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SERVICES/DEPARTMENTS IN CIVIL SERVICES

The Indian Civil Services are organized into two main sections. These are the All India Services and the Central Services. Officers of the All India Services, on appointment by the Government of India, are placed at the disposal of the different State Governments. These services include:

  • The Indian Administrative Service (IAS)
  • The Indian Police Service (IPS)
  • The Indian Forest Service (IFS)

Officers of the Central Services, on the other hand, wherever they might be posted, serve the Government of India only. Central Services are of two types-Groups A&B.

GROUP ‘A’ SERVICES

Central Services comprise various different services/ posts. These include:

  • The Indian Foreign Service (IFS)
  • The Indian Railway Service
  • Indian Postal Service
  • Accounts and Auditing Services (including The Indian Audit and Accounts Service, The Indian Civil Accounts Service, The Indian Defence Accounts Service, The Indian Revenue Service.)
  • Indian Customs and Central Excise
  • The Indian Ordnance Factories Service
  • The Indian Defence Estates Service
  • The Indian Information Service
  • The Central Trade Services

GROUP ‘B’ SERVICES

  • The Group ‘B’ Services include the Central Secretariat Service (Section Officers Grade-CSS), the Railway Board Secretariat Service (Section Officers’ Grade- RBSS), the Indian Foreign Service (Section Officers’ Grade- IFS ‘B’), the Armed Forces Headquarters Civil Service (Assistant Civilian Staff Officers Grade), the Customs’ Appraisers Service, the Delhi and Andaman & Nicobar Islands Civil Service (DANICS), the Goa, Daman and Diu Police Service, Posts of Assistant Commandant, Post of Deputy Superintendents of Police in the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI). Though officers of the Group ‘B’ Services start off almost at par with their Group ‘A’ counterparts, yet after the fourth year they lag behind by five to seven years. This gap widens further by the 18th year when Group’A’ Officers enter the Super Time Scale. The most coveted service among the “Group B” services is the Central Secretariat Service (CSS).

THE INDIAN ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICE (IAS)

The IAS (Indian Administrative Service) was formally constituted in 1947. The IAS handles affairs of the government. At the central level, this involves the framing and implementation of policy. At the district level, it is concerned with district affairs, including developmental functions. At the divisional level, the IAS officers look after law and order, general administration and development work. In the Government of India (i.e. in the ministries), IAS officers deal with the formulation of policies and supervise their implementation. In each Ministry they supervise the allotment and utilization of funds by the field officers in the Ministry. They may also be asked to furnish information to the Parliament in response to queries relating to the Ministry. Sometimes, their works entail visits to the States. Depending on the rank, an IAS officer might even be the government nominee on the Board of Directors of some Public Sector Corporation. They may also at times be nominated to independently represent India at International forums or accompany the Minister for such meetings. From the rank of Deputy Secretary to the Government of India, they can sign international agreements on behalf of the Government of India. However, more than half their career life will be spent in the State they are allocated, where they will look after law and order, general administration, revenue work and developmental functions. During the course of their two-year probation they will be attached to various training schools, to the Secretariat and field offices and to a district collector’s office. Here they will do the work of a sub magistrate. On completion of their two-year’s probation they will be appointed as a Sub Divisional Magistrate (SDM). As SDM they will look after law and order, general administration, revenue work and such developmental work as may be assigned to them. In the next three scales i.e. Senior Scale, Junior Administrative Grade and Selection Grade they will serve as District Magistrate, Chief Development Officer, Director of a department, Managing Director of a Public Sector Unit or a Senior officer in the State Secretariat. In other words, they could be a District Magistrate in their fifth year of service and remain a DM till they are promoted to the Super Time Scale in the 17th year of their service. Following this there are promotions in scale to the ranks of Principal Secretary and additional Chief Secretary. The highest post in the State is that of the Chief Secretary.

INDIAN FOREIGN SERVICE (IFS)

The Indian Foreign Service deals with the country’s external affairs, including diplomacy, trade and cultural relations. It is responsible for the administration and activities of Indian missions abroad, and for the framing and implementation of the Government’s foreign policy. After the training at Mussoorie, the IFS probationers are attached to the Ministry of External Affairs and have to become conversant in a major foreign language. During the second year they are appointed as Third Secretaries in Indian Embassy/High Commission where that language is spoken. They spend another two years in the same Embassy as Second Secretaries. After two postings abroad, the IFS Officers are posted in India in the Ministry of External Affairs (MEA). In the MEA, they will look after India’s political, economic and commercial work. In the Senior Scale and the Junior Administrative Grade the IFS Officers are appointed as First Secretaries. In the Selection Grade, IFS Officers serve as Counsellors. In very small countries the Indian Ambassador would be in that grade. In the super time scale, many IFS Officers become Ambassadors of medium sized countries while others are appointed as Ministers in the large embassies like Washington and Moscow. In the Additional Secretaries Grade, IFS Officers are made ambassadors in relatively big embassies or as Deputy High Commissioner in London. The Indian Embassies/High Commissions like Moscow, Washington and London are headed by Ambassadors of the rank of Secretary. At this level, some Ambassadors are non-IFS Officers like politicians, retired or serving IAS Officers or retired Defence Chief. There are four to five Secretary level officers in the MEA- the senior most being the Foreign Secretary.

INDIAN POLICE SERVICE (IPS)

The IPS (Indian Police Service) is responsible for public safety and security. The IPS mainly takes care of law and order, which, at the district level, is a responsibility shared with the IAS; crime prevention and detection; and traffic control and accident prevention and management. In order to fulfill these functions with greater efficiency, this service is divided into various functional departments, including: a) Crime Branch b) Criminal Investigation Department (CID) c) Home Guards d) Traffic Bureau. A number of Central Policing Agencies are also headed by the IPS. These include: the Intelligence Bureau (IB), Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI), Cabinet Secretariat Security, the Border Security Force (BSF), and the Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF). During the probation period they will undergo a year training in the office of a Superintendent of Police of a district in the State they have been allocated. On completing their two-year probation, they will be confirmed as a three star Assistant Superintendent of Police (ASP). They will then in all probability be posted as the Police Officer of a sub-division (SDPO) for two years till they are promoted to the Senior Scale. As the SDPO, Superintendent of Police, Senior Superintendent of Police of a District and as Deputy Inspector General of a Range (group of districts), they will be exclusively responsible for the prevention and detection of crime. However, the law and order duties will be shared with their IAS counterpart. In cities like Delhi, Mumbai and Bangalore, the law and order duties are the exclusive responsibility of the police force. In these cities the ASP, SP, and the DIG are called Assistant Commissioner of Police (ACPO), Deputy Commissioner of Police (DCP) and Commissioner of Police (CP). On being promoted to the Senior Scale they could serve as ASP of a larger district for the first two years or SP of a small district. They are likely to spend about thirteen years covering the Senior Scale, Junior Administrative Grade and Selection Grade as SP/SSP of a district, SP (Crime), SP (CID), SP (Home Guards), the head of some police battalion, SP (Traffic) and so on. Outside the districts, the most satisfying jobs are in the intelligence agencies of the Government of India especially in the Intelligence Bureau (IB) and the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI). There are many other Central agencies to which the IPS Officers may be sent on deputation at every stage of their career, except in the Junior Scale. Some of these are the Cabinet Secretariat, the Border Security Force, the Central Reserve Police Force and the Central Industrial Security Force. Unlike IAS Officers who cannot permanently serve the Central government, some IPS dominated central agencies absorb the IPS Officers till they retire. The senior posts in the IPS are those of the Deputy Inspector General, Inspector General, Additional DG and Director General.

INDIAN CUSTOMS AND CENTRAL EXCISE SERVICE

It is basically concerned with two main aspects, mainly Customs and Excise. While Customs is concerned with the checking and levy of duty on taxable goods brought into the country, the Excise department is involved with the taxation of goods manufactured within the country.

CUSTOMS

Customs officers could be dealing with customs, excise or narcotics related matters. They are not only posted in important coastal and border towns or in towns with international airports, they can be posted anywhere. Their probation will be either in Chennai, Mumbai, Kolkata or Delhi and in the Junior and Senior scales they will be designated as Assistant Commissioner of Customs. As Deputy Commissioner in the JAG they will move to much bigger towns. In this grade of Junior Administration Grade (JAG) they could later become Additional Commissioner of Customs.

CENTRAL EXCISE

Probation will be in Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai or Chennai and will be posted in industrial townships to begin with and then in big cities. In the Junior Scale, the Central excise officer could serve as Assistant Commissioner of Central Excise. They can hold the latter rank in the senior scale also. In the JAG they could be a Deputy or Additional Commissioner of Central Excise. Commissioners of Customs and Central Excise are officers in the Senior Administrative Grade. They wield enormous power and the jurisdiction which normally extends over several states. Chief Commissioners of Customs and Central Excise are placed in the next higher grade which is similar to that of Additional Secretaries. After that they can aspire to become a member of the Central Board of Excise and Customs and later even its Chairman.

INDIAN REVENUE SERVICE

The job involves all the processes from investigation to decisions and policy planning. As the job deals with the fiscal policy and budget, aptitude for accounts as well as a legal aptitude is useful. The professional training is conducted in the National Academy of Direct Taxes, Nagpur and the probationer will also receive on-the-job training at an Assistant Commissioner’s office for some time. Following this they will serve as an Assistant Commissioner for about eight years. They will examine cases in which the tax assessed is more than the prescribed figure. In the Junior Administrative Grade (JAG) and Selection Grade they would be a Deputy Commissioner of Income Tax or Deputy Director (Investigation). In the Senior Administrative Grade they could be a Commissioner of Income Tax in a metropolitan town or one of the state capitals or a Director of Income Tax. Some of these Commissioners are designated Chief-Commissioners of Income Tax and are in a scale similar to that of Additional Secretaries. The Director General of Income Tax is also in this scale. The head of the Income Tax hierarchy is the Chairman of the Central Board of Direct Taxes and is assisted by six members.

INDIAN RAILWAY SERVICE

It is essentially responsible for the running of India’s vast railway network. There are four non-technical and technical or engineering cadres in the railways. Entry for non-technical services- the Indian Railway Traffic Services (IRTS), the Indian Railway Personnel Services (IRPS), the Indian Railway Accounts Services (IRAS), and the Railway Police Service is through the Civil Services examination. However, the engineering services have a different recruitment procedure.

INDIAN RAILWAY TRAFFIC SERVICES (IRTS)

This service looks after commercial (goods and passengers) and operational (movement of trains) functions with an emphasis on safety. In the Junior Scale, they will serve as either Assistant Commercial Manager or Assistant Operating Manager and posted at the Divisional Headquarters. If posted at a very big railway station they may be designated as Assistant Transport Manager. Within four years of service they are likely to get the senior scale and posted at divisional headquarters as Divisional Commercial Manager or Divisional Operating Manager or Divisional Safety Officer. Most of the branch officers like the Senior Divisional Commercial Manager or Senior Divisional Operating Manager are in the JAG. At the zonal level the hierarchy is as follows: On the Commercial side, the structure is headed by the Chief Commercial Manager followed by the Additional Chief Commercial Manager and the Deputy Chief Commercial Manager. On the operations side, the Chief Operations Manager is at the head, followed by the Additional Chief Operations Manager, Chief Freight Traffic Manager, Chief Passenger Traffic Manager and the Deputy Chief Operations Manager.

INDIAN RAILWAY ACCOUNTS SERVICES (IRAS)

This service monitors all the income and expenditure of the vast railway network. In the Junior Scale, as an IRAS officer they will be posted to divisional headquarters as Assistant Accounts Officers. On being promoted to the senior scale they will become a Divisional Accounts Officer and in the JAG they will be designated as Senior Divisional Accounts Officer. In the Senior Administrative Grade they are promoted to the coveted position of Financial Advisor-cum-Chief Accounts Officer of a zone.

INDIAN RAILWAY PERSONNEL SERVICE (IRPS)

As an officer in this service the IRPS officers will deal with recruitment, promotions, in service training and welfare of the employees. They will be interested to know that IRPS officers get the equivalent of the Super time Scale before any other service of the Government of India. The postings are as follows: In the junior scale, they will be designated Assistant Personnel Officer and posted at Divisional Headquarters. Following this they will become a Divisional Personnel Officer in the Senior Scale and Senior Divisional Personnel Officer of Deputy Chief Planning Officer in the JAG. They will be made Additional Chief Planning Officer once they get the selection grade. In the Senior Administrative Grade they will be designated Chief Personnel Officer and serve at Zonal Headquarters. At a non-divisional set-up there are commensurate posts for officers belonging to all the railway services.

RAILWAY PROTECTION FORCE

This force protects one of the biggest railway networks in the world. RPF officer’s training will be at Vadodra and Lucknow. The Junior and Senior scales are similar to the other railway services. There is no equivalent of JAG or SG. Instead, they have the grades of Senior Commandant, Head Quarters and Deputy Inspector General (DIG) respectively. The Inspector General’s grade is the same as the IAS suppertime scale or the IPS IGP’s scale. The final promotion is as the Director General of the Force.

INDIAN AUDIT AND ACCOUNTS SERVICES

This service audits the accounts of all Central and State government departments, P&T departments, defence, public sector organizations, railways, etc. It functions within the federal structure and coordinates effectively between the Centre and the states. As the head of the organization, the Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) is a constitutional authority with a fixed tenure. During the career, the officer can go on deputation to various ministries, state governments, autonomous bodies, public sector organizations etc. They can also be posted at one of the two audit offices abroad- Washington or London. Presently India is one of the three countries auditing the accounts of the United Nations and a Director General of the service is based at New York for this purpose. Officers selected to this service undergo training in Shimla. They serve either in account offices in Central or State Governments or in Statutory Audit Offices under the Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG). In the Junior Scale, they will be posted as an Assistant AG in the office of an Accountant General (AG). They will be posted in similar offices throughout the career; only their designation and responsibilities will keep changing. In the senior scale, they will be a Deputy AG, in the JAG and Selection Grade a Senior DAG and in the Senior Administrative Grade a fully fledged AG. At the next rung is the Additional Deputy Comptroller and Auditor General. Above this is the Deputy Comptroller and Auditor General of India, who gets a Secretary’s salary. At the very top of the accounts/audit hierarchy is a constitutional authority, the Comptroller and Auditor General of India.

INDIAN POSTAL SERVICE

It is the only service from which one can go on a deputation to the army and serve from Captain to Major General. An attractive aspect of a career in the Indian Postal Service is that there is job mobility as well as variety.

An Indian Postal Service officer can serve in any ministry at any level depending on the seniority and aptitude. Officers are also sent on deputation to the Universal Postal Union at Berne, Switzerland or on assignments to other countries.

Professional course is at the Postal Staff College, Ghaziabad. During probation the officer will be “attached” to “field” offices of the department, where they will work in various capacities. They will serve in divisional headquarters as Senior Superintendent of Post Office (SSPO) or Senior Superintendent Railway Mail (SSRM) in the junior scale as well as in the first 2-3 years of the senior scale. Only personnel from the Indian Postal Service go on deputation to the Army Postal Service. Later in the Senior Scale they will be promoted to the rank of Assistant PMG (Post Master General) or Assistant Director General at the Directorate. In the JAG they will be made a Director. In the selection grade they will remain as a Director. They can be promoted to the senior most level of PMG of a “Circle”. Promotions after that are to the posts of (a) Additional Secretary in a ministry (b) One of the members of the Postal Services Board (c) Chief PMG or rather HAG i.e. Higher Administrative Grade d) Secretary, Department of Post who is also ex-officio DG and Chairman of the Postal Services Board.

P&T FINANCE AND ACCOUNTS SERVICES

As in the case of the Indian Railways there is a separate P&T Finance and Accounts Service. Here an officer works for the Postal & Telecom departments. They are posted in major cities and as this is a comparatively new service, (established in 1974) the promotions are fast. Within 17 years one can be Joint Secretary (SAG) which corresponds with the Super Time Scale of the IAS. Officers start their career as the Assistant Chief Accounts Officer. Within two years, they are the Chief Accounts Officers. After six years they become the Director Finance and Accounts in the Junior Administrative Grade. In another eleven years they enter the SAG as GM Finance which is a field posting or as Deputy Director General at the Directorate. Following this promotions to the higher posts are limited as there is just one member Finance and one Senior DDG, Finance. However, they can go on deputation to other ministries or to the Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited (VSNL) or Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL) as Director Finance.

INDIAN INFORMATION SERVICES AND INDIAN DEFENCE ACCOUNTS SERVICES THE INDIAN INFORMATION SERVICES (IIS)

This was initially called the Central Information Service (CIS) which was constituted as late as 1960. As it is a comparatively new and expanding service there is scope for quicker promotions. The scales in this service are exactly the same as in the other services, till the Senior Administrative Grade (SAG). At the top is a grade which is called Selection Grade and has a fixed salary, equal to what the senior most Additional Secretary would get. Training during probation is at the Indian Institute of Mass Communication (IIMC), New Delhi. An IIS Officer can be posted in organizations dealing with print media, in the electronic media or in an advertising agency. In short, IIS Officers can be posted to any of the several organizations that are controlled by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting or the Ministry of Defence (Directorate of Public Relations).

THE INDIAN DEFENCE ACCOUNTS SERVICES (IDAS)

An IDAS officer start off, after probation, as an Assistant CDA (Controller of Defence Accounts) in the Junior Scale, and will work in cantonment towns. In the next three scales, they will be Deputy CDAs, posted at State capitals (or bigger towns). In the Senior Administrative Grade (SAG) they will become a full-fledged CDA and will be posted at places where headquarters of defence ‘commands’ are located. In the Additional Secretaries’ Scale IDAS Officer’s are made Additional CGDAs (Controller General of Defence Accounts) incharge of Audit or Inspection. They could also be posted as Controller of Accounts (Factories), Calcutta.

Indian Ordnance & Factories Services and Indian Civil Accounts Services

THE INDIAN ORDNANCE AND FACTORIES SERVICES (IOFS)

IOFS officers will be required to serve mostly where ordnance factories (i.e. factories that make equipment including sleeping bags and tents, for the defence services) are located e.g. Jabalpur. During the first 10 years in the Service, they could even be asked to serve for up to 4 years, as a Commissioned Officer in the Armed Forces. The promotions up to the Senior Administrative Grade are standard Central Service Promotions. In the Additional Secretaries’ Grade they would most probably be made a General Manager. After that, there is a scale which begins at the AS level. In this scale are the Members of the OFS (ordinance Factories Board)/the Additional DGOF (Director General Ordnance Factories). The head of the service is the chairman of the OFB/DGOF, who has the same fixed salary as the Secretaries.

THE INDIAN CIVIL ACCOUNTS SERVICES (ICAS)

Training will be in the office of the CGA (Controller General of Accounts), Department of Expenditure (Ministry of Finance) Delhi and in the offices of the Chief Controller of Accounts in the various ministries of Government of India. The first posting will be as Assistant Controller of Accounts in some ministry of the Government of India. In the Senior Scale, they will become the Deputy Controller of Accounts. In the Senior Administrative Grade they will be made Chief Controller of Accounts. The highest career post for an ICAS officer is Controller General of Accounts and has a salary fixed higher than that of the Additional Secretaries’ Scale.

THE INDIAN DEFENCE ESTATES SERVICES (IDES)

This service deals entirely with spacious, well-planned, green, landscaped cantonments. In this service an IDES officer will begin his career in the junior scale, as an Executive Officer in a Class I or a Class II Cantonment. In the Senior Scale he would normally be sent to a Class I Cantonment as an Executive Officer of Assistant Director or Deputy Assistant Director General or Defence Estate Officer. Next promotion in the “Ordinary Grade” (similar to the JAG) will be as Joint Director the designation which he will retain in the Selection Grade as well. After the Selection Grade the IDES Officers are first promoted as Directors (Level I) before they are made Directors (Level III). The latter post is in the Senior Administrative Grade. The top officer is the Director General Defence Estates.

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FINE ART

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HERITAGE CRAFT

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HISTORY

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Geography Practice Question

 

 

Q.1)     Consider the following.

  1. Himalayas
  2. Peninsular Plateau
  3. North Indian Plains

 

Arrange the following in chronological order of their formations.

  1. a) 1-3-2
  2. b) 2-1-3
  3. c) 2-3-1
  4. d) 3-2-1

Solution (b)

 

Q.2) Consider the following statements about Northwestern Himalayas.

  1. The world-famous valley of Kashmir lies between the Karakoram Range and Ladakh Range.
  2. The Kashmir Himalayas are also famous for Karewa formations.
  3. Chenab in the valley of Kashmir is still in its youth stage and yet forms meanders.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 and 2 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) 1 and 3 only
  4. d) All the above.

Solution (b)

Q.3)     Tors, block mountains, rift valleys, spurs, bare rocky structures, series of hummocky hills and wall-like quartzite dykes are some of the important physiographic features of which of the following region?

  1. a) Purvanchal Hill Complex
  2. b) Peninsular plateau.
  3. c) North Indian Plains
  4. d) Indian Deserts

Solution (b)

Q.4)     Consider the following statements:

  1. The western coastal plains are an example of emergent coastal plain.
  2. The western coastal plains are narrow in the middle and get broader towards north and south.
  3. Because of its submerged nature, eastern coast has less number of ports and harbors.
  4. The lakes and the playas have brackish water which is the main source of obtaining salt in western coasts.

Choose the correct answer using the codes given below.

  1. a) 1 and 4 only
  2. b) 2 and 3 only
  3. c) 2, 3 and 4 only
  4. d) 2 and 4

Solution (d)

Q.5) Consider the following pairs:

Passes                        Connects

  1. Banihal                      Jammu and Srinagar
  2. Zoji La                         Srinagar and Leh
  3. Shipki La                Himachal Pradesh and Tibet
  4. Mana passes              Uttarakhand and Tibet

Which of the above pairs is/are correctly matched?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) 1 and 3 only
  4. d) All the above

Solution (d)

Q.6) which of the following best defines Duars?

  1. a) The tract of land lying between two converging, or confluent, rivers.
  2. b) The alluvial floodplains in northeastern India that lies south of the outer foothills of the Himalayas and north of the Brahmaputra River basin.
  3. c) The land drained by the brackish water.
  4. d) The landscape all along the foothills of Shiwaliks.

Solution (b)

Q.7)     Consider the following Himalayan ranges.

1 Karakoram Range

  1. Phir Panjal range
  2. Ladakh range
  3. Zaskar range

Arrange the above ranges from North to South.

  1. a) 1-3-4-2
  2. b) 1-4-3-2
  3. c) 1-2-3-4
  4. d) 1-2-4-3

Solution (a)

 

Q.8)     Consider the following statements:

  1. The region is swampy and marshy.
  2. The underground streams re – emerge in this region.
  3. The region is conducive for the breeding of mosquitoes and flies.
  4. The forests in this region have been cleared and intensive agriculture is being practiced.

The above statements are true for which of the following regions?

  1. a) Bhabar
  2. b) Bhangar
  3. c) Khadar
  4. d) Tarai

Solution (d)

Q.9) Dandakaranya forest has been in news because of Naxalism.

Which of the following statements regarding Dandakaranya are correct?

  1. It is drained by the tributaries of Mahanadi and Godavari
  2. It has Abujhmar hills in the west and Eastern Ghats in the East.
  3. It prominently lies in the states of Jharkhand, Bihar and Madhya Pradesh.

Select the code from following:

  1. a) 1 and 2
  2. b) 2 and 3
  3. c) 1 and 3
  4. d) All of the above

Solution (a)

 

Q.10) which of the following statements regarding Meghalaya plateau are NOT correct?

  1. It is an extension of Himalayan range in North Easter India.
  2. It is filled with fertile alluvial soil deposited by Brahmaputra.
  3. It is separated from peninsular plateau by Garo – Rajmahal gap.

Select the code from below:

  1. a) 1 and 2
  2. b) 3 only
  3. c) 2 and 3
  4. d) All of the above

Solution (a)

Q.11)   which of the following Islands of India are Volcanic in character?

  1. Narcondam Island
  2. Barren Island
  3. Minicoy
  4. Majuli

Select the code from following:

  1. a) 1 and 2
  2. b) 2 and 3
  3. c) 2 only
  4. d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution (a)

Q.12) which of the following mountain ranges is/are folding mountain ranges?

  1. Aravalis
  2. Himalayas
  3. Western Ghats
  4. Eastern Ghats

Select the code from following:

  1. a) 2 only
  2. b) 1 and 2
  3. c) 3 and 4
  4. d) 1,2 and 4

Solution (b)

Q.13) which of the following statements regarding Thar Desert are correct?

  1. It lies only in India and not in Pakistan.
  2. It is drained by river Luni.
  3. It doesn’t get rainfall because of the presence of Aravali hills parallel to the monsoon winds.

Select the code from following:

  1. a) 1 and 2
  2. b) 2 and 3
  3. c) 1 and 3
  4. d) All of the above

Solution (b)

 

Q.15) From the below identify the correct term which is collectively applied to all kinds of saline and alkaline soils in the plains of north India, particularly in Uttar Pradesh –

  1. a) Regolith
  2. b) Talus
  3. c) Usar
  4. d) Reh

Solution (c)

Q.16)   considers the following pairs and identifies the correct pair/s using the code given below:

            Plains: Associated region

  1. Malwa Plains: located in central India especially Madhya Pradesh
  2. Marusthali: covers sand-dune-covered eastern portion of the Great Indian (Thar) Desert in western Rajasthan state
  3. Utkal plains: coastal plains in the Odisha state

Code:

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 1 and 2 only
  3. c) 2 and 3 only
  4. d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution (c)

 

Q.17) Consider the following statements:

  1. The Pamir, popularly known as the roof of the world is the connecting link between the Himalayas and the high ranges of the Central Asia.
  2. Maximum development of glaciers occurs in the Karakoram Range.
  3. Purvachal or the Eastern hills are part of the Himalayan mountain system having their general alignment from the north to the south direction

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 1 and 2 only
  3. c) 2 and 3 only
  4. d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution (d)

 

Q.18)   Consider the following ports. Which of the following is correct order as we traverse from south to north?

  1. a) Kochi – Mangalore – JNPT – Marmagao – Kandla
  2. b) Kochi – Mangalore – Marmagao – JNPT – Kandla
  3. c) Mangalore – Kochi – Marmagao – JNPT – Kandla
  4. d) Kochi – JNPT – Marmagao – Mangalore – Kandla

Solution (b)

 

Q.19) which of the statements given below is/are not true in regard to western coastal plain?

  1. a) It is a narrow belt.
  2. b) Eastern coastal plain receives comparatively low rainfall but the Western coastal plain receives heavy rainfall.
  3. c) West Coast Plain is infertile and agriculturally not prosperous except in the Malabar Coast.
  4. d) It is an example of emergent coastal plain.

Solution (d)

Western coastal plain is an example of submerged coastal plain (not emergent). It provides natural conditions for development of ports.

 

Q.20) which of the statements given below is/are correct about Terai region?

  1. Terai is an ill-drained, damp (marshy) and thickly forested narrow tract to the south of Bhabar running parallel to it.
  2. It is swampy lowland with silty soils.
  3. Terai soils are rich in phosphate and organic matter but are deficient in nitrogen. Choose the correct answer from the code given below:
  4. a) 1 only
  5. b) 1 and 2 only
  6. c) 2 and 3 only
  7. d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution (b)

 

Q.21) Consider the below statements with regard to Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats:

  1. The mean height of the Western Ghats is more than that of Eastern Ghats.
  2. The Eastern Ghats do not form a continuous chain like the Western Ghats.
  3. The Eastern Ghats average width is less than that of Western Ghats.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 and 2 only
  2. b) 2 and 3 only
  3. c) 1, 2 and 3
  4. d) None

Solution (a)

 

Q.22) what type of drainage pattern the Ganga river system forms?

  1. a) Trellis pattern
  2. b) Dendric pattern
  3. c) Rectangular pattern
  4. d) Radial pattern

Solution (b)

 

Q.23)   Consider the following statements about Brahmaputra River:

  1. It flows eastwards parallel to the Himalayas.
  2. On reaching the Nanga Parbat, it takes a ‘U’ turn and enters India in Arunachal Pradesh through a gorge.
  3. The Brahmaputra has a braided channel in its entire length in Assam and forms many riverine islands.
  4. Teesta river is its right bank tributary.

Select the correct answers using the codes given below.

  1. a) 1 and 3 only
  2. b) 1, 3 and 4 only
  3. c) 2, 3 and 4 only
  4. d) All the above

Solution (b)

 

Q.24)   Consider the following statements about Mahadayi/Mandovi river:

  1. The famous Dudhsagar falls is located on this river.
  2. Kalasa and Banduri are its tributaries.
  3. It is the west flowing river.
  4. Mahadayi river water dispute is between Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra.

Select the correct answers using the codes given below.

  1. a) 1, 2 and 3 only
  2. b) 1, 3 and 4 only
  3. c) 2, 3 and 4 only
  4. d) All the above

Solution (a)

 

Q.25)   Consider the following rivers and cities located on their banks.

Cities                River

  1. Cuttack             Mahanadi
  2. Agra                 Yamuna
  3. Jabalpur          Narmada
  4. Lucknow          Gomti

 

Which of the above pairs is/are correctly matched?

  1. a) 1, 2 and 3 only
  2. b) 1, 3 and 4 only
  3. c) 2, 3 and 4 only
  4. d) All the above

Solution (d)

 

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Practice Test – 7

1. What were the reasons for the failure of the Portuguese in India?

1. The policy of “Socio-Cultural Synthesis” followed by the Portuguese Governor “Alphonso De Albuquerque”.

2. The disinterest to control hinterland territory in India

3. The fall of a trusted ally – the Vijayanagara Empire.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

(A) 1 and 2 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

2. Consider the following statements regarding “Blue water Doctrine

1. It was formulated by Francisco Almeida.

2. It was a Dutch doctrine intended to establish Naval Supremacy.

3. It was conceived as a Counter-narrative to the monopoly of the Turkish and Arab traders in the Arabian Sea

Which of the statements given above are correct?

(A) 1 and 2 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

3. Awadh was annexed by the British under

(a) Doctrine of Lapse

(b) Non-payment of revenue as promised under the ‘Subsidiary Alliance’

(c) A military campaign by conspiring with the Rajputs.

(d) Doctrine of Good Governance

4. Consider the following statements regarding “Dastak”

1. It was the tax levied on British Traders who operated in the mid-18th century at Bengal.

2. The British were involved in large scale malpractices when Dastak was in place.

3. It was abolished by Aurangzeb. Which of the statements given above are correct?

(A) 1 and 2 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

5. Which of the following is/are correct about the Regulation Act of 1773?

1. It established a Supreme Court in Calcutta.

2. It appointed an executive council consisting of 8 members to assist the Governor General of Bengal.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

6. Consider the following statements regarding Battle of Wandiwash in 1760

1. The defeat in this battle proved to be a severe blow to the French ambitions in India

2. This battle coincided with the Austrian War of succession in Europe.

3. Sir Eyre Coote was the Commander-in- Chief of the British troops in this battle.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 2 only

(b) 1 and 2 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3 only

7. Consider the following statements with respect to the Treaty of Salbai 1782.

1. The treaty provided the British twenty years of peace with the Marathas.

2. British promised to support Marathas in case Marathas attacked Hyder Ali of Mysore and retook the territories of Carnatic.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

8. Who among the following Governor Generals is considered as the maker of Modern India?

(a) Lord William Bentinck

(b) Lord Warren Hastings

(c) Lord Dalhousie

(d) Lord Cornwallis

9. Consider the following statements with regards to Warren Hastings

1. He brought the dual Government of Bengal to an end.

2. He codified the Hindu and Muslim laws.

3. He introduced Permanent Settlement in Bengal.

4. He laid the foundation for Asiatic society of Bengal in 1784

Which of the statements given above are correct?

(a) 1, 3 and 4 only

(b) 1 and 2 only

(c) 1, 2 and 4 only

(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

10. Which of the following lakes in Africa is/are transboundary Lakes?

(a) Lake Victoria

(b) Lake Tanganyika

(c) Lake Malawi

(d) All the above

11. With reference to Permanent settlement land reforms in the colonial period, consider the following statements

1. Under permanent settlement, the zamindars were free to fix the rent and the ryots (cultivators) were considered as tenants/ tillers of the soil.

2. Under Permanent settlement, zamindars lost their administrative and judicial functions which were performed by the Company now.

3. Since zamindars were assured of their ownership of lands, many of them stayed in towns and entrusted rent collection to agents who extracted additional illegal taxes besides the legal ones from the tenets.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

(A) 1 and 2 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

12. Which of the following were the reasons for the failure of the 1857 revolt?

1. The rebels lacked in sophisticated arms and ammunition unlike the British army.

2. The 1857 Revolt remained concentrated in the Central India and some parts of north-Western India, and did not spread to South India and most of Eastern and Western India.

3. The rebel units did not have common plans of military action or centralised leadership.

Select the correct answer using the codes below

(A) 1 and 2 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

13. Consider the following statements with regards to Sayyid Ahmed Khan

1. Sayyid advised the Muslims to join active politics by concentrating on Political education.

2. He came out strongly against Indian National Congress and its objectives.

3. He started to work on a commentary on the Bible in which he stated that Islam and Christianity shared a common lineage from Abrahamic religions.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

(A) 1 and 2 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

14. The Modern Educated Indians did not support the 1857 revolt because

(a) They believed that the British rule would help India modernise.

(b) They were sympathetic to the British rulers

(c) They had faith in the feudal society introduced by the British.

(d) They thought the rebel soldiers were reactionary and backward in nature.

15. Consider the following statements with respect to the objective of education policy in British India

1. Development of education system during the British period was determined by the needs of the colonial powers.

2. The development of modern system of education in India is said to have begun with the Charter Act of 1833. Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

16. Consider the following statements with regards to Subsidiary Alliance

1. The concept of Subsidiary Alliance was first introduced by Lord Wellesley

2. Those Indian rulers who would accept the Subsidiary Alliance should agree not to fight with any other power without the permission of the British. Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

17. Consider the following statements about the Policy of Ring of fence or Buffer state

1. This policy was introduced by Lord Warren Hastings.

2. The buffer states were created mainly for the defence of the frontiers of the company

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

18. Consider the following statements with reference to Santhal uprising

1. Introduction of Ryotwari settlement in the tribal areas was the major reason for the Santhal uprising.

2. The Santhal uprising of 1855-57 was master minded by four brothers Sidhu, Kanhu, Chand and Bhairav.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

19. Which one of the following statements is correct regarding modern industries during British era?

(a) Most of the industrial factories were owned by Indians.

(b) Industrialization in India was spread across diverse sectors.

(c) Industrialization failed to alleviate poverty in India.

(d) Industrialization was evenly spread across the Indian Subcontinent

20. Consider the following statements regarding Suez Canal

1. It connects Mediterranean & Red Sea.

2. It is present in the Gulf of Aden. Which of the following statements is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

21. Which of the following Acts granted permission to the Christian Missionaries to propagate their religion in India?

(a) Pitts India Act, 1784

(b) Charter Act, 1813

(c) Charter Act, 1833

(d) Regulating Act, 1773

22. Which among the following best describes the term “Dikus”?

(a) Tax collectors in zamindari areas

(b) Law Enforcement officers appointed by the British in Sindh.

(c) Term used to refer to outsiders by Tribal people such as the British people and Moneylenders etc.

(d) A dance form emerged in Awadh area in late 18th century.

23. The “Wagheras” resented the impositions of foreign rule from the very beginning which resulted in uprising during 1819-20. Wagheras are situated in the state of

(a) Madhya Pradesh

(b) Bihar

(c) Gujarat

(d) Jharkhand

24. Consider the following statements with reference to Theosophical Society

1. The Theosophical Society was founded in New York (USA) in 1875 by Madam H.P. Blavatsky, a Russian lady, and Henry Steel Olcott, an American colonel.

2. Their main objective was to form a universal brotherhood of man without any distinction of race, colour or creed and to promote the study of modern scientific philosophies.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

25. Consider the following statements with reference to Diwani rights

1. Diwani Rights were the rights granted to British East India Company to collect revenues and decide civil cases.

2. It was granted to British immediately after the battle of Buxar.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer Key:

1.D ,2.C ,3.D ,4.B ,5.A ,6.C ,7.C ,8.C ,9.C ,10.D ,11.D ,12.D ,13.B ,14.A ,15.C ,16.C ,17.C ,18.B ,19.C ,20.A ,21.B ,22.C ,23.C ,24.A ,25.C

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Current Affairs

Tamil Nadu Declare a State Butterfly.

Context

Tamil Nadu Becomes Fifth Indian State to Declare a State Butterfly.

About

  • Tamil Nadu has recently declared Tamil Yeoman (Cirrochroa thais) as its state butterfly to symbolize its rich natural and cultural heritage, in a move aimed at boosting the conservation efforts of the attractive insects.
  • Locally known as Tamil Maravan meaning ‘Tamilian Warrior’, the canopy butterfly, belongs to the family of brush-footed butterflies or the Nymphalid.
  • This is the latest addition to Tamil Nadu’s existing symbols from the natural world – palmyra as the state tree, gloriosa lily as the state flower, emerald dove as the state bird, and jackfruit as the state fruit and Nilgiri tahr as the state animal.
  • This butterfly species is endemic to Western Ghats.
  • Once the species is declared as a state butterfly, this will help channelizing government funds towards a particular environmental cause.

More in News

Tamil Nadu has a total of 32 species of butterflies endemic to the state.

It has become the fifth India state after Maharashtra (Blue Mormon), Uttarakhand (Common peacock), Karnataka (Southern birdwings) and Kerala (Malabar banded peacock) to bestow a state emblem status to one of its colorful insects.

Both southern bird wings, which is the largest butterfly species found in India, and Malabar banded peacocks are, like the Tamil Yeoman, endemic to the Western Ghats as well.

Why butterfly conservation?

Butterflies are great bio-indicators of an ecosystem as they are highly sensitive to environmental conditions such as temperature, sunlight, humidity and rainfall patterns.

Their presence, patterns and migration assist in mapping the climatic health of a region and are they are perhaps the most studied insect group across the world.

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BOGIBEEL RAIL-ROAD BRIDGE

Context

PM Modi inaugurated the 4.94-km-long Bogibeel Bridge in Assam, India’s longest rail-cum-road bridge, on Bramhaputra River.

About

  • The bridge is Asia’s second longest rail-cum-road bridge.
  • It is constructed at an estimated cost of Rs 5,900 crore.
  • It has a ‘serviceable period of around 120 years.’
  • The bridge will reduce travel time from Assam to Arunachal Pradesh to four hours. It will also reduce the Delhi to Dibrugarh train-travel time by about three hours to 34 hours as against 37 hours presently.
  • It is the fourth rail-road bridge being built on the Brahmaputra; others are Pandu Saraighat, Kolia Bjumuraguri and Narayan Setu.
  • It is the fourth largest bridge in the country and also the largest structure built on the river Brahmaputra.
  • The bridge is among the infrastructure projects planned by India to improve logistics along the border in Arunachal Pradesh.
  • The bridge will boost economic activity as well as tourism in the region.
  • This is very strategic from the defence point of view, and the Army has been demanding it for years. The bridge classification is on the higher side for movement of heavy military equipment. It will drastically cut time for induction of troops and logistics during a war-like situation.
  • On downside, the Inland Water Transport (IWT) Department of Assam fears that the Bogibeel Bridge will impact ferry services to a large extent.

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NITI Aayog releases Report on the Composite Water Management Index 2.0

To supplement the efforts of Jal Shakti Ministry, NITI Aayog has prepared the second Round of Composite Water Management Index (CWMI 2.0).The Report was launched today by Shri Gajendra Singh Shekhawat, Minister of Jal Shakti, and Dr. Rajiv Kumar, Vice Chairman, NITI Aayog. 

Shri Ramesh Chand, Member, NITI Aayog, Shri Amitabh Kant, CEO, NITI Aayog, Shri Parameswaran Iyer, Secretary, Jal Shakti Ministry; Shri U.P. Singh, Secretary, Jal Shakti Ministry; Dr. Amarjeet Sinha, Secretary Ministry of Rural Development; Shri Yaduvendra Mathur, Special Secretary, NITI Aayog, Shri Avinash Mishra, Adviser, Water and Land Resources, NITI Aayog and senior officials of Ministry Jal Shakti, Rural Development and NITI Aayog were also present at the launch event.

Scientific management of water is increasingly recognized as being vital to India’s growth and ecosystem sustainability. Government is being proactive about water management and has created the Ministry of Jal Shakti to consolidate interrelated functions pertaining to water management. The newly formed Jal Shakti Ministry under the guidance of Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi has strived to over bridge the water challenges by launching the Jal Shakti Abhiyan – a campaign for water conservation and water security.

NITI Aayog first launched and conceptualized the Composite Water Management Index in 2018 as a tool to instill the sense ofcooperative and competitive federalism among the states. This was a first ever attempt at creating a pan-India set of metrics that measured different dimensions of water management and use across the lifecycle of water. The report was widely acknowledged and provided actionable guidance to States on where they were doing well absolutely and relatively and what they needed to focus on to secure their water future.

The CWMI is an important tool to assess and improve the performance of States/ Union Territories in efficient management of water resources.  This has been done through a first of its kind water data collection exercise in partnership with Ministry of Jal Shakti, Ministry of Rural Development andall the States/ Union Territories.The index would provide useful information for the States and also for the concerned Central Ministries/Departments enabling them to formulate and implement suitable strategies for better management of water resources. 

CWMI 2.0 ranks various states for the reference year 2017-18 as against the base year 2016-17.In the report released today, Gujarat hold on to its rank one in the reference year (2017-18), followed byAndhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Goa, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.  In North Eastern and Himalayan States, Himachal Pradesh has been adjudged number 1 in 2017-18 followed by Uttarakhand, Tripura and Assam. The Union Territories have first time submitted their data and Puducherry has been declared as the top ranker. In terms of incremental change in index (over 2016-17 level), Haryana holds number one position in general States and Uttarakhand ranks at first position amongst North Eastern and Himalayan States.On an average, 80% of the states assessed on the Index over the last three years have improved their water management scores, with an average improvement of +5.2 points.

The overall ranking for reference year 2017-18and change in the rankings from the base year 2016-17 of different States in the Report is given in Charts-1 and Chart 2.

Chart-1: Ranking of Different States  in CWMI 2.0 2019

Chart-2: Incremental Ranking of Different States  in CWMI 2.0

Source

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IAS Prelims 2019: Art and Culture Revision Notes

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ART & CULTURE

Indian Art and culture for UPSC Civil Services Preliminary -2019

Indian Art can be classified under three headings:-

  1. Performing Arts
  2. Visual Arts
  3. Literary Arts
  4. Performing Arts

Performing arts include the various dance forms, music, Indian theatre and puppetry.

Dance forms are further divided into: Classical Dances & Regional (folk) Dances

Classical dance forms of India:-

  1. Bharatanatyam (Tamil Nadu)
  2. Mohiniyattam (Kerala)
  3. Kathakali (Kerala)
  4. Kathak (North and West of India)
  5. Odissi (Odisha)
  6. Manipuri (Manipur)
  7. Kuchipudi (Andhra Pradesh)
  8. Sattriya (Assam)

Regional dance forms of India: There are many folk dance forms in India from different parts. You must learn about the major ones like Chhau, Bihu dance, Garba, Dhamal dance, Dumhal, Chakyar Koothu, Lavani, Bhangra, etc.

Coming to the next topic, i.e., music of India; this can be divided into three styles:-

  1. Carnatic music
  2. Hindustani music
  3. Regional music (folk)

Carnatic and Hindustani are two classical music styles in India. There are some differences and some similarities between these two styles.

Difference between Hindustani and Carnatic music

You must also read about musical instruments in India. There are four basic kinds of instruments. They are:-

  1. Tata Vadya (Chordophones) – stringed instruments like Sitar, Veena, Santoor, etc.
  2. Sushira Vadya (Aerophones) – wind instruments like flute, Shehnai, Nadaswaram, etc.
  3. Avanaddha Vadya (Membranophones) – percussion instruments like Mridangam, Tabla, Dholak, etc.
  4. Ghana Vadya (Idiophones) – solid instruments that don’t require tuning (mostly used as accompaniments for tribal and folk music and dance).

Theatre and puppetry are also important aspects of performing arts in India.

Theatre forms in India – traditional and modern

Puppetry – string puppets, rod puppets, shadow puppets and glove puppets.

Visual Arts

Visual arts can be divided into three:-Architecture, sculpture and painting.

Indian architecture can be studied under the following:

  1. Pre-historic architecture
  2. Indus valley civilization
  3. Temple architecture
  4. Buddhist architecture
  5. Indo-Islamic architecture
  6. Modern architecture

Indian sculpture can be read under the following:

  1. Pre-historic
  2. Indus valley civilization
  3. Buddhist sculpture
  4. Gupta sculpture
  5. Medieval sculpture
  6. Modern India sculpture

Indian painting can be studied under the following:

  1. Miniature paintings
  2. Wall paintings of India
  3. Modern Indian painting
  4. Literary Arts

Literary arts can be studied under:

  1. Vedic literature
  2. Puranas
  3. Classical Sanskrit literature
  4. Early Dravidian literature
  5. Pali and Prakrit literature
  6. Medieval literature
  7. Trends in medieval literature
  8. Women poets in Bhakti literature
  9. Modern Indian literature
  10. Emergence of nationalism
  11. Literature of nationalism, reformism and revivalism
  12. Indian romanticism
  13. Emergence of Gandhi
  14. Progressive literature
  15. Literary scene after independence
  16. Dalit literature
  17. Use of mythology
  18. Contemporary literature

Under Indian culture, you should study religion and Indian philosophy. Apart from that, you should also include while reading history for IAS exam, the ‘culture’ of a particular time period, like the position of women, royal patronages for the arts, etc.