Zoonotic Diseases

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Zoonotic Diseases

  • Zoonotic diseases, also called zoonosis, are illnesses caused by germs that are passed between animals and people.
  • According to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), 60% of all infectious diseases in humans are zoonotic, and about 75% of all emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic in nature.
  • Emerging pathogens are more likely to be viruses, than any other kind bacteria, parasites, fungi and are more likely to have a broad host range.
  • The inevitable interaction between humans and livestock with wildlife exposes the human species to the risk of spillover of potential pathogens.
  • For many zoonotic diseases or zoonosis, livestock serve as an epidemiological bridge between wildlife and human infections.
  • Among zoonosis that emerged or re-emerged recently, the UNEP counts
  1. Ebola,
  2. Bird flu ( Avian Influenza) ,
  3. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS),
  4. Rift Valley fever,
  5. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS),
  6. West Nile virus,
  7. Zika virus disease,
  8. COVID-19.
  • The UNEP is also very clear that the drivers of zoonotic disease emergence are changes in the environment, usually as a result of human activities ranging from land use change, changes in animals or human hosts and changes in pathogens, which are programmed to survive, and in the process exploit multiple hosts.
  • For instance, bat-associated viruses emerged due to the loss of habitats, it argues.
  • Changes in weather patterns, and extreme weather events affect the distribution areas of disease, pathogens and pests.
  • Also, changes in human behavior, including travel, conflicts, migration, wildlife trade, urbanization, and dietary and medical preferences, can result in disease emergence, according to researchers at the UNEP.

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