UPSC Civil Services Prelims Exam 2020 Expected MCQ Part-28

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UPSC Prelims Exam 2020 Expected MCQs

1. Consider the following statements:

  1. The main objective of the ‘One Nation One Ration Card (RC)’ Scheme is to introduce nation-wide portability of ration card holders under National Food Security Act, 2013 (NFSA).
  2. Each Antyodaya (AAY) household is entitled to 5 kilograms of food grain per member per month

Which of the given above statements is/are correct?

 (a) 1 Only

 (b) 2 Only

 (c) Both 1 and 2

 (d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans: (a)

Explanation:

One Nation One Ration Card (RC) will ensure all beneficiaries especially migrants can access PDS across the nation from any PDS shop of their own choice.

Benefits: no poor person is deprived of getting subsidised foodgrains under the food security scheme when they shift from one place to another. It also aims to remove the chance of anyone holding more than one ration card to avail benefits from different states.

Significance: This will provide freedom to the beneficiaries as they will not be tied to any one PDS shop and reduce their dependence on shop owners and curtail instances of corruption.

Ration cards are an official document issued by state governments in India to households that are eligible to purchase subsidized food grain from the Public Distribution System (under the National Food Security Act). They also serve as a common form of identification for many Indians.

Under the National Food Security Act, all state governments in India have to identify households that are eligible for purchasing subsidized food grain from the Public Distribution System and provide them with ration cards. There are two types of ration cards under NFSA:

Priority ration card – priority ration cards are issued to households that meet the eligibility criteria set by their state government. Each priority household is entitled to 5 kilograms of food grain per member per month.

Antyodaya (AAY) ration cards are issued to “poorest of poor” households. Each AAY household is entitled to 35 kilograms of food grain per month.

2. Consider the following statements about ‘Acute Encephalitis Syndrome’:

  1. It is a neurological disorder which affects the brain and the limbic system when a specific strain of virus or bacteria attacks the body.
  2. It predominantly affects population below 15 years.
  3. AES spreads through contaminated surfaces.

Which of the given above statements is/are correct?

 (a) 1 and 2

 (b) 2 and 3

 (c) 1 and 3

 (d) All of the above

Ans: (d)

Explanation:

Stat1: Recognised as AES, it is a neurological disorder which affects the brain and the limbic system when a specific strain of virus or bacteria attacks the body. In the recent case, the virus found in the lychee fruit entered the body and attacked the immune system as well as the brain. Since the disease majorly inflames the vessels in the brain, it is also known as brain fever.

Stat2: It predominantly affects population below 15 years. There is seasonal and geographical variation in the causative organism.

Stat3: Just like other viral strains, AES spreads through contaminated surfaces. “Viruses such as Enteroviruses may be contracted through contaminated water, once infected the patient can infect more individuals through their secretions and saliva. In Bihar, it has been reported that the victims might have ingested toxins from the affected lychee fruit.”

3. Consider the following statements:

  1. India’s gross expenditure in R&D has tripled between 2008 and 2018.
  2. According to WIPO, India’s Patent Office stands at the 7th position among the top 10 Patent Filing Offices in the world.

Which of the given above statements is/are correct?

 (a) 1 Only

 (b) 2 Only

 (c) Both 1 and 2

 (d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans: (c)

Explanation: R&D Statistics and Indicators 2019-20 is based on the national S&T survey 2018 brought out by the National Science and Technology Management Information (NSTMIS), Department of Science and Technology (DST).

Key findings:

India’s gross expenditure in R&D has tripled between 2008 & 2018 driven mainly by Govt sector and scientific publications have risen placing the country internationally among the top few.

With the rise in publication, the country is globally at the 3rd position on this score as per the NSF database, 3rd in the number of Ph.D. in science & engineering.

Women participation in extramural R&D projects has increased significantly to 24% in 2016-17 from 13% in 2000-01 due to various initiatives undertaken by the Government in S&T sector.

India’s per capita R&D expenditure has increased to PPP $ 47.2 in 2017-18 from PPP $ 29.2 in 2007-08.

India spent 0.7% of its GDP on R&D in 2017-18, while the same among other developing BRICS countries was Brazil 1.3%, Russian Federation 1.1%, China 2.1% and South Africa 0.8%.

According to WIPO, India’s Patent Office stands at the 7th position among the top 10 Patent Filing Offices in the world. UPSC Prelims 2020 MCQs

4. ‘e-RMB’, sometimes mentioned in the news, is related to:

 (a) Core Banking Solution of People’s Bank of China

 (b) New COVID19 rapid test

 (c) The digital currency

 (d) An electronic currency trading portal

Ans: (c)

Explanation:

The digital currency – known as the e-RMB – “will not be issued in large amounts” for public use in the short term, and the digital currency in circulation would “not lead to an inflation surge”.

Initially it will be tested in three major cities of Shenzhen, Suzhou and Chengdu.

People’s Bank of China (PBOC), the country’s central bank, will be the sole issuer of the digital Yuan, initially offering the digital money to commercial banks and other operators.

Public would be able to convert money in their bank accounts to the digital version and make deposits via electronic wallets.

5. Global Energy Review 2020 has been released by:

 (a) International Renewable Energy Association (IRENA)

 (b) World Economic Forum (WEF)

 (c) International Energy Agency (IEA)

 (d) International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

Ans: (c)

Explanation:

International Energy Agency (IEA) has released its Global Energy Review 2020 report.

Key findings:

Global energy demand is projected to fall six per cent in 2020.

This will be steepest decline in percentage terms in 70 years and the largest ever in absolute terms.

All fuels except renewables are set to experience their greatest contractions in demand for decades.

The projected 6% decline would be more than seven times the impact of the 2008 financial crisis on global energy demand, reversing the growth of global energy demand over the last five years.

According to the report advanced economies will experience the greatest declines in energy demand in 2020.

In India, energy demand would decline for the first time, following on from low demand growth in 2019.

Global oil demand in 2020 is projected to drop by 9 per cent or 9 million barrels per day on an average across the year, returning oil consumption to 2012 levels.

Global coal demand is projected decline by 8 per cent, in large part because electricity demand will be nearly 5 per cent lower over the course of the year.

Global Electricity Demand has been declined by 20% during periods of full lockdown in several countries. However, the residential demand is outweighed by reductions in commercial and industrial operations.

6. Consider the following statements about International Energy Agency:

  1. It is a Geneva-based autonomous intergovernmental organization established in the framework of the OECD in 1974 in the wake of the 1973 oil crisis.
  2. The IEA acts as a policy adviser to its member states, but also works with non-member countries, especially China, India, and Russia.

Which of the given above statements is/are correct?

 (a) 1 Only

 (b) 2 Only

 (c) Both 1 and 2

 (d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans: (b)

Explanation:

Established in 1974 as per framework of the OECD, IEA is an autonomous intergovernmental organisation.

MISSION – To ensure reliable, affordable and clean energy for its member countries and beyond

Its mission is guided by four main areas of focus: energy security, economic development, environmental awareness and engagement worldwide

Headquarters (Secretariat): Paris, France.

Roles and functions:

Established in the wake of the 1973-1974 oil crises, to help its members respond to major oil supply disruptions, a role it continues to fulfill today.

IEA’s mandate has expanded over time to include tracking and analyzing global key energy trends, promoting sound energy policy, and fostering multinational energy technology cooperation.

Composition and eligibility:

It has 30 members at present. IEA family also includes eight association countries.

A candidate country must be a member country of the OECD. But all OECD members are not IEA members.

To become member a candidate country must demonstrate that it has:

Crude oil and/or product reserves equivalent to 90 days of the previous year’s net imports, to which the government has immediate access (even if it does not own them directly) and could be used to address disruptions to global oil supply

A demand restraint programme to reduce national oil consumption by up to 10%.

Legislation and organisation to operate the Co-ordinated Emergency Response Measures (CERM) on a national basis

Legislation and measures to ensure that all oil companies under its jurisdiction report information upon request.

Measures in place to ensure the capability of contributing its share of an IEA collective action

7. Which of the following products has/have ‘Geographical Indication’ status?

  1. Kashmir Saffron
  2. Kaji Nemu
  3. Khola Chilli
  4. Gulbarga Tur Dal

Select the correct answer using the code below:

 (a) 1, 2 and 4

 (b) 1, 2 and 3

 (c) 1 and 3

 (d) All of the above

Ans: (d)

Explanation: list of geographical indications tagged products is given below:

Gulbarga Tur Dal-Karnataka

Kaji Nemu – Assam

Khola Chilli – Goa

The Saffron cultivated in the Kashmir valley has received Geographical Indication Tag.

8. What is Thikri pehra?

 (a) It is the term used primarily by various castes who traditionally pursued agriculture as a profession in the Indian states of Haryana.

 (b) It is community policing practiced in Punjab and Haryana.

 (c) It is a wheel used in irrigation in medieval India.

 (d) None of the above

Ans: (b)

Explanation:

It is community policing practiced in Punjab and Haryana.

The tradition made a comeback after more than two decades — communities guarded their villages in the aftermath of terrorist movement and when the infamous Kala Kachcha gang gave local’s sleepless night’s years ago. UPSC Prelims 2020 MCQs

9. Consider the following statements:

  1. It is known as the festival of festivals, it has a tradition of more than 200 years.
  2. This spectacular event was started by Sakthan Thampuran, the erstwhile ruler of Kochi.
  3. Held on the Moolam asterism in the Malayalam month of Medam (April-May).

The above given statements describes which one of the following festival?

 (a) Onam

 (b) Pookalam

 (c) Vallamkali

 (d) Thrissur Pooram

Incorrect

Ans: (d)

Explanation:

Known as the festival of festivals, Thrissur Pooram has a tradition of more than 200 years.

This spectacular event was started by Sakthan Thampuran, the erstwhile ruler of Kochi.

Held on the Moolam asterism in the Malayalam month of Medam (April-May), festival related events take place at the Vadakkunnathan temple situated in the heart of Thrissur town and the adjoining Thekkinkadu ground.

The Pooram festival mainly happens between two groups representing the geographic divisions of Paramekkavu and Thiruvambadi. They will compete in their respective presentations of richly caparisoned elephants, traditional orchestra called panchavadyam, the swift and rhythmic changing of brightly coloured and sequined parasols called kudamattom and the dazzling fireworks in the early morning hours are the festival highlights.

Why in News?

For the first time since its inception, Thrissur Pooram will be observed with rituals within the temple premises with just a few participants. This was done in the wake of the lockdown to prevent the spread of Covid-19. UPSC Prelims 2020 MCQs

10. Recently, excavations at Keezhadi have been in news in reference to:

 (a) The DNA analysis of some skeletal remains found at this site, have questioned the Aryan invasion theory

 (b) A largest necropolis of the late Harappan period found at this site, is located on the left bank of the river Yamuna

 (c) It reveals the urbanisation of Vaigai plains happened earlier than thought – around the 6th century BC.

 (d) Discovery of Neolithic Age Siva Linga.

Ans: (c)

Explanation:

Carbon samples collected from Keezhadi, the Sangam-era site, have been found to belong to 580 BC, according to accelerator mass spectrometry dating results.

This suggests that the urbanisation of Vaigai plains happened earlier than thought – around the 6th century BC.

Key findings and revelations:

Tamil Brahmi script originated in the 6th century BC, People were either literate or at least knew the art of writing as early as the 6th century BC.

Literate society: Tamil Brahmi letters found were inscribed when the pot was wet or after the pot became dry. This clearly suggests literacy levels in the 6th century BC.

Agrarian society that reared cattle: Skeletal fragments of cow/ox, buffalo, sheep, goat, nilgai, blackbuck, wild boar and peacock were found.

Good quality materials used for building: The brick and roof tiles contained more than 80% silica mixed with 7% lime while lime plaster possessed 97% of lime.

High standard of living: Long walls, Well-laid floors along with roof tiles in a collapsed state, iron nails fastened to the poles and rafters prove a high standard of living during the Sangam age. UPSC Prelims 2020 MCQs

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