Wildlife and its Conservation
Wildlife traditionally refers to undomesticated animal species but has come to include all organisms that grow or live wild in an area without being introduced by humans. Wildlife can be found in all ecosystems.
Sanctuary is an area which is of adequate ecological, faunal, floral, geomorphological, natural or zoological significance. The Sanctuary is declared for the purpose of protecting, propagating or developing wildlife or its environment. Certain rights of people living inside the Sanctuary could be permitted. Further, during the settlement of claims before finally notifying the Sanctuary, the Collector may in consultation with the Chief Wildlife Warden and allow the continuation of any right of any person in or over any land within the limits of the Sanctuary.
A sanctuary is a protected area which is reserved for the conservation of only animal and human activities like harvesting of timber, collecting minor forest products and private ownership rights are allowed as long as they do not interfere with well-being of animals. Boundaries of sanctuaries are not well defined and controlled biotic interference is permitted.
Definition of Wildlife Sanctuary: Wildlife Sanctuary as the name suggests, is the place that is reserved exclusively for the use of wildlife, which includes animals, reptiles, insects, birds etc. Otherwise called as wildlife refuges it provides habitat and safe & healthy living conditions to the wild animals especially to the endangered and rare ones so that they can live peacefully for their entire life and maintain their viable population.
For proper management of the sanctuary the rangers or guards are appointed to patrol the region. They ensure the safety of animals from poaching, predating or harassing.
- International Union of Conservation of Nature, shortly called as IUCN has grouped wildlife sanctuaries in Category IV of protected areas.
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is a membership Union uniquely composed of both government and civil society organisations. It provides public, private and non-governmental organisations with the knowledge and tools that enable human progress, economic development and nature conservation to take place together.
Created in 1948, IUCN has evolved into the world’s largest and most diverse environmental network.
Definition of National Park: National Park implies an area that is exclusively designated by the government for the conservation of wildlife and biodiversity due to its natural, cultural and historical significance. It is home to millions of animals, birds, insects, microorganisms, etc. of different genes and species, which provides a healthy and safe environment to them.
National Parks, not only conserve wildlife, but it also provides an amusement of the environmental and scenic heritage, in a way and by those means that does not cause harm to it, so as to provide enjoyment to the future generations. The plantation, cultivation, grazing, hunting and predating of animals, destruction of flowers are highly prohibited.
Key Differences between Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park:
The points given below explain the difference between wildlife sanctuary and national park:
- Wildlife sanctuary can be understood as the regions where wildlife and their habitat are protected from any disturbance. Conversely, a National park is the area of countryside, which is specifically designated for wildlife, where they can live freely and use the natural resources.
- Wildlife Sanctuaries are famous for the conservation of wildlife, which includes animals, insects, microorganisms, birds, etc. of different genes and species. On the other hand, National Parks are highly known preserving the flora, fauna, landscape and historical objects.
- Wildlife Sanctuaries aims at ensuring that a substantial population of the wildlife and their habitats are maintained. As against, National Parks safeguards the environmental, scenic and cultural heritage of the region.
- When it comes to restrictions, national parks are highly restricted areas, which are not open to all the people, whereas wildlife sanctuaries have lesser restrictions than national parks.
- To visit national parks, official permission is to be taken from the requisite authorities. In contrast, no official permission is to be taken to visit a wildlife sanctuary.
- Boundaries of wildlife sanctuaries are not sacrosanct. However, the national parks have clearly marked boundaries.
- Human activities are allowed to a limited extent in the wildlife sanctuaries but in case of national parks, they are strictly prohibited by the authorities.
Difference between Wildlife Sanctuary, Biosphere Reserves and National Park
Wildlife Sanctuary: It is a consecrated place where sacred species are kept. It is not open for general public, unlike zoo. In other words, it tries not to allow any activity that would place the animals in an unduly stressful situation. India has 543 wildlife sanctuaries.
Characteristics of Wildlife Sanctuary
1. It is natural area which is reserve by a governmental or private agency for the protection of particular species.
2. Area is designated for the protection of wild animals.
3. Only animals are conserved, Could be private property also, outside activities allowed
4. It came under the category called “Protected Areas”. The Protected Areas are declared under Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
5. International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has defined its Category IV type of protected areas.
National Parks: It is a home to many species of birds and animals which is established by central and state government for the conservation.
Characteristics of National Park
1. Reserve area of land, owned by the government.
2. Area is protected from human exploitation, industrialization and pollution.
3. There is no cutting or Grazing allowed and no any Outside Species Allowed
4. It came under the category called “Protected Areas”. The Protected Areas are declared under Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
5. Conservation of ‘wild nature’ for posterity and as a symbol of national pride.
6. International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and its World Commission on Protected Areas has defined its Category II type of protected areas.
Biosphere Reserve: The International Co-ordinating Council (ICC) of UNESCO designated of ‘Biosphere reserve’ for natural areas from November, 1971.
Characteristics of Biosphere Reserve:
1. Notified areas which cover a larger area of land which may cover multiple National Parks, Sanctuaries and reserves as well.
2. Areas are meant for conservation of biodiversity of a specific area.
3. Three areas: Core, Buffer & Marginal. No outside Species allowed Conservation & research purpose.
4. It is internationally recognized within the framework of UNESCO’s Man and Biosphere (MAB) programme and nominated by national governments.
5. The Ministry of Environment and Forest provides financial assistance to the respective State governments for conservation of landscape and biological diversity and cultural heritage.
Wildlife Sanctuary of Rajasthan
|S.No.||Wildlife Sanctuary (WLS)||Established Year||Area (In km²)|
|1||Bandh Baratha WLS||1985||199.5|
|6||Jamwa Ramgarh WLS||1982||300|
|7||Jawahar Sagar WLS||1975||153.41|
|11||Mount Abu WLS||1960||112.98|
|13||National Chambal WLS||1979||274.75|
|14||Phulwari Ki Nal WLS||1983||692.68|
|15||Ramgarh Vishdhari WLS||1982||252.79|
|20||Sawai Man Singh WLS||1984||103.25|
|23||Tal Chhapper WLS||1971||7.19|
|24||Todgarh Raoli WLS||1983||495.27|
|25||Van Vihar WLS||1955||25.6|
Source – Wildlife Institute of India
Main wildlife found in Protected Areas
|Protected Area||Main Wild Life|
|DamDamp-baretha||Resident and migratory Birds|
|Sariska||Tiger, Panther, Chital, Sambhar, Porcupine|
|Sariska ‘A’||Sambhar, Chital, Panther|
|Desert National Park||Chinkara, Desert Cat, Fox, Great Indian Bustard|
|Ramgarh- Vishdhari||Panther, hyena, Sloth Bear, jackal, Fox, Chital|
|Kesar Bagh||Wolf, hyena, Fox, Chital|
|Ram Sagar||Wolf, hyena, Fox, Chital|
|Van Vihar||Bear, Wolf, Chital, hyena, Fox, Wild Cat|
|Keoladevi||Panther, Chital, Chinkara, Sambhar, Bear, hyena, Wild Boar, Wolf|
|Sitamata||Flying Squirrel, Panther, Wild Cat, Sambhar, hyena, Civet|
|Bhensrodgarh||Panther, Sloth Bear, Four horned antelope, Chinkara, hyena, Fox|
|Shergarh||Panther, Chital, Chinkara, Wild Boar|
|Darrah||Panther, Wolf, Jackal, Chital, Fox, Sambhar, Sloth Bear, Porcupine|
|Jawahar Sagar||Panther, Bear, Wolf, Ghariyal, Crocodile, Chital, Hyena, Fox, Jackal|
|National Chambal Ghariyal||Ghariyal, Crocodile, Tortoise, Dolphin, Bear, Chinkara, Otter|
|Bassi||Chital, Chinkara, Panther, Hyena, Wild Cat|
|Tal-Chapar||Black Buck, Resident birds,|
|Nahar-Garh||Hyena, Jackal, Fox, Hare|
|Jamwa-Ramgarh||Panther, Chital, Wild Boar, Hyena, Jackal|
|Sajjan-Garh||Panther, Hyena, Wild Cat, Jackal, Fox|
|Phulwari- ki- Naal||Panther, Hyena, Wild Cat, Jackal, Fox|
|Tatgarh Ravli||Panther, Hyena, Wolf, Green Pigeon, Jungle fowl|
|Jaisamand||Resident Birds, Hyena, Jackal, Chinkara|
|Kumbhalgarh||Panther, Sloth Bear, Hyena, wild boar, Four Horned antelope, Sambhar|
|Mount Abu||Panther, Bear, Hyena, Wolf, Porcupine|
|Sawai Man Singh||Tiger, Panther, Hyena, Fox, Bear, Chital, Sambhar|
It gives me immense pleasure in presenting the Geography of Rajasthan book, useful for the students of Graduate and the candidates appearing in Rajasthan Competitive Examinations conducted by RPSC and Rajasthan Subordinate Board, Universities and Government Departments.
This book deals with the relevant features and topics of geographical landscape of Rajasthan in a systematic and comprehensive manner by the use of simple and concise language for easy and quick understanding. Varied topics covered are Physiography, climate, soil, livestock, minerals, Agriculture, transportation, Census, wildlife, drainage and other important topics by latest available data/diagrams. I hope that the readers will find this book user friendly and helpful in preparation of their examinations. I look forwarded to have the views, comment, suggestions and criticism from readers which would definitely help in further improvement of the Book.
Wish you happy reading and best wishes for the examinations.
Geography of Rajasthan
2. Broad Physical Features
- Mountains, Peaks, Aravalli Ranges
- Plateaus, Major Plateaus in Rajasthan
- Plains, Eastern, Banas, Chappan Plain
- River system of Rajasthan
(1)Rivers that drain in the Bay of Bengal: Chambal River, Parwati- Kalisindh-Chambal link, Banas River, Banas River Basin, Kali Sindh River, Parvati River, Berach River, Mez River, Vapani (Bahyani) River, Gambhiri River, Banganga River (2) Rivers that drain into the Arabian Sea: Luni River, Mahi River, Sabarmati River (3) Inland Rivers: Inland River/Drainage, Kantali River, Sota Sabi River, Kakani or Kakneya River, Ghaghar River (4)Other Rivers: Khari River, Dai River, Dheel River, Morel River, Kalisil River, Sarasvati and Drishadvati: Ancient Indian River
(1) Salt Water Lakes: Sambhar Lake, Didwana, Pachpadra, Lunkaransar Lake (2)Fresh (Sweet) Water Lake: Jaisamand , Rajsamand , Pichhola, Fateh Sagar , Anasagar , Pushkar Lake, Siliserh Lake, NLCP in Rajasthan
3. Major Physiographic regions
(1) Aravalli Range and Hilly Region: Aravalli Range and Bhorat Plateau, Northeastern Hilly Region (2) Western Sandy Plains: Sandy Arid Plains- Marusthali, Dune Free Tract (3) Semi-Arid Transitional Plains or Rajasthan Bagar: Luni Basin or Godwar Tract, Plain of Interior Drainage or Sekhawati Tract
4. Natural Vegetation and Climate
Reserved, Protected, Unclassified, Dhol Forests, Kattha, Salar, Dhak, Bamboo, Teak, Mixed Miscellaneous Forests, Sub-Tropical Evergreen, Thorn Forests, District-wise forest cover – Rajasthan, 1. Climatic Regions of Rajasthan based on Rainfall Intensity: Arid Region, Semi-arid Region, Sub-humid Region, Humid Region, Very Humid Region 2. Koeppen’s Classification of climatic regions of Rajasthan: Aw or Tropical Humid Region, Bshw Climatic Region, Bwhw Climatic Region, Cwg Climatic Region, Rainfall Distribution, IMD forecast method, Water Policy 2010, Major Dam-Rajasthan, Humidity, Absolute, Relative, Specific Humidity, Air temperature and relative humidity conditions, Temperature Variation, Various factors affecting the climate of Rajasthan, Weather Seasons of Rajasthan
5. Livestock, wildlife and its Conservation
National Livestock Mission (NLM), Dairy (Milch) breeds, Draught breeds, Dual Breeds, Cattle and Buffalo Breeds: Gir, Sahiwal, Tharparkar, Hariana, Kankrej, Rathi, Malvi, Nagauri, Murrah, Surti, Breeds of Cow, Goat, Sheep, Camel Breeds, Livestock Census, Wildlife Sanctuary, Biosphere Reserves, National Park in Rajasthan
6. Agriculture – Major Crops
Major Irrigation Projects: Chambal Project, Mahi Bajaj Sagar Project, Bhakra Nangal Canal Project, Narmada Project, Bilasalpur Project (1986-87), Indira Gandhi Canal Project, Irrigation system of Rajasthan, Sources of Irrigation: Wells and Tube wells, Tank Irrigation, Canal Irrigation, electric pumps, Persian Wheel
Rajasthan crop seasons-Rabi, Kharif, Pearl millet, technological interventions, Chickpea, Guar, Rapeseed-mustard, Groundnut, Fodder, Aonla, Ber
7. Mineral resources
(1) Metallic Minerals – Types, Distribution and Industrial uses and their Conservation
(2) Non-Metallic Minerals – Types, Distribution and Industrial uses and their Conservation (3) Other Minerals
8. Energy Resources
Classification of Power Resources, Conventional: Thermal (Coal, Oil & Gas), Hydro, Atomic, Non-Conventional: Solar, Wind, Biogas, Biomass, Tidal, Geo-thermal, Distribution of major power resources of Rajasthan, Hydrocarbon Basin, power plants and major projects, schemes, Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy.
9. Population and Tribes
Rajasthan Population -2011, Religious Data, Urban Population, Metropolitan/City Population, Population density, District-wise Population Data, Scheduled Caste population by sex and residence, Sex Ratio among Scheduled Castes, Percentage of Scheduled Castes, Tribe population, Percentage of Scheduled Tribes, Population Glossary, Tribes in Rajasthan: Bhil, Bheel, Garasia, Dholi Bhil, Dungri Bhil, Dungri Garasia, Mewasi Bhil, Rawal Bhil, Tadvi Bhil, Bhagalia, Bhilala, Pawra, Vasava, Vasave, Mina, Meena, Bhil Mina, Customs and ornaments, Food of Bhils, Social life and tradition, Art and culture, Garasia tribe, Customs and ornaments, Social life and tradition, Meena/Mina Tribes, Sahariya tribes, Programmes for development of Tribes, Manikya lal verma Research institute, Banvasi Kalyan Parishad, Tribal Sub-Plan Area Scheme, IRDP, Modified Area Development Programme, Some other Programmes for tribe’s development:
11. Practice MCQ