Pakistan and Nepal were recently re-elected to the UN Human Rights Council, China won a seat by the smallest margin while Saudi Arabia was defeated in the elections.
- UNHRC was reconstituted from its predecessor organisation, the UN Commission on Human Rights to help overcome the “credibility deficit” of the previous organisation.
- Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland
- The UNHRC has 47 members serving at any time with elections held to fill up seats every year, based on allocations to regions across the world to ensure geographical representation.
- Each elected member serves for a term of three years.
- Countries are disallowed from occupying a seat for more than two consecutive terms.
- The UNHRC passes non-binding resolutions on human rights issues through a periodic review of all 193 UN member states called the Universal Periodic Review (UPR).
- It oversees expert investigation of violations in specific countries (Special Procedures).
UN Human Rights Council
Challenges and Need for reforms:
- The human rights record of the member-states such as Saudi Arabia, China and Russia in the council has also not been in line with the aims and mission of the UNHRC, which has led to critics questioning its relevance.
- Despite the continued participation of several western countries in the UNHRC, they continue to harbour misgivings on the understanding of Human rights.
- Non-compliance has been a serious issue with respect to the UNHRC’s functioning.
- Non-participation of powerful nations such as the US
Current Membership of the Human Rights Council, 1 January – 31 December 2020 by year when term expires
|COUNTRY||TERM EXPIRES IN|
|Democratic Republic of the Congo||2020|
|Republic of Korea||2022|
|Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)||2022|
Other useful links:
|UPSC Prelims||UPSC Mains|
|RPSC RAS Prelims||RPSC RAS Mains|
|Google’s Best Selling Books||Our Best Selling Books|
|The Hindu||The Indian Express|