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The Kingdom of Mewar: History of Rajasthan

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 The Kingdom of Mewar

The kingdom of Mewar includes present day districts of Chittorgarh, Rajsamand, Udaipur, Dungarpur, and Banswara. The region was originally called Medhpaat and Lord Shiva (Ekling Nath) is called Medhpateshwar (Lord of Medhpaat). Over time, the Name Medhpaat became Mewar.

The creators of Mewar’s ruling dynasty in Rajputana came originally from the Guhilot clan. Foundation Stories claim this clan originated in Kashmir and migrated to Gujarat in the sixth century. In the Seventh century they migrated again, to the plains of Mewar, in the area around Magda, which was named after one of the earliest clan leaders.

The Guhilot had established themselves in Mewar as early as the last quarter of the sixth century A.D. Chittor, the early seat of Guhilas, held a strategic position. Since its boundaries touched the Sultanate’s possession of Sapadalaksha, Sultanas could hardly tolerate a powerful kingdom unmolested. The contemporary of Sultan Iltutmish at the seat of Mewar was Guhila Jaitya Simha. His dates range from 1213 to 1250, he is reported to have fought both with Sultan Iltutmish and Nasiruddin Mahmud. According to Sanskrit play Hammira-mada-mardana, Mlechchha warriors on their way to Gujarat (against King Viradhavala) entered Nagda and devastated Mewar region. The Muslim writers are silent about this campaign. It is possibly due to the failure of the campaign and the defeat of the Sultan at the hands of a petty chief as indicated in the epigraph. Chirwa and Mt Abu inscriptions boastfully record the curbing of the pride of the Turushkas. The uninterrupted hold pf Mewar under its chiefs Jaitra Simha, Teja Simha and Samar Singh nullified an unsuccessful attack on Chittor by Sultan Ghiasuddin Balban. The Mt. Abu inscription of V.S. 1342 credits the last mentioned Guhila Chief with a victory over the Turushkas. This obviously refers to an armed expedition of the Muslims against Gujarat in which Samar Singh Guhila probably helped the Gujarat Chief Sarangadeva and saved the Gujarat territory from a complete devastation. Although the Persian sources are silent about the event, the testimony of the inscriptions leave little doubt about the event, the testimony of the inscriptions leave little doubt about a Guhila – Musi im conflict or at least the claims of independence set forth by the Guhila chiefs. The real threat to Mewar, however, came during the Khalji period.

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