related to national interest. Some necessary changes must be done in the Central-State relations in favour of the states, and to introduce a system of national education that would assist people to overawed regional feelings and develop patriotic sense towards the country.

It is established in political studies that regionalism has unfavourable impacts which lead to a reduction of world welfare as compared to free trade. A clash between regionalism and global free trade occurs, but these negative effects are lessened by the continuing globalisation process and the efforts for multilateral liberalisation. Regional parties have dominant role for spreading regionalism and generating awareness for regional issues among inhabitants. Since these parties have their political reality in regional support, they give rise to regionalism for their interest and to gain power. It is a recognised strategy of the regional leadership to propagate their agenda against the Centre, such as blaming the opposition party for discriminating against the state with political motives. Alongside, the regional press, which is mainly language-oriented, immensely play lead role in developing the feeling of regionalism.

Secularism: Secularism is contrasting phenomenon of communalism. It was adopted by Indian Constitution, which signifies respect for all religions and broad-mindedness of all faiths, no State religion and support or favour to any religion by the State. Secularism is a form of government process that enhance democracy and commitment to financial development.

When appraising historical records, it is documented that Indian secularism started with the protest movements in the 5th century B.C. Tehre are three main a secularist and materialistic philosophical movement, Buddhism, and Jainism. All three secularism movements discarded the authority of the Vedas and prominence of belief in a divinity. In the 18th century, when the British East India Company had dominance over India, secularism have more impact on the Indian populace. Secular India has undergone several tremors in many decades. Many professionals relate these convulsions to the nature of Indian civilization, to which they attribute centrality to religion in both personal and public matters. The Indian concept of secularism is based on respect for all religions by the state and separation of religion from public institutional practices. The obsession with the European experience supervises the historicity of the Indian phenomenon.

The process of secularization is not alike in all societies. With technical progression, human culture has undergone the process of secularization. In India, secularism is huge political and constitutional struggle and disagreement. The perception was promoted by Mahatma Gandhi and it has been the central model of secularism after Independence of India. Indian secularism is based on a more functional approach to the belief of equal respect and acceptance of all religions, which has allowed for the defence of religious minority rights principally through temporary special measures, which is similar to the positive action in the United States. But, the Hindu Right has progressively been trying to cast itself as main successors of India’s secular practise, that is, as promoters of new secularism. There is a good understanding of secularism in India and the Hindu Right visualized secularism based on a formal approach to impartiality. In their views, secularism entails that all religious communities must be treated equally. Any protection of the rights of religious minorities is cast as appeasement, and a violation of the principles of secularism. In secularism, religious minorities are to be treated the same as the majority groups.

Secularism is essential for India because it enables people of different religions to live in politeness with respect for all faiths. It is a part of democratic system, which grants equal rights. It protects democracy by limiting the powers of the majority and it protects the equal rights of minorities to populace. Secularism also regulates the relation between the State and various religious groups on the belief of equality that the State shall not differentiate against any religion. When evaluating the history, it has been demonstrated that in the period of freedom struggle, Mahatma Gandhi made great efforts to unite various communities. He explored many beliefs and dogmas to connect people of different conviction. This principle had to assure the marginal groups that they would not be differentiated against and to caution the majority groups that the majority rule is inequitable since democracy supports freedom and egalitarianism for all factions. Mr. Gandhi became understood this theory in the principle of ‘Sarva dharma samadbhava’ which entails that all religions should be treated uniformly. It was not a political belief meant to integrate people. It was a normative that everyone must identify the value of religion in people’s lives. Indian society has vast religious diversity therefore it is imperative to respect all religious feelings. People have right to religion and culture. The fight against the British was not only a struggle for independence but also a struggle to maintain impartiality and democratic system in the nation. This was Gandhi’s contribution to the decree of religious conflict in India.

Jawahar Lal Nehru also contributed for the development of secularism and raised the concept of ‘Dharma Nirapekshata’. This principle signified that the State would not be impacted by religious considerations to devise its strategies. Later on, Pt. Nehru realized that policy making could not be detached from the realm of religion and that religion could not be exiled from the political and public area. During independence, the violence happened and followed the partition of the country which proved that religion had become an inherent part of political area. Nehru asserted that secularism did not signify a state where religion is discouraged, instead it denotes freedom for all religion, including the freedom for those who have no religion. Pt.Nehru stated that the secular was not opposed to religion. It is a state which respects all faiths uniformly and it does not permit any religion to presuppose the status of the State religion.

Copious studies have revealed that secularism is the main tool to develop a modern society. It was anticipated that in a secular democratic establishment, government and people would get involve in monetary development collectively, thus they can build modern Indian society. There is no theology in the secular character of the State. Principles of secularism are not against Deity. It treats similarly the devout, the agnostic and the atheist. The main aim of secular approach is to eradicate religious feeling from the matters of the State and guarantees that people should not be victim of discrimination against the ground of religion. According to scholars, secularism is a system of social ethics which is based upon a policy that ethical standards and conduct should be determined exclusively with reference to the present life and social security without considering religious factor.

Heterogeneity is basis of Indian culture and religious tolerance is the core factor of Indian secularism. Secularism belief states that all religions are equally good and effective to attain the God. It is evident in the constitutional scheme that secularism ensures impartiality on religious ground to all individuals and groups regardless of their faith emphasizing that there is no religion of the State itself. The Introduction of the Constitution read with Arts 25 to 28 highlights that this aspect of the concept of secularism represented in the constitutional scheme. The notion of secularism basically ascribes the right to equality intertwined in the scheme of the Indian Constitution. The term “secular” has not been explained in the Constitution of India, “because it is very flexible terms that do not have exact meaning. It is considered that secularism is one of the basic structures of the Indian Constitution which can neither be condensed nor be spoiled. The indispensable principle of secularism is to explore human improvement by material means alone. In brief, secularism permits people to live in standard of politeness. It forces people to admire on other religious believes. Secularism is a part of democratic state which grants to citizens equal rights. It guards democracy by restricting the power of the majority. Secularism is therefore advantageous for a plural culture in India.

In the Indian framework, secularism and communalism are considered to be two contrasting facts. Secularism is a symbol of modernity, plurality, co-existence, rationalism and developing with a fast growing multicultural society. The raucous attack on religious minorities is representative of a deep crisis troubling secularism in India. Communalism has come to acquire the disparaging meaning of an attitude that is narrow, based on prejudices about the ‘other’ and almost based on abhorrence and violence. In India, communal politics as religion is the main factor and also act against the interests of the others.

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Civil Services Preliminary and State PSC Exams daily Practice MCQ

1. in the first ever India’s inter-state relocation, a tiger was shifted between which two states?

(a)        Uttarakhand & Madhya Pradesh

(b)       Madhya Pradesh & Uttar Pradesh

(c)        Madhya Pradesh & Odisha

(d)       Gujarat & Maharashtra                         

2. Which of the following agencies come under the definition of “State” mentioned in the Article 12 of the Indian constitution?

1.         Local bodies

2.         Public sector banks

3.         National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT)

4.         Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI)

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

(a)        1 and 2 only

(b)       1, 2 and 4 only

(c)        1, 2 and 3 only

(d)       1, 2, 3 and 4

3. Which of the following Indian province was annexed on account of alleged misgovernance?

(a)        Awadh

(b)       Satara

(c)        Jhansi

(d)       Mysore

4. Which of the following is / are examples of mechanical weathering

(a)        Lichens and mosses

(b)       Exfoliation

(c)        Frost Action

(d)       Abrasion

5. Consider the following

1. Mediterranean Sea separates Africa from Asia

2. Red Sea separates Africa from Europe.

3. Mozambique Channel lies to the East of Mozambique.

Which of the above given statements is/are incorrect?

(a)        1 and 2 only

(b)       2 and 3 only

(c)        1 only

(d)       2 only

6. Ministry of health and Family welfare has banned the domestic companies to produce which hormone/chemical effective from 1st July to prevent its misuse?

(a)        Oxytocin

(b)       Serotonin

(c)        Insulin

(d)       Adrenaline

7. RIMPAC naval military exercise of 26 countries started recently in Hawaii. Which Indian naval stealth frigate ship is participating in the exercise?

(a)        INS Sahyadri

(b)       INS Comorta

(c)        INS Vikramaditya

(d)       INS Viraat

8. The ideals of Liberty, equality and fraternity in our constitution were inspired from the

(a)        American revolution

(b)       English revolution

(c)        Russian revolution

(d)       French revolution

9. Consider the following statements about Lord William Bentinck.

1. Bentinck was the first Governor-General of India.

2. He was thought to be a reform oriented person.

3. He brought a law against Sati Pratha.

Which of the statements given above is/are are correct?

(a)        1 and 2 only

(b)       2 and 3 only

(c)        3 only

(d)       1, 2 and 3

10.       Which one of the following statements is not correct with reference to “summer solstice”?

(a)        It Signifies winter season in southern hemisphere

(b)       International day of Yoga coincides with it

(c)        Perihelion falls during the month of summer solstice.

(d)       Antarctic Circle receives no sunlight during summer solstice.

11.       Which Indian National Park has become the largest host for the endangered Salt Water (Estuarine) Crocodile?

(a)        Bhitarkanika

(b)       Sunderbans

(c)        Papikonda

(d)       Periyar

12.       With regards to Fundamental rights which of the statement is not correct?

(a)        These are enforceable only against State not against private individual

(b)       Their application is limited in cases of armed forces and the times of emergency.

(c)        Some of the provisions of Fundamental rights have to be enforced by a separate law

(d)       They are neither Sacrosanct nor permanent in nature.

13.       Which of the following statements are correct?

1.         Vasco Da Gama was welcomed by Zamorin king at Muziris port.

2.         Thomas Roe visited the court of Aurangzeb to get permission to trade in India.

Select the correct answer using the Codes give below

(a)        1 only

(b)       2 only

(c)        Both 1 and 2

(d)       Neither 1 nor 2

14.       Which of the following planet(s) has / have westward rotation in our solar system?

(a)        Uranus Only

(b)       Venus and Earth

(c)        Venus and Uranus

(d)       Mars and Saturn

15.       Consider the following

1.         Strait of Gibraltar separates Europe from Africa

2.         Strait of Babel Mandel connects Red sea with Gulf of Aden

Which of the following statement (s) is/are true?

(a)        1 and 2 only

(b)       1 only

(c)        2 only

(d)       None

16.       ”Project Sashakt” often seen in news is related to which of the following

(a)        Reforms in Priority Sector Lending

(b)       A 5-point plan to fight NPAs in the banks

(c)        To bring changes in GST Tax Slabs

(d)       None of the above

17.       Consider the following statements with regard to “Global Innovation Index”

1.         The Global Innovation Index (GII) is a biannual ranking of countries by their capacity for, and success in, innovation.

2.         It is jointly released by Cornell University, INSEAD, and the World Intellectual Property Organization

3.         The index was started in 2007 by INSEAD and World Business

Which of the following statements are incorrect?

(a)        1 only

(b)       1 and 2 only

(c)        1 and 3 only

(d)       None of the above

18.       Consider the following statements

1.         An ordinary right generally imposes a corresponding duty on another individual and state in some cases but a fundamental right is a right which an individual possess against the state.

2.         Our constitution guarantees the right to move the Supreme Court for the enforcement of both fundamental rights as well as legal rights.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)        1 only

(b)       2 only

(c)        Both 1 and 2

(d)       Neither 1 nor 2

19.       The play “Neel Darpan” is associated with the Indigo Revolt (1858) of Bengal. Who wrote this play?

(a)        Ishwar Chandra Gupta

(b)       Deen Bandhu Mitra

(c)        Bhanu Bandopadhyay

(d)       Rajshekhar Basu

20.       Which of the following faults could generate Tsunami waves?

1.         Dip Slip Fault

2.         Strike Slip Fault

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

(a)        1 Only

(b)       2 Only

(c)        Both 1 and 2

(d)       Neither 1 nor 2

21.       Recently which nation has agreed to reduce tariffs on its imports of Indian medicines?

(a)        US

(b)       Japan

(c)        China

(d)       Germany

22.       Consider the following statements with regards to Child employment in India

1.         Indian Constitution prohibits the employment of children below the age of 14 with no exceptions.

2.         The children between 14 and 18 are permitted to work in Non Hazardous Industries.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)        1 only

(b)       2 only

(c)        Both 1 and 2

(d)       Neither 1 nor 2

23.       Which of the following crops were introduced by the Portuguese in India?

1.         Sugarcane

2.         Maize

3.         Tomato

4.         Potato Codes

(a)        1 and 2 only

(b)       2, 3 and 4 only

(c)        2 and 3 only

(d)       1, 2, 3 and 4

24.       “They are generally known as thunderstorm clouds, can grow up to 10 km in height looks anvil – like in shaped and are associated with heavy rain, snow, hail, lighting and tornadoes”. Which of the following type of cloud is best described by the given above statement?

(a)        Cirrocumulus

(b)       Cirrostratus

(c)        Nimbostratus

(d)       Cumulonimbus

25.       Which one of the following African countries is not land-locked?

(a)        Benin

(b)       Chad

(c)        Lesotho

(d)       Mali

26.       The term, “one country, two systems”, seen in the news recently, in the context of affairs of which of the following country?

(a)        Israel

(b)       China

(c)        United Kingdom

(d)       Srilanka

27.       With reference to the Rim of the Pacific Exercise (RIMPAC), consider the following statements.

1.         It is the world’s largest international maritime exercise.

2.         Only Pacific Ocean littoral countries participate in this exercise.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)        1 only

(b)       2 only

(c)        Both 1 and 2

(d)       Neither 1 nor 2

Answer Key:

1.         C

2.         A

3.         A

4.         C

5.         A

6.         A

7.         A

8.         D

9.         D

10.       C

11.       A

12.       A

13.       D

14.       C

15.       A

16.       B

17.       A

18.       A

19.       B

20.       A

21.       C

22.       B

23.       B

24.       D

25.       A

26.       B

27.       A

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