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UPSC and State PSC Prelims Exam Environment Question Bank

Q.1) which of the following statements is/are correct regarding the GLOBE (Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment)?

1. Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) is the implementing agency in India.

2. NASA has the primary responsibility for administering the government-to-government agreements, and for the management of the GLOBE Implementation Office (GIO).

Select from the given codes:

a) Only 1

b) Only 2

c) Both 1 and 2

d) None

Solution (b)

Q.2) Consider the following statements

1. Gross primary productivity of an ecosystem is the rate of production of organic matter during photosynthesis.

2. Gross primary productivity minus respiration losses, is the net primary productivity.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) Only 1

b) Only 2

c) Both

d) None

Solution (c)

Q.3) Consider the following statements

1. Primary productivity is defined as the rate of formation of new organic matter by consumers.

2. Secondary productivity is defined as the amount of biomass or organic matter produced per unit area over a time period by plants during photosynthesis.

3. Primary productivity is same in different types of ecosystems.

4. Primary productivity of Oceans is less compared to that of the Land.

Which of the above statements are INCORRECT?

a) 1, 2 and 3

b) 1, 2 and 4

c) 1 and 2

d) All of the above

Solution (a)

Q.4) Consider the following statements

1. Detritivores (e.g., earthworm) break down detritus into smaller particles. This process is called fragmentation.

2. Bacterial and fungal enzymes degrade detritus into simpler inorganic substances. This process is called as catabolism.

3. The processes Fragmentation, Leaching and Catabolism (in the same order) operates one after the other on detritus.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) Only 1

b) Only 3

c) 1 and 2

d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution (c)

Q.5) which of the following statements is/are correct regarding humus

1. It is a dark coloured amorphous substance.

2. It is highly resistant to microbial action.

3. It is colloidal in nature.

4. The humus is further degraded by some microbes and release of inorganic nutrients occurs by the process known as Humification.

Which of the above statements are correct?

a) 2 and 4

b) 1, 2 and 3

c) 3 and 4

d) All of the above

Solution (b)

Q.6) Consider the following statements regarding Food Chain

1. In an aquatic ecosystem, Grazing Food Chain is the major conduit for energy flow.

2. In a terrestrial ecosystem, a much larger fraction of energy flows through the Detritus Food Chain than through the Grazing Food Chain.

Which of the statements above is/are INCORRECT?

a) Only 1

b) Only 2

c) Both 1 and 2

d) None

Solution (d)

Q.7) Consider the following statements regarding the Ecological Pyramids

1. Pyramid of energy is always upright

2. Pyramid of biomass in sea is generally upright.

3. Ecological pyramids do not take into account the same species belonging to two or more trophic levels.

4. Saprophytes are not given any place in ecological pyramids.

Which of the above statements are correct?

a) 1, 3 and 4

b) 2,3 and 4

c) 1 and 3

d) 1 and 4

Solution (a)

Q.8) which of the following statements are correct regarding Ecological Succession?

1. Succession is a process that starts where no living organisms are there.

2. Primary Succession is faster than Secondary Succession.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) Only 1

b) Only 2

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution (a)

Q.9) Consider the following statements regarding Carbon

1. Carbon constitutes 49 per cent of dry weight of organisms and is next only to water.

2. The amount of Carbon dissolved in Oceans is more than that is stored in the land biosphere.

Which of the above statement is/are true?

a) Only 1

b) Only 2

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution (c)

Q.10) Consider the following statements regarding the processes that occur in Nitrogen cycle

1. Decomposers chemically modify the nitrogen found in organic matter to ammonium ion

(NH4+). This process is known as micelle fixation.

2. The process of Nitrification involves the metabolic reduction of nitrate (NO3-) into

nitrogen (N2) or nitrous oxide (N2O) gas

Which of the above statements is/are INCORRECT?

a) Only 1

b) Only 2

c) Both

d) None

Solution (c)

Q.11) which of the following statements in general correctly explains ‘edge effect’

a) The number of species and the population density of some of the species is very low in the zone of transition.

b) The number of species and the population density of some of the species is greater in the zone of transition.

c) The species in the zone of transition are completely different from that of the surrounding habitats.

d) The species in the zone of transition are exactly the same from that exist in the surrounding habitats.

Solution (b)

Q.12) Consider the following statements regarding Ecological Niche

1. Organisms that occupy same or similar ecological niches in different geographical regions are called Ecophene.

2. Species with broad ecological niches tend to be specialists.

Which of the above statements is/ are correct?

a) Only 1

b) Only 2

c) Both

d) None

Solution (d)

Q.13) Consider the following:

Seral Community Explanation

1. Lithosere Community on rock

2. Xerosere Community in dry area

3. Psammosere Community in saline body

4. Hydrosere Community in water

Which of the following are correctly matched?

a) 1, 2 and 3

b) 1, 2 and 4

c) 2 and 4

d) All of the above

Solution (b)

Depending on the substratum and climate, a seral community can be one of the following

Seral Community Explanation

1. Lithosere Community on rock

2. Xerosere Community in dry area

3. Psammosere Community on sand

4. Hydrosere Community in water

5. Halo sere Community in saline body

Q.14) Consider the following statements regarding the processes of ecological succession

1. Ecesis is the increase in population of the species which has become established in the area.

2. Nudation is the initial establishment of plant community.

Which of the above statements is/are INCORRECT?

a) Only 1

b) Only 2

c) Both

d) None of the above

Solution (c)

Q.15) Consider the following statements regarding Sikkim

1. It is the first organic state in India.

2. Sikkim was awarded Future Policy Gold Award 2018 for its achievement in becoming the world’s first totally organic agriculture state.

3. The award is given by UN Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO).

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1 and 2

b) Only 1

c) Only 2

d) All of the above

Solution (d)

Q.16) Consider the following statements

1. Bio-accumulation occurs across different trophic levels in a food chain.

2. Bio-magnification occurs when an organism absorbs a toxic substance from all sources at a rate greater than that at which the substance is lost.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) Only 1

b) Only 2

c) Both

d) None of the above

Solution (d)

Q.17) Consider the following statements about Organic World Congress (OWC)

1. The International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM – Organics International) organizes it.

2. It is an annually organized congress.

3. OWC-2020 is to be conducted in India.

Which of the above statements is/are INCORRECT?

a) 1 and 2

b) Only 1

c) Only 2

d) 2 and 3

Solution (d)

Q.18) Consider the below statements and select the correct statement from the codes given below:

1. The succession brought about by external conditions and not by the existing organisms

is known as allogenic succession.

2. The succession that begins in a predominantly inorganic environment where there is dominance of autotrophic organisms is called Autogenic Succession.

Choose the correct answer:

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution (a)

Q.19) Consider the following pair of biotic interactions.

Type of interaction Result

1. Neutralism No net benefit or harm to either species

2. Amensalism One species benefits, one is not affected

3. Parasitism One species benefits, one is harmed

Which of the above pairs is/are correct?

a) 1 and 3

b) 2 and 3

c) Only 1

d) All of the above

Solution (a)

Q.20) which of the following statements best describes ‘Ecotype’?

a) It is a type of marine ecosystem that provides an alternative to a species of terrestrial for growth and survival.

b) It is a transition area between two biomes where communities interact.

c) It is a genetically distinct variety within a species, which is adapted to specific environmental conditions.

d) It is a type of ecosystem in which inherent balance is maintained between autotrophs and Heterotrophs.

Solution (c)

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