UPSC Mains Science and Technology Practice Questions


Q1. Despite the importance of Vitamins in human metabolism, they are not synthesized in the human body but are obtained from external sources. Discuss the role of various vitamins in human metabolism.

Q2. Experiments of Miller and Urey demonstrated the origin of life on earth in a similar condition that prevailed on the primordial atmosphere of the earth. Write a short note on the evolution of life on earth with special emphasis on the experiment of Miller and Urey. (NCERT Class 12- Biology)

Q3. The concept of “Survival of the fittest” as proposed by Charles Darwin has been contradicted by the concept of “Survival of the Coexistence”, which seems to be more appropriate in the present context of human existence. Discuss the above statement in the context of conflict that persists between humans and wildlife. (Source- NCERT)

Q4. Like humans, activities and actions in plants are also controlled by certain plant hormones. Write a short note on plant hormones. (NCERT)

Q5. During sickness sometimes we take drugs to cure the disease, other times they are cured by the body itself. All of this curing happens because of the immunity that our body has and the immunity that drugs provide. Discuss the types of immunities and the methods by which pathogens cause diseases. (NCERT)

Q6. AIDS is a disease that happens because of HIV and deteriorates the immune system. Also, according to an estimate, 2.40 million people in India are HIV positive. Discuss measures for the prevention and cure of AIDS with reference to steps taken by the Government of India.

Q7. Some bacteria cause diseases while others benefit us in various ways. Write a short note on beneficial bacteria.

Q8. The National Health Policy, 2017 seeks to reach everyone in a comprehensive integrated way to move towards wellness. What are the objectives and features of the National Health Policy, 2017?

Q9. Several sportspersons are banned every year from playing because they are found positive in Doping tests. What is Doping? What are the prohibited classes of drugs that are used in Doping?

Q10. It is estimated that if left untreated, every patient of active Tuberculosis will infect 10-15 persons every year. Discuss how poorly managed TB programmes are threatening to make TB incurable?

Q11. Chemicals in food by the means of fertilizers or due to adulteration pose a greater risk to human health. Discuss the risks due to chemicals in food.

Q12. Unregulated use of antibiotics has originated the problem of ‘Superbug’. What is a superbug? What are the consequences arising out of the development of ‘Superbugs’?

Q13. With the success of Mission Shakti, India has become the fourth nation to possess the anti-satellite weapon. Critically analyze the impact of Indian influence on a global scale due to the possession of A-Sat technology.

Q14. Discuss how the Indian Regional Navigational Satellite System (IRNSS) can play an important role in the security of the nation by preventing data-piracy?

Q15. Recently, India launched its first Hyper-spectral Imaging Satellite (HySIS). Describe its utility in various spheres.

Q16.The success of  India’s second moon mission ‘Chandrayaan-2’ has made India stand tall in the league of the nations who lead space exploration. Elucidate the importance of such missions in the context of growing competition in space research.

Q17. Space X, a private pioneer company of space technology has successfully tested its partially Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV), Falcon Heavy. ISRO is also working on similar technology to develop indigenous RLV. Point out the benefits of RLV in space missions.

Q18. What is the difference between ramjet and scramjet engines? Why the focus is on developing an efficient scramjet engine?

Q19. Write a short note on the development of satellite launch vehicles in India.

Q20. Apart from satellite placement, the role of deep space explorations is debatable. Highlight the importance of deep space research with special emphasis on depleting resources on the earth.

Q21. What are gravitational waves? How gravitational waves are useful in studying the mysteries of the universe?

Q22. Satellites are placed in different orbits depending upon their utility. What are these orbits? Explain.

Q23. What is a Lagrange point? What is the use of Lagrangian points in satellite and deep space launches?

Q24. How  NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope has an edge over Hubble Telescope? Discuss.

Q25. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)are seen to be very important for strategic security measures and reconnaissance. Write a short note on Indian UAV development programmes.

Q26. The development of the Hydrogen bomb, which is based on nuclear fusion, is supposed to more destructive than its counterpart atomic bombs and thus faces widespread criticism world-wide. What could be the uses of nuclear fusion technology that can benefit humankind?

Q27. Write a short note on major multilateral non-proliferation export control regimes.

Q28. India is a non-signatory of the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and thus the entry of India into the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) is opposed by other countries especially China. What are the benefits that India could reap from its entry into the NSG club?

Q29. Chemical weapons like nerve agents are lethal means of destruction that can harm human life on a wide scale. Write a short note describing the various classes of chemical weapons.

Q30. India’s more than 70% energy requirements are fulfilled from fossil fuels while the share of nuclear energy in total electricity production is a mere 3%. To what extent do you think the installation of nuclear power plants is justified while rest of the developed countries like France, Japan, and the USA are decreasing the share of nuclear energy by closing the existing nuclear plants? Discuss.

Q31. Hydrocarbon Exploration and Licensing Policy (HELP) has replaced the existing New Exploration Licensing Policy and governs the award of hydrocarbon acreages towards exploration and production. What are the objectives and salient features of HELP?

Q32. As we know, the sources of petroleum are depleting at a rapid pace while the demand for energy sources is increasing. In such a scenario, we would require to have alternative sources of energy. What are those alternative sources of energy that can reduce our dependence on petroleum?

Q33. According to studies, methanol can prove to be a cheaper and cleaner alternative to petroleum. Comment on the methanol economy in India.

Q34. What are the unconventional gas sources that can reduce dependence on conventional gases like LPG and CNG? Discuss.

Q35. What are bio-fuels? Write a short note on various generations of biofuels.

Q36. India has pledged to cut its carbon footprints by 33-35% from its 2005 level by 2030 as a part of Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) to the Paris Agreement. Bio-fuels can be an excellent means to achieve this target. But the promotion and use of bio-fuels have their own challenges and limitations. Discuss the challenges and limitations in the use and promotion of biofuels.

Q37. The world’s first thermal battery plant was inaugurated in Amravati, Andhra Pradesh last year. What is the significance of thermal batteries?

Q38. Electric hybrid vehicles are the future of mobility. Critically analyze the steps taken by the Indian government in making electric hybrid vehicles a means of mass transportation.

Q39. What is green diesel? What are the benefits of using green diesel?

Q40. The use of Artificial Intelligence and Robotics in the production process can create ample jobs and but will increase inequality. Critically analyze.

Q41. The use of Crisper CAS 9 is deemed revolutionary in the field of genetic engineering. How Crisper CAS 9 works in genetic engineering? What are the concerns related to the use of Crisper?

Q42. What is Ht Cotton? How is it more beneficial than Bt Cotton?

Q43. What is digital protectionism? Does India need to protect its data? If yes, then what are the steps that the Government of India should take towards protecting its data?

Q44. E-waste is a global concern. Discuss the steps taken globally to check the problem of e-waste.

Q45. What is cyberbullying? Discuss the laws in India to deal with cyberbullying.

Q46. What is Light Fidelity? What are the advantages of using visible light rather than the radio part of electromagnetic waves as used in Wireless Fidelity?

Q47. The term ‘Internet of Things (IoT)’ is often seen in the news. What do you understand by the ‘Internet of Things (IoT)’? How IoT is making public life easier?

Q48. What is ‘Blockchain’ technology? How the use of ‘Blockchain’ technology can revolutionize the banking sector?

Q49. What is Bio-piracy? What are the threats posed by Bio-piracy? Discuss the global measures to curb Bio-piracy.

Q50. The term ‘Fourth Industrial Revolution’ is often seen in the news. What do you understand by the ‘Fourth Industrial Revolution’? What are the opportunities and challenges that lie ahead of India with respect to the imminent ‘Fourth Industrial Revolution’?

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